Part A Air Commerce and Safety
Part B Airport Development and Noise
Part C Financing
Part D Public Airports
Part E Miscellaneous

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 49 > Subtitle VII

  • account: means a demand deposit, savings deposit, or other asset account (other than an occasional or incidental credit balance in an open end credit plan as defined in section 1602(i) 1 of this title), as described in regulations of the Bureau, established primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, but such term does not include an account held by a financial institution pursuant to a bona fide trust agreement. See 49 USC 46305
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See 49 USC 47123
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Advisory Board: means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. See 19 USC 508
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • agricultural research: means research in the food and agricultural sciences. See 19 USC 508
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • aquaculture: means the propagation and rearing of aquacultural species, including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, or crustacean (or other aquatic invertebrate), amphibian, reptile, ornamental fish, or aquatic plant, in controlled or selected environments. See 19 USC 508
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 38 USC 1912
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 49 USC 46305
  • Board: means the Merit Systems Protection Board under chapter 12 of title 5. See 49 USC 44903
  • Board: means the National Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Board established under section 7104(b) of this title. See 19 USC 288
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 49 USC 46305
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. See 49 USC 45304
  • business day: means any day on which the offices of the consumer's financial institution involved in an electronic fund transfer are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of its business functions. See 49 USC 46305
  • Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies. See 26 USC 4218
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • chemical substance: means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including--

    (i) any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature, and

    (ii) any element or uncombined radical. See 49 USC 47123

  • Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
  • Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
  • commerce: means trade, traffic, transportation, or other commerce (A) between a place in a State and any place outside of such State, or (B) which affects trade, traffic, transportation, or commerce described in clause (A). See 49 USC 47123
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. See 38 USC 1912
  • Committee membership: Legislators are assigned to specific committees by their party. Seniority, regional balance, and political philosophy are the most prominent factors in the committee assignment process.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • communication: means the conveying of information regarding a debt directly or indirectly to any person through any medium. See 49 USC 45304
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • conditions of use: means the circumstances, as determined by the Administrator, under which a chemical substance is intended, known, or reasonably foreseen to be manufactured, processed, distributed in commerce, used, or disposed of. See 49 USC 47123
  • Conference committee: A temporary, ad hoc panel composed of conferees from both chamber of a legislature which is formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers. Conference committees are usually convened to resolve bicameral differences on major and controversial legislation.
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • consumer: means any natural person obligated or allegedly obligated to pay any debt. See 49 USC 45304
  • consumer: means a natural person. See 49 USC 46305
  • consumer information: means any action or program that provides information to consumers and other persons on appropriate uses under varied circumstances, and on the care and handling, of cut flowers or cut greens. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • consumer information: means nutritional data and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and decisions regarding the purchase, preparation, or use of sheep products. See 19 USC 288
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative bank: means an institution without capital stock organized and operated for mutual purposes and without profit, which--

    (A) either--

    (i) is an insured institution within the meaning of section 401(a) 2 of the National Housing Act (12 U. See 38 USC 1912

  • cooperative extension services: means the organizations established at the land-grant colleges and universities under the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. See 19 USC 508
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 38 USC 1912
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • covered employee: means any employee of an employing office. See 49 USC 44903
  • Credit bureau: An agency that collects individual credit information and sells it for a fee to creditors so they can make a decision on granting loans. Typical clients include banks, mortgage lenders, credit card companies, and other financing companies. (Also commonly referred to as consumer-reporting agency or credit-reporting agency.) Source: OCC
  • Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
  • Credit Score: A number, roughly between 300 and 800, that measures an individual's credit worthiness. The most well-known type of credit score is the FICO score. This score represents the answer from a mathematical formula that assigns numerical values to various pieces of information in your credit report. Source: OCC
  • creditor: means any person who offers or extends credit creating a debt or to whom a debt is owed, but such term does not include any person to the extent that he receives an assignment or transfer of a debt in default solely for the purpose of facilitating collection of such debt for another. See 49 USC 45304
  • Customs Service: means United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury. See 19 USC 288
  • cut flowers: includes all flowers cut from growing plants that are used as fresh-cut flowers and that are produced under cover or in field operations. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • cut greens: includes all cultivated or noncultivated decorative foliage cut from growing plants that are used as fresh-cut decorative foliage (except Christmas trees) and that are produced under cover or in field operations. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • day: means the time from eight o'clock antemeridian to five o'clock postmeridian. See 19 USC 1401
  • debt: means any obligation or alleged obligation of a consumer to pay money arising out of a transaction in which the money, property, insurance, or services which are the subject of the transaction are primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment. See 49 USC 45304
  • debt collector: means any person who uses any instrumentality of interstate commerce or the mails in any business the principal purpose of which is the collection of any debts, or who regularly collects or attempts to collect, directly or indirectly, debts owed or due or asserted to be owed or due another. See 49 USC 45304
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • degreased wool: means wool from which the bulk of impurities has been removed by processing. See 19 USC 288
  • Department: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 19 USC 288
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 40 USC 3707
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 19 USC 508
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • distribution in commerce: when used to describe an action taken with respect to a chemical substance or mixture or article containing a substance or mixture mean to sell, or the sale of, the substance, mixture, or article in commerce. See 49 USC 47123
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 38 USC 1912
  • domestic building and loan association: means a domestic building and loan association, a domestic savings and loan association, and a Federal savings and loan association--

    (A) which either (i) is an insured institution within the meaning of section 401(a) 2 of the National Housing Act (12 U. See 38 USC 1912

  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • education: means activities providing information relating to the sheep industry or sheep products to producers, feeders, importers, consumers, and other persons. See 19 USC 288
  • electronic data interchange system: means any established mechanism approved by the Commissioner of U. See 19 USC 1401
  • electronic entry: means the electronic transmission to the Customs Service of--

    (1) entry information required for the entry of merchandise, and

    (2) entry summary information required for the classification and appraisement of the merchandise, the verification of statistical information, and the determination of compliance with applicable law. See 19 USC 1401

  • electronic fund transfer: means any transfer of funds, other than a transaction originated by check, draft, or similar paper instrument, which is initiated through an electronic terminal, telephonic instrument, or computer or magnetic tape so as to order, instruct, or authorize a financial institution to debit or credit an account. See 49 USC 46305
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • electronic terminal: means an electronic device, other than a telephone operated by a consumer, through which a consumer may initiate an electronic fund transfer. See 49 USC 46305
  • electronic transmission: means the transfer of data or information through an authorized electronic data interchange system consisting of, but not limited to, computer modems and computer networks. See 19 USC 1401
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • employee: includes an applicant for employment and a former employee. See 49 USC 44903
  • employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 38 USC 1912
  • employing office: means --

    (A) each office, agency, or other component of the Executive Office of the President. See 49 USC 44903

  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • environment: includes water, air, and land and the interrelationship which exists among and between water, air, and land and all living things. See 49 USC 47123
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executive Committee: means the Executive Committee established under section 7104(g) of this title. See 19 USC 288
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • exempt handler: means a person who would otherwise be considered to be a qualified handler, except that the annual sales by the person of cut flowers and cut greens to retailers and other exempt handlers are less than $750,000. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • exporter: means any person who exports domestic live sheep or greasy wool from the United States. See 19 USC 288
  • extension: means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. See 19 USC 508
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • federally owned or administered forest land: shall be construed to mean forest land in which, or in the natural resources of which, the United States has a legal or equitable interest of any character sufficient to entitle the United States to control the management or disposition of the timber or other forest products thereon, except land heretofore or hereafter reserved or withdrawn for purposes which are inconsistent with the exercise of the authority conferred by this subchapter. See 26 USC 7622
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • feeder: means a person who feeds lambs until the lambs reach slaughter weight. See 19 USC 288
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 38 USC 1912
  • financial institution: means a State or National bank, a State or Federal savings and loan association, a mutual savings bank, a State or Federal credit union, or any other person who, directly or indirectly, holds an account belonging to a consumer. See 49 USC 46305
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • fiscal year: means an accounting period of 12 months ending on the last day of any month other than December. See 38 USC 1912
  • food and agricultural sciences: means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

    (A) Animal health, production, and well-being. See 19 USC 508

  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce with a foreign country. See 40 USC 5103
  • forestry research: as used in this subchapter shall include investigations relating to: (1) Reforestation and management of land for the production of crops of timber and other related products of the forest. See 26 USC 7605
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud Alert: A key provision of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 is the consumer's ability to place a fraud alert on their credit record. A consumer would use this option if they believe they were a victim of identity theft. Source: OCC
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • functions: shall be deemed to include references to duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, and activity, or the plural thereof, as the case may be. See 49 USC 40120
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • greasy wool: means wool that has not been washed or otherwise cleaned. See 19 USC 288
  • gross sales price: means the total amount of the transaction in a sale of cut flowers or cut greens from a handler to a retailer or exempt handler. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • guidance: means any significant written guidance of general applicability prepared by the Administrator. See 49 USC 47123
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • handler: means any person who purchases and markets greasy wool. See 19 USC 288
  • health and safety study: means any study of any effect of a chemical substance or mixture on health or the environment or on both, including underlying information and epidemiological studies, studies of occupational exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, toxicological, clinical, and ecological studies of a chemical substance or mixture, and any test performed pursuant to this chapter. See 49 USC 47123
  • hovering vessel: means --

    (1) any vessel which is found or kept off the coast of the United States within or without the customs waters, if, from the history, conduct, character, or location of the vessel, it is reasonable to believe that such vessel is being used or may be used to introduce or promote or facilitate the introduction or attempted introduction of merchandise into the United States in violation of the laws of the United States. See 19 USC 1401

  • importer: has the meaning provided in section 6804(b)(2)(B)(i)(I) of this title. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • importer: means any person who imports sheep or sheep products into the United States. See 19 USC 288
  • including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 38 USC 1912
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • industry information: means information and programs that will lead to increased efficiency in processing and the development of new markets, marketing strategies, increased marketing efficiency, and activities to enhance the image of sheep or sheep products on a national or international basis. See 19 USC 288
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • institution of higher education: has the meaning given such term in section 1001 of this title. See 25 USC 1665i
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international financial institutions: means the International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, African Development Bank, African Development Fund, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank 2 Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,,3 and Inter-American Investment Corporation. See 26 USC 4218
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • land-grant colleges and universities: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. See 19 USC 508
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • location information: means a consumer's place of abode and his telephone number at such place, or his place of employment. See 49 USC 45304
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Majority whip: See Whips.
  • manufacture: means to import into the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States), produce, or manufacture. See 49 USC 47123
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
  • master: means the person having the command of the vessel. See 19 USC 1401
  • merchandise: means goods, wares, and chattels of every description, and includes merchandise the importation of which is prohibited, and monetary instruments as defined in section 5312 of title 31. See 19 USC 1401
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Minority whip: See Whips.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • mixture: means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction. See 49 USC 47123
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • municipalities: as used in this chapter shall be construed to include the public agencies of any of them unless the context requires a different construction. See 49 USC 47501
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • National Customs Automation Program: means the program established under section 1411 of this title. See 19 USC 1401
  • new chemical substance: means any chemical substance which is not included in the chemical substance list compiled and published under section 2607(b) of this title. See 49 USC 47123
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
  • order: means an order issued under this chapter (other than sections 6808, 6809, and 6811 of this title). See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • order: means a sheep and wool promotion, research, education, and information order issued under section 7103 of this title. See 19 USC 288
  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • performance: may be construed to mean "exercise". See 49 USC 41702
  • performance: when used in relation to functions, shall be deemed to include the exercise of power, authority, rights, and privileges. See 49 USC 40120
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, firm, partnership, corporation, joint stock company, association, society, cooperative, or other legal entity. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See 19 USC 288
  • person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 38 USC 1912
  • person: includes partnerships, associations, and corporations. See 19 USC 1401
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • petty offense: means a Class B misdemeanor, a Class C misdemeanor, or an infraction, for which the maximum fine is no greater than the amount set forth for such an offense in section 3571(b)(6) or (7) in the case of an individual or section 3571(c)(6) or (7) in the case of an organization. See
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation: means a group of individuals within the general population identified by the Administrator who, due to either greater susceptibility or greater exposure, may be at greater risk than the general population of adverse health effects from exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, such as infants, children, pregnant women, workers, or the elderly. See 49 USC 47123
  • preauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. See 49 USC 46305
  • Preauthorized electronic fund transfers: An EFT authorized in advance to recur at substantially regular intervals. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • process: means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce--

    (A) in the same form or physical state as, or in a different form or physical state from, that in which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture, or

    (B) as part of an article containing the chemical substance or mixture. See 49 USC 47123

  • processor: means any person who processes a chemical substance or mixture. See 49 USC 47123
  • producer: has the meaning provided in section 6804(b)(2)(B)(ii)(I) of this title. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • producer: means any person, other than a feeder, who owns or acquires ownership of sheep. See 19 USC 288
  • producer information: means activities designed to provide producers, feeders, and importers with information relating to production or marketing efficiencies or developments, program activities, or other information that would facilitate an increase in the consumption of sheep or sheep products. See 19 USC 288
  • PromoFlor Council: means the Fresh Cut Flowers and Fresh Cut Greens Promotion Council established under section 6804(b) of this title. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • promotion: means any action determined by the Secretary to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of cut flowers or cut greens, including paid advertising. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • promotion: means any action (including paid advertising) to advance the image and desirability of sheep or sheep products to improve the competitive position, and stimulate sales, of sheep products in the domestic and international marketplace. See 19 USC 288
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • protocols and methodologies for the development of information: means a prescription of--

    (A) the--

    (i) health and environmental effects, and

    (ii) information relating to toxicity, persistence, and other characteristics which affect health and the environment,


    for which information for a chemical substance or mixture are to be developed and any analysis that is to be performed on such information, and

    (B) to the extent necessary to assure that information respecting such effects and characteristics are reliable and adequate--

    (i) the manner in which such information are 2 to be developed,

    (ii) the specification of any test protocol or methodology to be employed in the development of such information, and

    (iii) such other requirements as are necessary to provide such assurance. See 49 USC 47123

  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • qualified handler: includes --

    (aa) bouquet manufacturers (subject to paragraph (2)(B)). See 16 USC 460nnn–24

  • qualified State sheep board: means a sheep and wool promotion entity that--

    (A) is authorized by State statute or is otherwise organized and operating within a State. See 19 USC 288

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • raw wool: means greasy wool, pulled wool, degreased wool, or carbonized wool. See 19 USC 288
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • reconciliation: means an electronic process, initiated at the request of an importer, under which the elements of an entry (other than those elements related to the admissibility of the merchandise) that are undetermined at the time the importer files or transmits the documentation or information required by section 1484(a)(1)(B) of this title, or the import activity summary statement, are provided to the Customs Service at a later time. See 19 USC 1401
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means market research and studies limited to the support of advertising, market development, and other promotion efforts and consumer information efforts relating to cut flowers or cut greens, including educational activities. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • research: means development projects and studies relating to the production (including the feeding of sheep), processing, distribution, or use of sheep or sheep products to encourage, expand, improve, or make more efficient the marketing of sheep or sheep products. See 19 USC 288
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • retailer: includes a distribution center that is--

    (I) owned or controlled by a person described in subparagraph (A), or owned or controlled cooperatively by a group of the persons, if the predominant retail business activity of the person is not floral sales. See 16 USC 460nnn–24

  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 19 USC 1401
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See 25 USC 1665i
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 19 USC 288
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 19 USC 508
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 38 USC 1912
  • Secretary of the Treasury: means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his. See 38 USC 1912
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • sheep: means ovine animals of any age, including lambs. See 19 USC 288
  • sheep products: means products produced, in whole or in part, from sheep, including wool and products containing wool fiber. See 19 USC 288
  • special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States: as used in this title , includes:

    (1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State. See 40 USC 3708

  • State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 49 USC 45304
  • State: means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any political subdivision of any of the foregoing. See 49 USC 46305
  • State: means each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 25 USC 1665i
  • State: means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau (until such time as the Compact of Free Association is ratified). See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • State: means each of the 50 States. See 19 USC 288
  • State: shall include each of the several States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and, to the extent the Secretary determines it to be feasible and appropriate, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 14 USC 252
  • State: means --

    (A) a State. See 19 USC 508

  • State: as used in this subchapter shall include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. See 26 USC 7606
  • State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 38 USC 1912
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States. See 49 USC 47123
  • State agricultural experiment stations: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of March 2, 1887 (24 Stat. See 19 USC 508
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 19 USC 2291
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 38 USC 1912
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testate: To die leaving a will.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 38 USC 1912
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • unauthorized electronic fund transfer: means an electronic fund transfer from a consumer's account initiated by a person other than the consumer without actual authority to initiate such transfer and from which the consumer receives no benefit, but the term does not include any electronic fund transfer (A) initiated by a person other than the consumer who was furnished with the card, code, or other means of access to such consumer's account by such consumer, unless the consumer has notified the financial institution involved that transfers by such other person are no longer authorized, (B) initiated with fraudulent intent by the consumer or any person acting in concert with the consumer, or (C) which constitutes an error committed by a financial institution. See 49 USC 46305
  • unit: means each State, group of States, or class designation that is represented on the Board. See 19 USC 288
  • United States: means the States collectively. See 16 USC 460nnn–24
  • United States: means the 50 States and the District of Columbia. See 19 USC 288
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 40 USC 3706
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 38 USC 1912
  • United States: includes all Territories and possessions of the United States except the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, Johnston Island, and the island of Guam. See 19 USC 1401
  • United States: when used in the geographic sense, means all of the States. See 49 USC 47123
  • university: include a research foundation maintained by a college or university described in subparagraph (A). See 19 USC 508
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land, but does not include aircraft. See 19 USC 1401
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • vessel: includes every description of water craft or other contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation in water, but does not include aircraft. See 19 USC 1401
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Whips: Assistants to the floor leaders who are also elected by their party conferences. The Majority and Minority Whips (and their assistants) are responsible for mobilizing votes within their parties on major issues. In the absence of a party floor leader, the whip often serves as acting floor leader.
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
  • wool: means the fiber from the fleece of a sheep. See 19 USC 288
  • wool products: means products produced, in whole or in part, from wool and products containing wool fiber. See 19 USC 288
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.