(a) Any drug offender subject to this chapter who posts bail shall submit to random observed drug tests as a condition of pretrial release.
Terms Used In Alabama Code 12-23A-5
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- assessment: A diagnostic evaluation for placement in a treatment program which shall be performed in accordance with criteria certified by the Department of Mental Health, Substance Abuse Services Division. See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- charge: As defined in Section 12-25-32(13). See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- drug: Includes all of the following:
a. See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- DRUG COURT: A judicial intervention program for drug offenders in the criminal division of the circuit or district court that incorporates the ten key components as enumerated in subsection (f) of Section 12-23A-4 and may include any of the following:
a. See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- DRUG COURT TEAM: Consists of all of the following members who are assigned to the drug court:
a. See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- DRUG OFFENDER: A person charged with or convicted of a drug-related offense or an offense in which substance abuse is determined from the evidence to have been a significant factor in the commission of the offense and who has applied for or been accepted to participate in a drug court program for drug offenders in the criminal division of the circuit or district court. See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- following: means next after. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- preceding: means next before. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- screening: The process of gathering basic information to determine whether the offender meets established drug court eligibility criteria and shall include, but is not limited to, the current charge, a substance abuse evaluation, a brief questionnaire to determine if a risk or needs assessment is needed, and drug testing, and may include, but is not limited to, a substance abuse evaluation, risk assessment, or needs assessment. See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the several territories of the United States. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
- substance: Drug as defined in subdivision (6). See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- SUBSTANCE ABUSE: The illegal or improper consumption of a drug. See Alabama Code 45-2-182
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- year: means a calendar year; but, whenever the word "year" is used in reference to any appropriations for the payment of money out of the treasury, it shall mean fiscal year. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
(b) A drug offender shall be required to undergo a screening under any of the following conditions:
(1) The results of a drug test are positive.
(2) The drug offender requests a screening.
(3) The drug offender admits to substance use or abuse within the year preceding the arrest for the present charge.
(4) The present charge involves a violation of the controlled substances or impaired driving statutes.
(5) The drug offender, within the previous five years, has been convicted in any state or federal court involving a violation described in subsection (b)(1), (b)(3), or (b)(4).
(6) The drug offender refuses to undergo a drug test as required by this chapter.
(c) Notwithstanding the requirements of subsection (a), the court shall order a drug offender to undergo a screening if the court has reason to believe the drug offender is a substance abuser or would otherwise benefit from undergoing a screening.
(d) If a drug offender is ordered to undergo a screening and has not done so at the time of his or her release prior to trial or probation, submission to a screening shall be a condition of his or her pretrial release or probation.
(e) Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the drug test results and screening of a drug offender shall be provided as soon as practical after the initial appearance of the drug offender before the drug court team, or other appropriate authority in the case of an inmate.
(f) The screening shall include recommendations concerning the drug offender’s need for a needs or risk assessment.
(g) Anyone receiving drug test results, a screening, an assessment, or other personal medical information shall maintain that information in accordance with federal and state confidentiality laws.
(h) A court shall immediately consider ordering a drug offender to participate in drug court if all of the following apply:
(1) A screening reveals that a drug offender is a substance abuser, and the court recommends that the drug offender participate in drug court.
(2) The court has reason to believe that participation in drug court will benefit the drug offender by addressing his or her substance abuse.
(3) The district attorney consents to the participation of the drug offender in the program.
(4) The case of the drug offender is handled pursuant to subsection (b) of Section 12-23A-4.
(i) A drug offender shall not be eligible for admission into a drug court program if any of the following applies:
(1) The drug offender has a pending violent criminal charge against him or her or any felony charge in which a firearm or deadly weapon or dangerous instrument was used.
(2) The drug offender has been convicted of a violent felony offense or any felony in which a firearm or deadly weapon or dangerous instrument was used or adjudicated as a youthful offender or delinquent as a juvenile of a violent felony offense or any felony in which a firearm or deadly weapon or dangerous instrument was used.
(3) The drug offender is required to register as a sex offender or currently charged with a felony sex offense.
(4) The drug offender is charged with distribution, manufacturing, or trafficking of a controlled substance.
(j) Eligible offenses may be further restricted by the rules of a specific local drug court program.
(k) The Commissioner of the Department of Corrections shall develop criteria regarding the evaluation and eligibility of an inmate for early release into a reentry drug court program consistent with the requirements of subsection (i).