Chapter 301 General Provisions
Chapter 303 Bureau of Prisons
Chapter 305 Commitment and Transfer
Chapter 306 Transfer to or From Foreign Countries
Chapter 307 Employment
Chapter 313 Offenders With Mental Disease or Defect
Chapter 315 Discharge and Release Payments
Chapter 317 Institutions for Women
Chapter 319 National Institute of Corrections

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 18 > Part III

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • advanced workplace practices: means innovations in work organization and performance, including high-performance workplace systems, flexible production techniques, quality programs, continuous improvement, concurrent engineering, close relationships between suppliers and customers, widely diffused decisionmaking and work teams, and effective integration of production technology, worker skills and training, and workplace organization, and such other characteristics as determined appropriate by the Secretary of Labor, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce. See 29 USC 2703
  • advanced workplace technologies: includes --

    (A) numerically controlled machine tools, robots, automated process control equipment, computerized flexible manufacturing systems, associated computer software, and other technology for improving the manufacturing and industrial production of goods and commercial services, which advance the state-of-the-art. See 29 USC 2703

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 18 USC 6
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • applicable monthly guarantee: means --

    (I) for an employee described in clause (i) other than an employee on reserve status, the minimum number of hours for which an employer has agreed to schedule such employee for any given month. See 29 USC 2611

  • applicant: means with respect to activities described in section 3984(a) of this title an institution of higher education and the other participants described in paragraph (3) of section 3984(a) of this title, and with respect to activities described in section 3984(b) of this title a local educational agency and the other participants described in paragraph (3) of section 3984(b) of this title. See 20 USC 3982
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • bodily injury: includes sexual abuse. See 18 USC 4247
  • carrier: means any person engaged as a common carrier for hire, in interstate or foreign communication by wire or radio or interstate or foreign radio transmission of energy, except where reference is made to common carriers not subject to this chapter. See 47 USC 153
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • covered active duty: means --

    (A) in the case of a member of a regular component of the Armed Forces, duty during the deployment of the member with the Armed Forces to a foreign country. See 29 USC 2611

  • covered servicemember: means --

    (A) a member of the Armed Forces (including a member of the National Guard or Reserves) who is undergoing medical treatment, recuperation, or therapy, is otherwise in outpatient status, or is otherwise on the temporary disability retired list, for a serious injury or illness. See 29 USC 2611

  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 18 USC 6
  • Department: means the Department of Labor. See 29 USC 2703
  • Department: means the Department of Education or any component thereof. See 20 USC 3404
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • double criminality: means that at the time of transfer of an offender the offense for which he has been sentenced is still an offense in the transferring country and is also an offense in the receiving country. See 18 USC 4101
  • eligible employee: means an employee who has been employed--

    (i) for at least 12 months by the employer with respect to whom leave is requested under section 2612 of this title. See 29 USC 2611

  • employment benefits: means all benefits provided or made available to employees by an employer, including group life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance, sick leave, annual leave, educational benefits, and pensions, regardless of whether such benefits are provided by a practice or written policy of an employer or through an "employee benefit plan" as defined in section 1002(3) of this title. See 29 USC 2611
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • equipment: includes machinery, utilities, and built-in equipment and any necessary enclosures or structures to house them, and includes all other items necessary for the functioning of a particular facility as a facility for the provision of educational services, including items such as instructional equipment and necessary furniture, printed, published, and audio-visual instructional materials, and books, periodicals, documents, and other related materials. See 20 USC 3982
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • exchange access: means the offering of access to telephone exchange services or facilities for the purpose of the origination or termination of telephone toll services. See 47 USC 153
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • foreign government: as used in this title except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201, includes any government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, irrespective of recognition by the United States. See
  • function: includes any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, activity, or program. See 20 USC 3404
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • health care provider: means --

    (A) a doctor of medicine or osteopathy who is authorized to practice medicine or surgery (as appropriate) by the State in which the doctor practices. See 29 USC 2611

  • imprisonment: means a penalty imposed by a court under which the individual is confined to an institution. See 18 USC 4101
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • juvenile: means --

    (1) a person who is under eighteen years of age. See 18 USC 4101

  • juvenile delinquency: means --

    (1) a violation of the laws of the United States or a State thereof or of a foreign country committed by a juvenile which would have been a crime if committed by an adult. See 18 USC 4101

  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • license: means that instrument of authorization required by this chapter or the rules and regulations of the Commission made pursuant to this chapter, for the use or operation of apparatus for transmission of energy, or communications, or signals by radio, by whatever name the instrument may be designated by the Commission. See 47 USC 153
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • nonprofit organization: means a tax-exempt organization, as described in paragraph (3), (4), or (5) of section 501(c) of title 26. See 29 USC 2703
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • offender: means a person who has been convicted of an offense or who has been adjudged to have committed an act of juvenile delinquency. See 18 USC 4101
  • office: includes any office, institute, council, unit, organizational entity, or component thereof. See 20 USC 3404
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • own: means to own an equity interest (or the equivalent thereof) of more than 10 percent. See 47 USC 153
  • parent: means the biological parent of an employee or an individual who stood in loco parentis to an employee when the employee was a son or daughter. See 29 USC 2611
  • parole: means any form of release of an offender from imprisonment to the community by a releasing authority prior to the expiration of his sentence, subject to conditions imposed by the releasing authority and to its supervision, including a term of supervised release pursuant to section 3583. See 18 USC 4101
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • person: includes an individual, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust, or corporation. See 47 USC 153
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • probation: means any form of a sentence under which the offender is permitted to remain at liberty under supervision and subject to conditions for the breach of which a penalty of imprisonment may be ordered executed. See 18 USC 4101
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • radio transmission of energy: includes both such transmission and all instrumentalities, facilities, and services incidental to such transmission. See 47 USC 153
  • reduced leave schedule: means a leave schedule that reduces the usual number of hours per workweek, or hours per workday, of an employee. See 29 USC 2611
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • rural telephone company: means a local exchange carrier operating entity to the extent that such entity--

    (A) provides common carrier service to any local exchange carrier study area that does not include either--

    (i) any incorporated place of 10,000 inhabitants or more, or any part thereof, based on the most recently available population statistics of the Bureau of the Census. See 47 USC 153

  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor. See 29 USC 2611
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Labor. See 29 USC 2703
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See 20 USC 3404
  • sentence: means not only the penalty imposed but also the judgment of conviction in a criminal case or a judgment of acquittal in the same proceeding, or the adjudication of delinquency in a juvenile delinquency proceeding or dismissal of allegations of delinquency in the same proceedings. See 18 USC 4101
  • serious health condition: means an illness, injury, impairment, or physical or mental condition that involves--

    (A) inpatient care in a hospital, hospice, or residential medical care facility. See 29 USC 2611

  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • sexually dangerous person: means a person who has engaged or attempted to engage in sexually violent conduct or child molestation and who is sexually dangerous to others. See 18 USC 4247
  • son or daughter: means a biological, adopted, or foster child, a stepchild, a legal ward, or a child of a person standing in loco parentis, who is--

    (A) under 18 years of age. See 29 USC 2611

  • spouse: means a husband or wife, as the case may be. See 29 USC 2611
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States. See 18 USC 4101
  • State: includes the District of Columbia. See 18 USC 4246
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the Territories and possessions. See 47 USC 153
  • State commission: means the commission, board, or official (by whatever name designated) which under the laws of any State has regulatory jurisdiction with respect to intrastate operations of carriers. See 47 USC 153
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • suitable facility: means a facility that is suitable to provide care or treatment given the nature of the offense and the characteristics of the defendant. See 18 USC 4247
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • telecommunications: means the transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user's choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received. See 47 USC 153
  • telecommunications carrier: means any provider of telecommunications services, except that such term does not include aggregators of telecommunications services (as defined in section 226 of this title). See 47 USC 153
  • telephone exchange service: means (A) service within a telephone exchange, or within a connected system of telephone exchanges within the same exchange area operated to furnish to subscribers intercommunicating service of the character ordinarily furnished by a single exchange, and which is covered by the exchange service charge, or (B) comparable service provided through a system of switches, transmission equipment, or other facilities (or combination thereof) by which a subscriber can originate and terminate a telecommunications service. See 47 USC 153
  • telephone toll service: means telephone service between stations in different exchange areas for which there is made a separate charge not included in contracts with subscribers for exchange service. See 47 USC 153
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • transfer: means a transfer of an individual for the purpose of the execution in one country of a sentence imposed by the courts of another country. See 18 USC 4101
  • treaty: means a treaty under which an offender sentenced in the courts of one country may be transferred to the country of which he is a citizen or national for the purpose of serving the sentence. See 18 USC 4101
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • United States: means the several States and Territories, the District of Columbia, and the possessions of the United States, but does not include the Canal Zone. See 47 USC 153
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • veteran: has the meaning given the term in section 101 of title 38. See 29 USC 2611
  • worker organization: means a labor organization within the meaning of section 501(c)(5) of title 26. See 29 USC 2703
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1