§ 7201 Definitions
§ 7202 Commission rules and enforcement
Subchapter I Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
Subchapter II Auditor Independence
Subchapter III Corporate Responsibility
Subchapter IV Enhanced Financial Disclosures

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 15 > Chapter 98 - Public Company Accounting Reform and Corporate Responsibility

  • Access device: means any card, plate, code, account number, or other means of access, including point of sale devices, that can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain payments, allotments, benefits, money, goods, or other things of value, or that can be used to initiate a transfer of funds under this chapter. See 7 USC 2012
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agricultural research: means research in the food and agricultural sciences. See 7 USC 3103
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Allotment: means the total value of benefits a household is authorized to receive during each month. See 7 USC 2012
  • Allowable medical expenses: means expenditures for (1) medical and dental care, (2) hospitalization or nursing care (including hospitalization or nursing care of an individual who was a household member immediately prior to entering a hospital or nursing home), (3) prescription drugs when prescribed by a licensed practitioner authorized under State law and over-the-counter medication (including insulin) when approved by a licensed practitioner or other qualified health professional, (4) health and hospitalization insurance policies (excluding the costs of health and accident or income maintenance policies), (5) medicare premiums related to coverage under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 7 USC 2012
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • basic agricultural commodity: means wheat, rye, flax, barley, cotton, field corn, grain sorghums, hogs, cattle, rice, potatoes, tobacco, sugar beets and sugarcane, peanuts, and milk and its products, and any regional or market classification, type, or grade thereof. See 7 USC 611
  • benefit: means the value of supplemental nutrition assistance provided to a household by means of&mdash. See 7 USC 2012
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • blackstrap molasses: means the commercially so-designated "byproduct" of the cane-sugar industry, not used for human consumption or for the extraction of sugar. See 7 USC 609
  • Board: means the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board established under section 4504 of this title. See 7 USC 4502
  • breeder: means the person who directs the final breeding creating a variety or who discovers and develops a variety. See 7 USC 2401
  • Certification period: means the period for which households shall be eligible to receive benefits. See 7 USC 2012
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 182
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 15 USC 69
  • commercialization: means the stage in the development or advancement of a technology at which point private enterprise is willing to invest in a full-scale production facility. See 7 USC 178a
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See 15 USC 69
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperating producer: means any person (including any share-tenant or share-cropper) whom the Secretary of Agriculture finds to be willing to participate in the 1935 production-adjustment program for rice. See 7 USC 609
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • cotton: means (1) all upland cotton harvested in the United States, and, except as used in section 2106(e) of this title, includes cottonseed of such cotton and the products derived from such cotton and its seed and (2) imports of upland cotton including the upland cotton content of the products derived from upland cotton (other than industrial products as defined by the Secretary). See 7 USC 2116
  • cotton-producing State: includes &mdash. See 7 USC 2116
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Coupon: means any coupon, stamp, type of certificate, authorization card, cash or check issued in lieu of a coupon. See 7 USC 2012
  • Customs: means the United States Customs Service. See 7 USC 4502
  • dairy products: means products manufactured for human consumption which are derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid milk products. See 7 USC 4502
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4502
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • direct-consumption sugar: means any sugar, as defined above, manufactured or marketed in, or brought into, the United States in any form whatsoever, for any purpose other than to be further refined (or improved in quality, or further prepared for distribution or use). See 7 USC 609
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Drug addiction or alcoholic treatment and rehabilitation program: means any such program conducted by a private nonprofit organization or institution, or a publicly operated community mental health center, under part B of title XIX of the Public Health Service Act (42 U. See 7 USC 2012
  • EBT card: means an electronic benefit transfer card issued under section 2016(h) of this title. See 7 USC 2012
  • Elderly or disabled member: means a member of a household who&mdash. See 7 USC 2012
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • essentially derived variety: means a variety that&mdash. See 7 USC 2401
  • extension: means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3103
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Federal Trade Commission Act: means the Act entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission, to define its powers and duties, and for other purposes" approved September 26, 1914, as amended [15 U. See 15 USC 69
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • first domestic processing: means each domestic processing, including each processing of successive domestic processings, of sugar beets, sugarcane, or raw sugar, which directly results in direct-consumption sugar. See 7 USC 609
  • fluid milk products: means those milk products normally consumed in liquid form as a beverage. See 7 USC 4502
  • Food: means (1) any food or food product for home consumption except alcoholic beverages, tobacco, hot foods or hot food products ready for immediate consumption other than those authorized pursuant to clauses (3), (4), (5), (7), (8), and (9) of this subsection, and any deposit fee in excess of the amount of the State fee reimbursement (if any) required to purchase any food or food product contained in a returnable bottle or can, regardless of whether the fee is included in the shelf price posted for the food or food product, (2) seeds and plants for use in gardens to produce food for the personal consumption of the eligible household, (3) in the case of those persons who are sixty years of age or over or who receive supplemental security income benefits or disability or blindness payments under title I, II, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 7 USC 2012
  • food and agricultural sciences: means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

    (A) Animal health, production, and well-being. See 7 USC 3103

  • food products: means flour (excluding flour second clears not used for human consumption as determined by the Secretary), semolina, farina, bulgur, beverage, and any other product composed wholly or partly of wheat which the Secretary may determine to be a food product. See 7 USC 1379d
  • food security: means access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a healthy and productive life. See 7 USC 1732
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • fur: means any animal skin or part thereof with hair, fleece, or fur fibers attached thereto, either in its raw or processed state, but shall not include such skins as are to be converted into leather or which in processing shall have the hair, fleece, or fur fiber completely removed. See 15 USC 69
  • fur product: means any article of wearing apparel made in whole or in part of fur or used fur. See 15 USC 69
  • Fur Products Name Guide: means the register issued by the Commission pursuant to section 69e of this title. See 15 USC 69
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • handler: means any person who handles cotton or cottonseed or, for the purposes of sections 2102, 2105(c), and 2112 of this title, any person who imports cotton, including de minimis amounts of cotton described in subsection (c), in the manner specified in the order or in the rules and regulations issued thereunder. See 7 USC 2116
  • Household: means &mdash. See 7 USC 2012
  • import: means any such entry. See 7 USC 2116
  • imported dairy product: means any dairy product that is imported into the United States, including dairy products imported into the United States in the form of&mdash. See 7 USC 4502
  • importer: means any person who enters, or withdraws from warehouse, cotton for consumption in the customs territory of the United States. See 7 USC 2116
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • insular area: means &mdash. See 7 USC 3103
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • invoice: means a written account, memorandum, list, or catalog, which is issued in connection with any commercial dealing in fur products or furs, and describes the particulars of any fur products or furs, transported or delivered to a purchaser, consignee, factor, bailee, correspondent, or agent, or any other person who is engaged in dealing commercially in fur products or furs. See 15 USC 69
  • Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • land-grant colleges and universities: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. See 7 USC 3103
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • live poultry dealer: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining live poultry by purchase or under a poultry growing arrangement for the purpose of either slaughtering it or selling it for slaughter by another, if poultry is obtained by such person in commerce, or if poultry obtained by such person is sold or shipped in commerce, or if poultry products from poultry obtained by such person are sold or shipped in commerce. See 7 USC 182
  • livestock: means cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats&mdash. See 7 USC 182
  • livestock products: means all products and byproducts (other than meats and meat food products) of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry derived in whole or in part from livestock. See 7 USC 182
  • Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
  • marketing: includes the sale of cotton or the pledging of cotton to the Commodity Credit Corporation as collateral for a price support loan. See 7 USC 2116
  • Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
  • meat food products: means all products and byproducts of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry&mdash. See 7 USC 182
  • milk: means any class of cow's milk. See 7 USC 4502
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • municipalities: as used in this chapter shall be construed to include the public agencies of any of them unless the context requires a different construction. See 16 USC 831i
  • native: means hydrocarbon-containing plants and other agricultural crops of strategic and industrial importance which may be cultured in North America, especially plants which are members of the genus Parthenium known as Guayule. See 7 USC 178a
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • packer: means any person engaged in the business (a) of buying livestock in commerce for purposes of slaughter, or (b) of manufacturing or preparing meats or meat food products for sale or shipment in commerce, or (c) of marketing meats, meat food products, or livestock products in an unmanufactured form acting as a wholesale broker, dealer, or distributor in commerce. See 7 USC 191
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 7 USC 4502
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 182
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 957
  • person: as used in this chapter includes an individual, partnership, corporation, association, and any other business unit. See 7 USC 608a
  • person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or any other entity. See 7 USC 2116
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, business trust, or any organized group of any of the foregoing. See 15 USC 69
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • potatoes: means all varieties of potatoes included in the species Solanum tuberosum. See 7 USC 611
  • poultry: means chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other domestic fowl. See 7 USC 182
  • poultry grower: means any person engaged in the business of raising and caring for live poultry for slaughter by another, whether the poultry is owned by such person or by another, but not an employee of the owner of such poultry. See 7 USC 182
  • poultry growing arrangement: means any growout contract, marketing agreement, or other arrangement under which a poultry grower raises and cares for live poultry for delivery, in accord with another's instructions, for slaughter. See 7 USC 182
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • processing: means the milling or other processing (except cleaning and drying) of wheat, rye, barley or corn for market, including custom milling for toll as well as commercial milling, but shall not include the grinding or cracking thereof not in the form of flour for feed purposes only. See 7 USC 609
  • promotion: means actions such as paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of and demand for dairy products. See 7 USC 4502
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • raw sugar: means any sugar, as defined above, manufactured or marketed in, or brought into, the United States, in any form whatsoever, for the purpose of being, or which shall be, further refined (or improved in quality, or further prepared for distribution or use). See 7 USC 609
  • raw value: means a standard unit of sugar testing ninety-six sugar degrees by the polariscope. See 7 USC 609
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means studies testing the effectiveness of market development and promotion efforts, studies relating to the nutritional value of milk and dairy products, and other related efforts to expand demand for milk and dairy products. See 7 USC 4502
  • Reservation: means the geographically defined area or areas over which a tribal organization exercises governmental jurisdiction. See 7 USC 2012
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Retail food store: means &mdash. See 7 USC 2012
  • Revocable trust: A trust agreement that can be canceled, rescinded, revoked, or repealed by the grantor (person who establishes the trust).
  • rough rice: means rice in that condition which is usual and customary when delivered by the producer to a processor. See 7 USC 609
  • Secretaries: means the Secretary of Agriculture and/or the Secretary of Commerce acting each separately or jointly. See 7 USC 178a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 4502
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 42 USC 201
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 182
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 957
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2012
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2116
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 3103
  • Service: means the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • staple foods: means foods in the following categories:

    (A) Meat, poultry, or fish. See 7 USC 2012

  • State: means each of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 178a
  • State: includes , in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • State: means the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the reservations of an Indian tribe whose tribal organization meets the requirements of this chapter for participation as a State agency. See 7 USC 2012
  • State: when used in this chapter 1 shall include the Virgin Islands and Guam. See 7 USC 1626
  • State: means &mdash. See 7 USC 3103
  • State agency: means (1) the agency of State government, including the local offices thereof, which has the responsibility for the administration of the federally aided public assistance programs within such State, and in those States where such assistance programs are operated on a decentralized basis, the term shall include the counterpart local agencies administering such programs, and (2) the tribal organization of an Indian tribe determined by the Secretary to be capable of effectively administering a food distribution program under section 2013(b) of this title or a supplemental nutrition assistance program under section 2020(d) of this title. See 7 USC 2012
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stockyard: means any place, establishment, or facility commonly known as stockyards, conducted, operated, or managed for profit or nonprofit as a public market for livestock producers, feeders, market agencies, and buyers, consisting of pens, or other inclosures, and their appurtenances, in which live cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats are received, held, or kept for sale or shipment in commerce. See 7 USC 202
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • sugar: means sugar in any form whatsoever, derived from sugar beets or sugarcane, whether raw sugar or direct-consumption sugar, including also edible molasses, sirups, and any mixture containing sugar (except blackstrap molasses and beet molasses). See 7 USC 609
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplemental nutrition assistance program: means the program operated pursuant to this chapter. See 7 USC 2012
  • swine contractor: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining swine under a swine production contract for the purpose of slaughtering the swine or selling the swine for slaughter, if&mdash. See 7 USC 182
  • swine production contract: means any growout contract or other arrangement under which a swine production contract grower raises and cares for the swine in accordance with the instructions of another person. See 7 USC 182
  • swine production contract grower: means any person engaged in the business of raising and caring for swine in accordance with the instructions of another person. See 7 USC 182
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Thrifty food plan: means the diet required to feed a family of four persons consisting of a man and a woman twenty through fifty, a child six through eight, and a child nine through eleven years of age, determined in accordance with the Secretary's calculations. See 7 USC 2012
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Tribal organization: means the recognized governing body of an Indian tribe (including the tribally recognized intertribal organization of such tribes), as the term "Indian tribe" is defined in section 5304 of title 25, as well as any Indian tribe, band, or community holding a treaty with a State government. See 7 USC 2012
  • tuber propagated: means propagated by a tuber or a part of a tuber. See 7 USC 2401
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, means all of the States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 4502
  • United States: means the 50 States of the United States of America. See 7 USC 2116
  • United States: means the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Territories and possessions of the United States. See 15 USC 69
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • used fur: means fur in any form which has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer. See 15 USC 69
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • variety: means a plant grouping within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, that, without regard to whether the conditions for plant variety protection are fully met, can be defined by the expression of the characteristics resulting from a given genotype or combination of genotypes, distinguished from any other plant grouping by the expression of at least one characteristic and considered as a unit with regard to the suitability of the plant grouping for being propagated unchanged. See 7 USC 2401
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • waste fur: means the ears, throats, or scrap pieces which have been severed from the animal pelt, and shall include mats or plates made therefrom. See 15 USC 69
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.