Part A Air Commerce and Safety
Part B Airport Development and Noise
Part C Financing
Part D Public Airports
Part E Miscellaneous

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 49 > Subtitle VII - Aviation Programs

  • action team: means a rural natural resources and economic diversification action team established by the Secretary pursuant to section 6613(b) of this title. See 7 USC 6612
  • Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
  • Administrator: means the individual or organization designated by the Pacific Island Parties to act on their behalf under the Treaty and notified to the United States Government. See 16 USC 973
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • anadromous species: means species of fish which spawn in fresh or estuarine waters of the United States and which migrate to ocean waters. See 16 USC 1802
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • applicable national law: means any provision of law of a Pacific Island Party which is described in paragraph 1(a) of Annex I of the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Authorized Officer: means any officer who is authorized by the Secretary, or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, or the head of any Federal or State agency which has entered into an enforcement agreement with the Secretary under section 973h(a) of this title. See 16 USC 973
  • Authorized Party Officer: means any officer authorized by a Pacific Island Party to enforce the provisions of the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means any Regional Marine Research board 1 established pursuant to section 1447b(a) of this title. See 16 USC 1447a
  • Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 7 USC 1a
  • board of trade: means any organized exchange or other trading facility. See 7 USC 1a
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • bycatch: means fish which are harvested in a fishery, but which are not sold or kept for personal use, and includes economic discards and regulatory discards. See 16 USC 1802
  • certificate: means a certificate of accreditation issued under this chapter. See 7 USC 138
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • charter fishing: means fishing from a vessel carrying a passenger for hire (as defined in section 2101(30) of title 46) who is engaged in recreational fishing. See 16 USC 1802
  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Closed Area: means any of the closed areas identified in Schedule 2 of Annex I of the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • commerce: means commerce between any State or the District of Columbia and any place outside thereof, or between points within the same State or the District of Columbia but through any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia. See 7 USC 62
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 92
  • commercial fishing: means fishing in which the fish harvested, either in whole or in part, are intended to enter commerce or enter commerce through sale, barter or trade. See 16 USC 1802
  • Commission: means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission established under section 2(a)(2) of this title. See 7 USC 1a
  • commodity: means wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, grain sorghums, mill feeds, butter, eggs, Solanum tuberosum (Irish potatoes), wool, wool tops, fats and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods and articles, except onions (as provided by section 13-1 of this title) and motion picture box office receipts (or any index, measure, value, or data related to such receipts), and all services, rights, and interests (except motion picture box office receipts, or any index, measure, value or data related to such receipts) in which contracts for future delivery are presently or in the future dealt in. See 7 USC 1a
  • commodity pool: means any investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise operated for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--

    (i) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a

  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • conservation and management: refers to all of the rules, regulations, conditions, methods, and other measures (A) which are required to rebuild, restore, or maintain, and which are useful in rebuilding, restoring, or maintaining, any fishery resource and the marine environment. See 16 USC 1802
  • Continental Shelf: means the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas adjacent to the coast, but outside the area of the territorial sea, of the United States, to a depth of 200 meters or, beyond that limit, to where the depth of the superjacent waters admits of the exploitation of the natural resources of such areas. See 16 USC 1802
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • contract of sale: includes sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell. See 7 USC 1a
  • Convention: means the Convention on Great Lakes Fisheries between the United States of America and Canada signed at Washington, September 10, 1954. See 16 USC 931
  • cotton: means cotton of any variety produced within the continental United States, including linters. See 7 USC 62
  • Council: means any Regional Fishery Management Council established under section 1852 of this title. See 16 USC 1802
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
  • customs waters: means , in the case of a foreign vessel subject to a treaty or other arrangement between a foreign government and the United States enabling or permitting the authorities of the United States to board, examine, search, seize, or otherwise to enforce upon such vessel upon the high seas the laws of the United States, the waters within such distance of the coast of the United States as the said authorities are or may be so enabled or permitted by such treaty or arrangement and, in the case of every other vessel, the waters within four leagues of the coast of the United States. See 19 USC 1401
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • damages: includes --

    (A) compensation for--

    (i)(I) the cost of replacing, restoring, or acquiring the equivalent of a sanctuary resource. See 16 USC 1432

  • day: means the time from eight o'clock antemeridian to five o'clock postmeridian. See 19 USC 1401
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 18 USC 6
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 75
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • derivatives clearing organization: means a clearinghouse, clearing association, clearing corporation, or similar entity, facility, system, or organization that, with respect to an agreement, contract, or transaction--

    (i) enables each party to the agreement, contract, or transaction to substitute, through novation or otherwise, the credit of the derivatives clearing organization for the credit of the parties. See 7 USC 1a

  • Destructively distilled wood turpentine: means wood turpentine obtained in the destructive distillation of the wood. See 7 USC 92
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 26 USC 7701
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • draft management plan: means the plan described in section 1434(a)(1)(C)(v) 1 of this title. See 16 USC 1432
  • economic discards: means fish which are the target of a fishery, but which are not retained because they are of an undesirable size, sex, or quality, or for other economic reasons. See 16 USC 1802
  • economically disadvantaged: means economic hardship due to the loss of jobs or income (labor or proprietor) derived from forestry, the wood products industry, or related commercial enterprises such as recreation and tourism in the national forest. See 7 USC 6612
  • electronic data interchange system: means any established mechanism approved by the Commissioner of U. See 19 USC 1401
  • electronic entry: means the electronic transmission to the Customs Service of--

    (1) entry information required for the entry of merchandise, and

    (2) entry summary information required for the classification and appraisement of the merchandise, the verification of statistical information, and the determination of compliance with applicable law. See 19 USC 1401

  • electronic transmission: means the transfer of data or information through an authorized electronic data interchange system consisting of, but not limited to, computer modems and computer networks. See 19 USC 1401
  • employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • essential fish habitat: means those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity. See 16 USC 1802
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • excess animals: means wild free-roaming horses or burros (1) which have been removed from an area by the Secretary pursuant to applicable law or, (2) which must be removed from an area in order to preserve and maintain a thriving natural ecological balance and multiple-use relationship in that area. See 16 USC 1332
  • exclusive economic zone: means the zone established by Proclamation Numbered 5030, dated March 10, 1983. See 16 USC 1802
  • exclusive economic zone: means the exclusive economic zone as defined in the Magnuson-Stevens Act. See 16 USC 1432
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • export elevator: means any grain elevator, warehouse, or other storage or handling facility in the United States as determined by the Secretary, from which grain is shipped from the United States to an area outside thereof. See 7 USC 75
  • export grain: means grain for shipment from the United States to any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 75
  • export port location: means a commonly recognized port of export in the United States or Canada, as determined by the Secretary, from which grain produced in the United States is shipped to any place outside the United States. See 7 USC 75
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fish: means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life other than marine mammals and birds. See 16 USC 1802
  • fishery: means --

    (A) one or more stocks of fish which can be treated as a unit for purposes of conservation and management and which are identified on the basis of geographical, scientific, technical, recreational, and economic characteristics. See 16 USC 1802

  • fishery resource: means any fishery, any stock of fish, any species of fish, and any habitat of fish. See 16 USC 1802
  • fishing: means --

    (A) the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish. See 16 USC 1802

  • fishing: means --

    (A) searching for, catching, taking, or harvesting fish. See 16 USC 973

  • fishing vessel: means any vessel, boat, ship, or other craft which is used for, equipped to be used for, or of a type which is normally used for--

    (A) fishing. See 16 USC 1802

  • floor broker: means any person--

    (i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, shall purchase or sell for any other person--

    (I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a

  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign futures authority: means any foreign government, or any department, agency, governmental body, or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter, or any department or agency of a political subdivision of a foreign government empowered to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter. See 7 USC 1a
  • foreign government: as used in this title except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201, includes any government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, irrespective of recognition by the United States. See
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • futures commission merchant: means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--

    (i) that--

    (I) is--

    (aa) engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--

    (AA) the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery. See 7 USC 1a

  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • grain: means corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, flaxseed, sorghum, soybeans, mixed grain, and any other food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds for which standards are established under section 76 of this title. See 7 USC 75
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Great Lakes: means any of the following bodies of water: Lake Ontario (including the Saint Lawrence River from Lake Ontario to the forty-fifth parallel of latitude), Lake Erie, Lake Huron (including Lake Saint Clair), Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior. See 16 USC 931
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Gum rosin: means rosin remaining after the distillation of gum spirits of turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • Gum spirits of turpentine: means spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree. See 7 USC 92
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • herd: means one or more stallions and his mares. See 16 USC 1332
  • high potential historic sites: means those historic sites related to the route, or sites in close proximity thereto, which provide opportunity to interpret the historic significance of the trail during the period of its major use. See 16 USC 1251
  • high potential route segments: means those segments of a trail which would afford high quality recreation experience in a portion of the route having greater than average scenic values or affording an opportunity to vicariously share the experience of the original users of a historic route. See 16 USC 1251
  • high seas: means all waters beyond the territorial sea of the United States and beyond any foreign nation's territorial sea, to the extent that such sea is recognized by the United States. See 16 USC 1802
  • hovering vessel: means --

    (1) any vessel which is found or kept off the coast of the United States within or without the customs waters, if, from the history, conduct, character, or location of the vessel, it is reasonable to believe that such vessel is being used or may be used to introduce or promote or facilitate the introduction or attempted introduction of merchandise into the United States in violation of the laws of the United States. See 19 USC 1401

  • hybrid instrument: means a security having one or more payments indexed to the value, level, or rate of, or providing for the delivery of, one or more commodities. See 7 USC 1a
  • import activity summary statement: refers to data or information transmitted electronically to the Customs Service, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary prescribes, at the end of a specified period of time which enables the Customs Service to assess properly the duties, taxes and fees on merchandise imported during that period, collect accurate statistics and determine whether any other applicable requirement of law (other than a requirement relating to release from customs custody) is met. See 19 USC 1401
  • improved property: as used in this chapter , means a detached, one-family dwelling (hereinafter referred to as "dwelling"), the construction of which was begun before January 1, 1967, (except where a different date is specifically provided by law with respect to any particular river) together with so much of the land on which the dwelling is situated, the said land being in the same ownership as the dwelling, as the appropriate Secretary shall designate to be reasonably necessary for the enjoyment of the dwelling for the sole purpose of noncommercial residential use, together with any structures accessory to the dwelling which are situated on the land so designated. See 16 USC 1277
  • including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 26 USC 7701
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual fishing quota: means a Federal permit under a limited access system to harvest a quantity of fish, expressed by a unit or units representing a percentage of the total allowable catch of a fishery that may be received or held for exclusive use by a person. See 16 USC 1802
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • interested person: means any person having a contract or other financial interest in grain as the owner, seller, purchaser, warehouseman, or carrier, or otherwise. See 7 USC 75
  • interstate commerce: means commerce--

    (A) between any State, territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 1a

  • interstate or foreign commerce: means commerce from any State to or through any other State, or to or through any foreign country. See 7 USC 75
  • intracompany shipment: means the shipment, within the United States, of grain lots between facilities owned or controlled by the person owning the grain. See 7 USC 75
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • laboratory: means any facility or vehicle that is owned by an individual or a public or private entity and is equipped and operated for the purpose of carrying out pesticide residue analysis on agricultural products for commercial purposes. See 7 USC 138
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Licensing Area: means all waters in the Treaty Area except for--

    (A) those waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States in accordance with international law. See 16 USC 973

  • licensing period: means the period of validity of licenses issued in accordance with the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Limited Area: means any area so identified in Schedule 3 of Annex I of the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local government: means any city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public body which is a political subdivision of a State and which is created pursuant to State law. See 16 USC 1447a
  • lot: means a specific quantity of grain identified as such. See 7 USC 75
  • Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
  • Magnuson-Stevens Act: means the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U. See 16 USC 1432
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • marine and coastal waters: means estuaries, waters of the estuarine zone, including wetlands, any other waters seaward of the historic height of tidal influence, the territorial seas, the contiguous zone, and the ocean. See 16 USC 1447a
  • marine environment: means those areas of coastal and ocean waters, the Great Lakes and their connecting waters, and submerged lands over which the United States exercises jurisdiction, including the exclusive economic zone, consistent with international law. See 16 USC 1432
  • Marine Fisheries Commission: means the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, or the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. See 16 USC 1802
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
  • master: means the person having the command of the vessel. See 19 USC 1401
  • member: means , with respect to a registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility, an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--

    (A) owning or holding membership in, or admitted to membership representation on, the registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility. See 7 USC 1a

  • merchandise: means goods, wares, and chattels of every description, and includes merchandise the importation of which is prohibited, and monetary instruments as defined in section 5312 of title 31. See 19 USC 1401
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • National Customs Automation Program: means the program established under section 1411 of this title. See 19 USC 1401
  • Naval stores: means spirits of turpentine and rosin. See 7 USC 92
  • night: means the time from five o'clock postmeridian to eight o'clock antemeridian. See 19 USC 1401
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • observer: means any person required or authorized to be carried on a vessel for conservation and management purposes by regulations or permits under this chapter. See 16 USC 1802
  • observer information: means any information collected, observed, retrieved, or created by an observer or electronic monitoring system pursuant to authorization by the Secretary, or collected as part of a cooperative research initiative, including fish harvest or processing observations, fish sampling or weighing data, vessel logbook data, vessel or processor-specific information (including any safety, location, or operating condition observations), and video, audio, photographic, or written documents. See 16 USC 1802
  • official agency: means any State or local governmental agency, or any person, designated by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (f) of section 79 of this title for the conduct of official inspection (other than appeal inspection), or subsection (c) of section 79a of this title for the conduct of official weighing or supervision of weighing (other than appeal weighing). See 7 USC 75
  • official grade designation: means a numerical or sample grade designation, specified in the standards relating to kind, class, quality, and condition of grain, provided for in this chapter. See 7 USC 75
  • official inspection: means the determination (by original inspection, and when requested, reinspection and appeal inspection) and the certification, by official inspection personnel of the kind, class, quality, or condition of grain, under standards provided for in this chapter, or the condition of vessels and other carriers or receptacles for the transportation of grain insofar as it may affect the quality or condition of such grain. See 7 USC 75
  • official inspection personnel: means persons licensed or otherwise authorized by the Secretary pursuant to section 84 of this title to perform all or specified functions involved in official inspection, official weighing, or supervision of weighing, or in the supervision of official inspection, official weighing or supervision of weighing. See 7 USC 75
  • official mark: means any symbol prescribed by regulations of the Secretary to show the official determination of official inspection or official weighing. See 7 USC 75
  • official sample: means a sample obtained from a lot of grain by, and submitted for official inspection by, official inspection personnel (the term "official sampling" shall be construed accordingly). See 7 USC 75
  • official sampling: shall be construed accordingly). See 7 USC 75
  • official weighing: means the determination and certification by official inspection personnel of the quantity of a lot of grain under standards provided for in this chapter, based on the actual performance of weighing or the physical supervision thereof, including the physical inspection and testing for accuracy of the weights and scales and the physical inspection of the premises at which the weighing is performed and the monitoring of the discharge of grain into the elevator or conveyance (the terms "officially weigh" and "officially weighed" shall be construed accordingly). See 7 USC 75
  • officially inspected: shall be construed accordingly). See 7 USC 75
  • officially weighed: shall be construed accordingly). See 7 USC 75
  • operator: means any person who is in charge of, directs or controls a vessel, including the owner, charterer, and master. See 16 USC 973
  • option: means an agreement, contract, or transaction that is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an "option" "privilege" "indemnity" "bid" "offer" "put" "call" "advance guaranty" or "decline guaranty". See 7 USC 1a
  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Pacific Island Party: means a Pacific Island nation which is a party to the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • Package: means any container of naval stores, and includes barrel, tank, tank car, or other receptacle. See 7 USC 92
  • Party: means a nation which is a party to the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • person: import s the plural or the singular, as the case demands, and includes an individual, a partnership, a corporation, or two or more persons having a joint or common interest. See 7 USC 62
  • person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other business entity. See 7 USC 75
  • Person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations, as well as individuals. See 7 USC 92
  • person: means any individual (whether or not a citizen or national of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity (whether or not organized or existing under the laws of any State), and any Federal, State, local, or foreign government or any entity of any such government. See 16 USC 1802
  • person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations. See 19 USC 1401
  • person: means individual, partnership, joint stock company, business trust, association, corporation, or other form of business enterprise, including a receiver, trustee, or liquidating agent and including an officer or employee of any agency of a State or political subdivision thereof. See 27 USC 211
  • person: means any individual (whether or not a citizen or national of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity (whether or not organized or existing under the laws of any State), and any Federal, State, local, or foreign government or any entity of any such government. See 16 USC 973
  • person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 26 USC 7701
  • person: import s the plural or singular, and includes individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts. See 7 USC 1a
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • pesticide: means any substance that alone, in chemical combination, or in any formulation with one or more substances, is defined as a pesticide in section 136(u) of this title. See 7 USC 138
  • petty offense: means a Class B misdemeanor, a Class C misdemeanor, or an infraction, for which the maximum fine is no greater than the amount set forth for such an offense in section 3571(b)(6) or (7) in the case of an individual or section 3571(c)(6) or (7) in the case of an organization. See 18 USC 19
  • Petty offense: A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • prudential regulator: means --

    (A) the Board in the case of a swap dealer, major swap participant, security-based swap dealer, or major security-based swap participant that is--

    (i) a State-chartered bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 7 USC 1a

  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • public lands: means any lands administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management or by the Secretary of Agriculture through the Forest Service. See 16 USC 1332
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • range: means the amount of land necessary to sustain an existing herd or herds of wild free-roaming horses and burros, which does not exceed their known territorial limits, and which is devoted principally but not necessarily exclusively to their welfare in keeping with the multiple-use management concept for the public lands. See 16 USC 1332
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • reconciliation: means an electronic process, initiated at the request of an importer, under which the elements of an entry (other than those elements related to the admissibility of the merchandise) that are undetermined at the time the importer files or transmits the documentation or information required by section 1484(a)(1)(B) of this title, or the import activity summary statement, are provided to the Customs Service at a later time. See 19 USC 1401
  • reconfigured entry: means an entry filed on an import activity summary statement which substitutes for all or part of 1 or more entries filed under section 1484(a)(1)(A) of this title or filed on a reconciliation entry that aggregates the entry elements to be reconciled under section 1484(b) of this title for purposes of liquidation, reliquidation, or protest. See 19 USC 1401
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • recreational fishing: means fishing for sport or pleasure. See 16 USC 1802
  • region: means 1 of the 9 regions described in section 1447b(a) of this title. See 16 USC 1447a
  • registered entity: means --

    (A) a board of trade designated as a contract market under section 7 of this title. See 7 USC 1a

  • regulatory discards: means fish harvested in a fishery which fishermen are required by regulation to discard whenever caught, or are required by regulation to retain but not sell. See 16 USC 1802
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • response costs: means the costs of actions taken or authorized by the Secretary to minimize destruction or loss of, or injury to, sanctuary resources, or to minimize the imminent risks of such destruction, loss, or injury, including costs related to seizure, forfeiture, storage, or disposal arising from liability under section 1443 of this title. See 16 USC 1432
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • River: means a flowing body of water or estuary or a section, portion, or tributary thereof, including rivers, streams, creeks, runs, kills, rills, and small lakes. See 16 USC 1286
  • Rosin: includes gum rosin and wood rosin. See 7 USC 92
  • rural community: means --

    (A) any town, township, municipality, or other similar unit of general purpose local government, or any area represented by a not-for-profit corporation or institution organized under State or Federal law to promote broad based economic development, or unit of general purpose local government, as approved by the Secretary, that has a population of not more than 10,000 individuals, is located within a county in which at least 15 percent of the total primary and secondary labor and proprietor income is derived from forestry, wood products, and forest-related industries such as recreation, forage production, and tourism and that is located within the boundary, or within 100 miles of the boundary, of a national forest. See 7 USC 6612

  • sanctuary resource: means any living or nonliving resource of a national marine sanctuary that contributes to the conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, educational, cultural, archeological, scientific, or aesthetic value of the sanctuary. See 16 USC 1432
  • Scenic easement: means the right to control the use of land (including the air space above such land) within the authorized boundaries of a component of the wild and scenic rivers system, for the purpose of protecting the natural qualities of a designated wild, scenic or recreational river area, but such control shall not affect, without the owner's consent, any regular use exercised prior to the acquisition of the easement. See 16 USC 1286
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury. See 7 USC 1a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States or delegates of the Secretary. See 7 USC 75
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 6612
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 138
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce or his designee. See 16 USC 1802
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 19 USC 1401
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce, or the designee of the Secretary of Commerce. See 16 USC 973
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior when used in connection with public lands administered by him through the Bureau of Land Management and the Secretary of Agriculture in connection with public lands administered by him through the Forest Service. See 16 USC 1332
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 26 USC 7701
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 16 USC 1432
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 16 USC 2002
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See
  • security: means a security as defined in section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
  • security futures product: means a security future or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security future. See 7 USC 1a
  • security-based swap: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • soil and water conservation program: means a set of guidelines for attaining the purposes of this chapter. See 16 USC 2002
  • special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States: as used in this title , includes:

    (1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State. See 18 USC 7

  • Spirits of turpentine: includes gum spirits of turpentine and wood turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • State: shall include the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See
  • State: means any one of the States (including Puerto Rico) or territories or possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 7 USC 75
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See 16 USC 1802
  • State: includes a Territory and the District of Columbia. See 27 USC 211
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealths of Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See 16 USC 973
  • State: means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See 16 USC 1251
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See 16 USC 1432
  • State: means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 16 USC 1447a
  • State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 26 USC 7701
  • State: means each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Steam distilled wood turpentine: means wood turpentine distilled with steam from the oleoresin within or extracted from the wood. See 7 USC 92
  • student: means any individual--

    (i) who is temporarily present in the United States--

    (I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or

    (II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and


    (ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 26 USC 7701

  • submitted sample: means a sample submitted by or for an interested person for official inspection, other than an official sample. See 7 USC 75
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • supervision of weighing: means such supervision by official inspection personnel of the grain-weighing process as is determined by the Secretary to be adequate to reasonably assure the integrity and accuracy of the weighing and of certificates which set forth the weight of the grain and such physical inspection by such personnel of the premises at which the grain weighing is performed as will reasonably assure that all the grain intended to be weighed has been weighed and discharged into the elevator or conveyance. See 7 USC 75
  • swap: includes a master agreement that provides for an agreement, contract, or transaction that is a swap under subparagraph (A), together with each supplement to any master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement contains an agreement, contract, or transaction that is not a swap pursuant to subparagraph (A). See 7 USC 1a
  • swap data repository: means any person that collects and maintains information or records with respect to transactions or positions in, or the terms and conditions of, swaps entered into by third parties for the purpose of providing a centralized recordkeeping facility for swaps. See 7 USC 1a
  • swap dealer: means any person who--

    (i) holds itself out as a dealer in swaps. See 7 USC 1a

  • System: means the National Marine Sanctuary System established by section 1431 of this title. See 16 USC 1432
  • taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 26 USC 7701
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Treaty: means the Treaty on Fisheries Between the Governments of Certain Pacific Island States and the Government of the United States of America, signed in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, April 2, 1987, and its Annexes, Schedules, and implementing agreements. See 16 USC 973
  • Treaty Area: means the area so described in paragraph 1(k) of Article 1 of the Treaty. See 16 USC 973
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: means the States (including Puerto Rico) and the territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia). See 7 USC 75
  • United States: when used in a geographical context, means all the States thereof. See 16 USC 1802
  • United States: includes all Territories and possessions of the United States except the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, Johnston Island, and the island of Guam. See 19 USC 1401
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 7701
  • United States fish processors: means facilities located within the United States for, and vessels of the United States used or equipped for, the processing of fish for commercial use or consumption. See 16 USC 1802
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land, but does not include aircraft. See 19 USC 1401
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • vessel: includes every description of water craft or other contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation in water, but does not include aircraft. See 19 USC 1401
  • vessel: means any boat, ship, or other craft which is used for, equipped to be used for, or of a type normally used for commercial fishing, and which is documented under the laws of the United States. See 16 USC 973
  • wetlands: means (1) the inland fresh areas described as types 1 through 7 in Circular 39, Wetlands of the United States, published by the United States Department of the Interior (or the inland fresh areas corresponding to such types in any successor wetland classification system developed by the Department of the Interior), (2) artificially developed inland fresh areas that meet the description of the inland fresh areas described in clause (1) of this sentence, and (3) such other wetland types as the Secretary may designate. See 16 USC 1302
  • wild free-roaming horses and burros: means all unbranded and unclaimed horses and burros on public lands of the United States. See 16 USC 1332
  • without expense to the United States: means that no funds may be expended by Federal agencies for the development of trail related facilities or for the acquisition of lands or interests in lands outside the exterior boundaries of Federal areas. See 16 USC 1251
  • Wood rosin: means rosin remaining after the distillation of steam distilled wood turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • Wood turpentine: includes steam distilled wood turpentine and destructively distilled wood turpentine. See 7 USC 92
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.