Subpart a Petitions and Determinations
Subpart b Program Benefits
Subpart c General Provisions

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 19 > Chapter 12 > Subchapter II > Part 2

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Advisory Board: means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. See 7 USC 3103
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agricultural research: means research in the food and agricultural sciences. See 7 USC 3103
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • apples: means fresh whole apples, whether or not the apples have been in storage. See 7 USC 589
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • aquaculture: means the propagation and rearing of aquacultural species, including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, or crustacean (or other aquatic invertebrate), amphibian, reptile, ornamental fish, or aquatic plant, in controlled or selected environments. See 7 USC 3103
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Board: means the National Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Board established under section 7104(b) of this title. See 7 USC 7102
  • carbonized wool: means wool that has been immersed in a bath, usually of mineral acids or acid salts, that destroys vegetable matter in the wool, but does not affect the wool fibres. See 7 USC 7102
  • Case law: The law as laid down in cases that have been decided in the decisions of the courts.
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 511
  • Commission: means any of the Commissions of the Organization that are established by the Convention. See 16 USC 3601
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • consumer information: means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and decisions regarding the purchase, preparation, or use of sheep products. See 7 USC 7102
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Convention: means the Convention for the Conservation of Salmon in the North Atlantic Ocean, signed at Reykjavik, Iceland, on March 2, 1982. See 16 USC 3601
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperating forestry school: means an institution--

    (i) that is eligible to receive funds under Public Law 87-788 (commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act. See 7 USC 3103

  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Customs Service: means United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury. See 7 USC 7102
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • degreased wool: means wool from which the bulk of impurities has been removed by processing. See 7 USC 7102
  • Department: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 7102
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3103
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • education: means activities providing information relating to the sheep industry or sheep products to producers, feeders, importers, consumers, and other persons. See 7 USC 7102
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executive Committee: means the Executive Committee established under section 7104(g) of this title. See 7 USC 7102
  • exporter: means any person who exports domestic live sheep or greasy wool from the United States. See 7 USC 7102
  • extension: means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3103
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • feeder: means a person who feeds lambs until the lambs reach slaughter weight. See 7 USC 7102
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • food and agricultural sciences: means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

    (A) Animal health, production, and well-being. See 7 USC 3103

  • foreign commerce: means commerce between any State, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside of the United States or its possessions. See 7 USC 589
  • foreign commerce: means commerce between any State, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside of the United States or its possessions. See 7 USC 599
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • grapes: means vinifera species table grapes, European type, whether or not they have been in storage. See 7 USC 599
  • greasy wool: means wool that has not been washed or otherwise cleaned. See 7 USC 7102
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • handler: means any person who purchases and markets greasy wool. See 7 USC 7102
  • importer: means any person who imports sheep or sheep products into the United States. See 7 USC 7102
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • industry information: means information and programs that will lead to increased efficiency in processing and the development of new markets, marketing strategies, increased marketing efficiency, and activities to enhance the image of sheep or sheep products on a national or international basis. See 7 USC 7102
  • insane person: shall include every idiot, insane person, and person non compos mentis. See 1 USC 1
  • insular area: means --

    (A) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 3103

  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • land-grant colleges and universities: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. See 7 USC 3103
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • order: means a sheep and wool promotion, research, education, and information order issued under section 7103 of this title. See 7 USC 7102
  • Organization: means the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization established under the Convention. See 16 USC 3601
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations, as well as individuals. See 7 USC 511
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 589
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 599
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See 7 USC 7102
  • plums: means both European and Japanese type, whether or not they have been in storage, but does not mean Italian-type prunes, nor damson-type plums. See 7 USC 599
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • producer: means any person, other than a feeder, who owns or acquires ownership of sheep. See 7 USC 7102
  • producer information: means activities designed to provide producers, feeders, and importers with information relating to production or marketing efficiencies or developments, program activities, or other information that would facilitate an increase in the consumption of sheep or sheep products. See 7 USC 7102
  • promotion: means any action (including paid advertising) to advance the image and desirability of sheep or sheep products to improve the competitive position, and stimulate sales, of sheep products in the domestic and international marketplace. See 7 USC 7102
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • pulled wool: means wool that is pulled from the skin of a slaughtered sheep. See 7 USC 7102
  • qualified State sheep board: means a sheep and wool promotion entity that--

    (A) is authorized by State statute or is otherwise organized and operating within a State. See 7 USC 7102

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • raw wool: means greasy wool, pulled wool, degreased wool, or carbonized wool. See 7 USC 7102
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • research: means development projects and studies relating to the production (including the feeding of sheep), processing, distribution, or use of sheep or sheep products to encourage, expand, improve, or make more efficient the marketing of sheep or sheep products. See 7 USC 7102
  • salmon: means all species of salmon which migrate in or into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean north of 36 degrees north latitude. See 16 USC 3601
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 7102
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 3103
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 511
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 599
  • Secretary of Agriculture: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 589
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • sheep: means ovine animals of any age, including lambs. See 7 USC 7102
  • sheep products: means products produced, in whole or in part, from sheep, including wool and products containing wool fiber. See 7 USC 7102
  • State: means each of the 50 States. See 7 USC 7102
  • State: means --

    (A) a State. See 7 USC 3103

  • State: includes Territory, the District of Columbia, possession of the United States, and foreign nations. See 7 USC 511
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tobacco: means tobacco in its unmanufactured form. See 7 USC 511
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • unit: means each State, group of States, or class designation that is represented on the Board. See 7 USC 7102
  • United States: means the 50 States and the District of Columbia. See 7 USC 7102
  • university: include a research foundation maintained by a college or university described in subparagraph (A). See 7 USC 3103
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • wool: means the fiber from the fleece of a sheep. See 7 USC 7102
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1