Chapter 281 Law Enforcement
Chapter 283 Standard Work Day
Chapter 285 Commuter Rail Mediation

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 49 > Subtitle V > Part E

  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Comptroller General: means the Comptroller General of the United States. See 31 USC 7501
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Director: means the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. See 31 USC 7501
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Federal awards: means Federal financial assistance and Federal cost-reimbursement contracts that non-Federal entities receive directly from Federal awarding agencies or indirectly from pass-through entities. See 31 USC 7501
  • Federal program: means all Federal awards to a non-Federal entity assigned a single number in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance or encompassed in a group of numbers or other category as defined by the Director. See 31 USC 7501
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • generally accepted government auditing standards: means the government auditing standards issued by the Comptroller General. See 31 USC 7501
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • independent auditor: means --

    (A) an external State or local government auditor who meets the independence standards included in generally accepted government auditing standards. See 31 USC 7501

  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • internal controls: means a process, effected by an entity's management and other personnel, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives in the following categories:

    (A) Effectiveness and efficiency of operations. See 31 USC 7501

  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • local government: means any unit of local government within a State, including a county, borough, municipality, city, town, township, parish, local public authority, special district, school district, intrastate district, council of governments, any other instrumentality of local government and, in accordance with guidelines issued by the Director, a group of local governments. See 31 USC 7501
  • major program: means a Federal program identified in accordance with risk-based criteria prescribed by the Director under this chapter, subject to the limitations described under subsection (b). See 31 USC 7501
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • non-Federal entity: means a State, local government, or nonprofit organization. See 31 USC 7501
  • nonprofit organization: means any corporation, trust, association, cooperative, or other organization that--

    (A) is operated primarily for scientific, educational, service, charitable, or similar purposes in the public interest. See 31 USC 7501

  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • pass-through entity: means a non-Federal entity that provides Federal awards to a subrecipient to carry out a Federal program. See 31 USC 7501
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • program-specific audit: means an audit of one Federal program. See 31 USC 7501
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • recipient: means a non-Federal entity that receives awards directly from a Federal agency to carry out a Federal program. See 31 USC 7501
  • single audit: means an audit, as described under section 7502(d), of a non-Federal entity that includes the entity's financial statements and Federal awards. See 31 USC 7501
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, any instrumentality thereof, any multi-State, regional, or interstate entity which has governmental functions, and any Indian tribe. See 31 USC 7501
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • subrecipient: means a non-Federal entity that receives Federal awards through another non-Federal entity to carry out a Federal program, but does not include an individual who receives financial assistance through such awards. See 31 USC 7501
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4