Subchapter A General Provisions
Subchapter B Probation
Subchapter C Fines
Subchapter D Imprisonment

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 18 > Part II > Chapter 227

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Agreement: means the Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas, adopted by the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on November 24, 1993. See 18 USC 3585
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Atlantic striped bass: means members of stocks or populations of the species Morone saxatilis, which ordinarily migrate seaward of the waters described in paragraph (3)(A)(i). See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • coastal State: means --

    (A) Pennsylvania and each State of the United States bordering on the Atlantic Ocean north of the State of South Carolina. See 16 USC 3839bb-6

  • coastal waters: means --

    (A) for each coastal State referred to in paragraph (4)(A)--

    (i) all waters, whether salt or fresh, of the coastal State shoreward of the baseline from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured. See 16 USC 3839bb-6

  • Commission: means the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission established under the interstate compact consented to and approved by the Congress in Public Laws 77-539 and 81-721. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • exclusive economic zone: has the meaning given such term in section 3(6) 1 of the Magnuson Act (16 U. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • FAO: means the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. See 18 USC 3585
  • Federal lands: means --

    (A) national forests. See 18 USC 3564

  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • fishing: means --

    (A) the catching, taking, or harvesting of Atlantic striped bass, except when incidental to harvesting that occurs in the course of commercial or recreational fish catching activities directed at a species other than Atlantic striped bass. See 16 USC 3839bb-6

  • foreign commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce with a foreign country. See 18 USC 10
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • high seas: means the waters beyond the territorial sea or exclusive economic zone (or the equivalent) of any nation, to the extent that such territorial sea or exclusive economic zone (or the equivalent) is recognized by the United States. See 18 USC 3585
  • high seas fishing vessel: means any vessel of the United States or subject to the jurisdiction of the United States used or intended for use--

    (A) on the high seas. See 18 USC 3585

  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • international conservation and management measures: means measures to conserve or manage one or more species of living marine resources that are adopted and applied in accordance with the relevant rules of international law, as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and that are recognized by the United States. See 18 USC 3585
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • lawful hunt: means the taking or harvesting (or attempted taking or harvesting) of wildlife or fish, on Federal lands, which--

    (A) is lawful under the laws applicable in the place it occurs. See 18 USC 3564

  • length: means --

    (A) for any high seas fishing vessel built after July 18, 1982, 96 percent of the total length on a waterline at 85 percent of the least molded depth measured from the top of the keel, or the length from the foreside of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline, if that is greater, except that in ships designed with a rake of keel the waterline on which this length is measured shall be parallel to the designed waterline. See 18 USC 3585

  • Magnuson Act: means the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • moratorium area: means the coastal waters with respect to which a declaration under section 5154(a) of this title applies. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • moratorium period: means the period beginning on the day on which moratorium is declared under section 5154(a) of this title regarding a coastal State and ending on the day on which the Commission notifies the Secretaries that that State has taken appropriate remedial action with respect to those matters that were the case of the moratorium being declared. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • national park: means lands and waters included in the National Park System (as defined in section 100501 of title 54). See 18 USC 3564
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, or any other business or legal entity. See 15 USC 689i
  • petty offense: means a Class B misdemeanor, a Class C misdemeanor, or an infraction, for which the maximum fine is no greater than the amount set forth for such an offense in section 3571(b)(6) or (7) in the case of an individual or section 3571(c)(6) or (7) in the case of an organization. See 18 USC 19
  • Plan: means a plan for managing Atlantic striped bass, or an amendment to such plan, that is prepared and adopted by the Commission. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Secretaries: means the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the Interior or their designees. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 15 USC 689i
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce or a designee of the Secretary of Commerce. See 16 USC 3839bb-6
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 18 USC 3585
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States: as used in this title , includes:

    (1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State. See 18 USC 7

  • State: includes any political division of any State. See 15 USC 689i
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston Island. See 15 USC 689i
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • vessel of the United States: means --

    (A) a vessel documented under chapter 121 of title 46 or numbered in accordance with chapter 123 of title 46. See 18 USC 3585