Article 1 General Provisions 20-1-1 – 20-1-7
Article 2 Adulteration and Misbranding 20-1-20 – 20-1-57
Article 3 Bread, Flour, Cornmeal, and Grits 20-1-70 – 20-1-78
Article 4 Nuts 20-1-90 – 20-1-93
Article 5 Oleomargarine 20-1-110 – 20-1-113
Article 6 Mellorine 20-1-130 – 20-1-137
Article 6A Milk, Milk Products, and Frozen Desserts 20-1-140 – 20-1-146
Article 7 Identification of Drug Products 20-1-150 – 20-1-154

Terms Used In Alabama Code > Title 20 > Chapter 1

  • AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: Such term shall include horticultural, viticultural, forestry, dairy, livestock, poultry, bee, fish, aquatic and seafood products and any farm products. See Alabama Code 2-10-50
  • AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: The products of field, pasture, meadow and garden; fruits, melons, berries, nuts, vegetables, livestock, poultry and poultry products, dairy products, fish, aquatic and seafood products and all other things commonly known as agricultural products. See Alabama Code 2-10-90
  • Alabama affiliated group: means a group of corporations, each member of which is subject to tax under Section 40-18-31 and Public Law 86-272 (15 U. See Alabama Code 40-18-39
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • APPEARANCE BOND: An appearance bond is an undertaking to pay the clerk of the circuit, district, or municipal court, for the use of the State of Alabama or the municipality, a specified sum of money upon the failure of a person released to comply with its conditions. See Alabama Code 15-13-101
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • applicant: A natural person who files a written application with the Governor in accordance with the provisions of Section 9-6-4. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • APPROPRIATE FEDERAL AGENCY: The federal agency or department or administrative federal officer charged with the enforcement and administration of the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • AREA OF OPERATION: The area specified in the certificate of incorporation of the authority, within which the authority is empowered to carry on its business and activities under this chapter. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • article: Such term, when referring to a cosmetic, is used in the broad and comprehensive sense and has reference to the cosmetic product in question. See Alabama Code 20-1-50
  • article: When referring to food or drugs, such term is used in the broad and comprehensive sense and has reference to the food product or the drug product in question. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • association: as used in this article , shall refer to agricultural cooperative marketing associations and other organizations, whether incorporated or not, which have for their objects engaging in activities similar to those of a cooperative marketing association. See Alabama Code 2-10-20
  • association: Any corporation organized under this article. See Alabama Code 2-10-50
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • authority: A public corporation organized pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • BABY FOOD: A food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use as a food for babies by reason of its special formulation or its particular suitability for children under two years of age. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • board: The board of directors of an authority. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • board: The Alabama Board of Electrical Contractors. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • board: The State Board of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • board: The State Board of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-310
  • board: The State Board of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-350
  • board: The Alabama State Board of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • bonds: Such term shall include bonds, notes, debentures and certificates representing an obligation to pay money. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • bread: Such term includes and shall be limited to bread and rolls (or buns) of every kind and description made wholly or partly from wheat flour which conforms to the definition and standard of identity of bread set out in 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 17. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • budget year: shall mean the fiscal year for which any particular budget is adopted and in which it is administered. See Alabama Code 11-43A-29
  • budget year: shall mean the fiscal year for which any particular budget is adopted and in which it is administered. See Alabama Code 11-43A-94
  • Capital offense: A crime punishable by death.
  • cash: Any legal tender, negotiable paper, or solvent credit. See Alabama Code 40-18-1
  • CLASS A FOODS: Baby food, infant formula, and potentially hazardous food. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • Commercial unit: means such a unit of goods as by commercial usage is a single whole for purposes of lease and division of which materially impairs its character or value on the market or in use. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-310
  • commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-350
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Consumer lease: means a lease that a lessor regularly engaged in the business of leasing or selling makes to a lessee who is an individual and who takes under the lease primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose, if the total payments to be made under the lease contract, excluding payments for options to renew or buy, do not exceed $100,000. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • cornmeal: All meal for human consumption made from corn, either white or yellow, whole cornmeal, bolted cornmeal, and degerminated cornmeal as defined in definitions and standards of identity set out in 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 15. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • cosmetic: An article intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on, introduced into or otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance and the component parts of such an article. See Alabama Code 20-1-50
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: Any county in this state or in contiguous states. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • dealer: A manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, jobber, and similar establishments, mobile or permanent, engaged in the sale of food for consumption on premises. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: The Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency acting directly or through its duly authorized officers and agents. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • department: The Department of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • department: The Department of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-350
  • department: The Department of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-381
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: A member of the board of directors of an authority. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • director: The Executive Director of the Alabama Board of Electrical Contractors. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • disparagement: The dissemination to the public in any manner of false information that a perishable food product or commodity is not safe for human consumption. See Alabama Code 6-5-621
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • drug: All medicines and preparations recognized in the United States pharmacopoeia or national formulary for internal or external use and any substance or mixture of substances to be used for the cure, mitigation, or prevention of disease in man or domestic animals. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • ELECTRICAL CONTRACTING: Any job or project in the State of Alabama wherein the electrical contractor proposes to bid, install, maintain, alter, or repair any electric wiring devices or equipment. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR: Any person, firm, or corporation who is engaged in the business of soliciting and installing electrical power or control systems; maintaining, altering, or repairing electrical power or control systems, any electrical wiring devices, equipment, or any other electrical apparatus. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • enriched grits: means the appropriate food product, according to the federal standards of identity, that has been enriched to conform to the requirements of this article. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • enrichment: As applied to bread, flour, meal, or grits, such term means the addition thereto of vitamins and other ingredients of the nature required by this article and "enriched bread" "enriched flour" "enriched whole cornmeal" "enriched bolted meal" "enriched degerminated meal" or "enriched grits" means the appropriate food product, according to the federal standards of identity, that has been enriched to conform to the requirements of this article. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • flour: Such term includes and shall be limited to the foods defined as:

    a. See Alabama Code 20-1-71

  • food: All articles of food, drink, confectionery, or condiment, whether simple, mixed, or compound, used or intended for use by man or domestic animals. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • FOOD SALES ESTABLISHMENT: Retail and wholesale stores and places of business, and similar establishments, mobile or permanent, engaged in the sale of food primarily for consumption off the premises. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Goods: means all things that are movable at the time of identification to the lease contract, or are fixtures (Section 7-2A-309), but the term does not include money, documents, instruments, accounts, chattel paper, general intangibles, or minerals or the like, including oil and gas, before extraction. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • grits: Grits, pearl grits, and degerminated grits made from corn by grinding or cracking as defined in the standards of identity set out in 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 15. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • grower: Any person, business entity, or cooperative licensed to grow industrial hemp by the department or an institution of higher education pursuant to this article. See Alabama Code 2-8-381
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • HEALTH SYSTEMS AGENCY: An entity which is organized and operated under the provisions of Title XV of the Public Health Service Act (42 U. See Alabama Code 22-4-2
  • HEMP PRODUCTS: Any and all products made from industrial hemp, including, but not limited to, cloth, cordage, fiber, food, fuel, paint, paper, particleboard, plastics, seed, seed meal and seed oil for consumption, and seed for cultivation if the seeds originate from industrial hemp varieties. See Alabama Code 2-8-381
  • highway: The entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • In forma pauperis: In the manner of a pauper. Permission given to a person to sue without payment of court fees on claim of indigence or poverty.
  • incorporators: The persons who form a public corporation pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • INFANT FORMULA: A food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Installment lease contract: means a lease contract that authorizes or requires the delivery of goods in separate lots to be separately accepted, even though the lease contract contains a clause "each delivery is a separate lease" or its equivalent. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION: A postsecondary institution, as defined in 20 U. See Alabama Code 2-8-381
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • JOURNEYMAN ELECTRICIAN: A person who possesses necessary qualifications, training, and technical knowledge to install electrical wiring, apparatus, or equipment lighting, heating, or power or control covered by this chapter. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • JUDICIAL OFFICER: Any supreme court, appellate court, circuit court, district court, or municipal court judge or any magistrate of any court in this state. See Alabama Code 15-13-101
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • label: A display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container of any article. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • law enforcement officer: shall mean and include a policeman, policewoman, and other official who has authority to make arrests and who is employed by any municipality in the state as a permanent and regular employee for and subject to law enforcement duties, but it does not include any person elected by popular vote. See Alabama Code 11-43-181
  • law enforcement officer: shall mean an official who is certified by the Alabama Peace Officers' Standards and Training Commission who has authority to make arrests and who is employed by any municipality in the state as a permanent and regular employee with law enforcement duties, including police chiefs and deputy police chiefs. See Alabama Code 11-43-231
  • Lease: means a transfer of the right to possession and use of goods for a term in return for consideration, but a sale, including a sale on approval or a sale or return, or retention or creation of a security interest is not a lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lease agreement: means the bargain, with respect to the lease, of the lessor and the lessee in fact as found in their language or by implication from other circumstances including course of dealing or usage of trade or course of performance as provided in this article. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Lease contract: means the total legal obligation that results from the lease agreement as affected by this article and any other applicable rules of law. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Lessee: means a person who acquires the right to possession and use of goods under a lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Lessor: means a person who transfers the right to possession and use of goods under a lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • license: A valid and current certificate of registration issued by the director on behalf of the board which shall give the named person to whom it is issued authority to engage in the activity prescribed thereon. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • licensee: Any person holding a license. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • member: Such term shall include actual members of associations without capital stock and holders of common stock in organizations organized with capital stock. See Alabama Code 2-10-50
  • Merchant lessee: means a lessee that is a merchant with respect to goods of the kind subject to the lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • misbranded: Such term shall apply to all drugs or foods or articles which enter into the composition of food, the package or label of which shall bear or contain any statement, design, or device regarding such article or the ingredients or substances contained therein which shall be false or misleading in any particular and to any food or drug product which is falsely branded as to the state, territory, or country in which it is manufactured or produced. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • MOTOR VEHICLE: Every vehicle which is self-propelled and every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails, except for electric personal assistive mobility devices. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • municipality: Any city or town which is incorporated. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • OPEN-DATE STATEMENT: The terms "Sell By"; "Freeze By"; "Sell or Freeze By"; "Not to be Sold After"; "Best if Used By"; "Expiration"; or other terms as defined by rules or regulations; or a date without additional words shall be considered an open-date statement. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • OUT-OF-DATE: Any article with a label containing an open-date statement with a date affixed thereto which has passed. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: A person, other than a lienholder, having the property in or title to a vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • paid: For the purpose of deductions and credits hereinafter provided for with respect to income tax means paid or accrued or paid or incurred, and the terms paid or accrued and paid or incurred shall be construed according to the method of accounting on the basis of which the net income is computed under this chapter. See Alabama Code 40-18-1
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • PERISHABLE FOOD PRODUCT OR COMMODITY: Any agricultural or aquacultural food product which is sold or distributed in a form that will perish or decay beyond marketability within a short period of time. See Alabama Code 6-5-621
  • person: Unless limited to a natural person by the context in which it is used, such term includes a public or private corporation, a municipality, a county or an agency, department or instrumentality of a state or of a county or municipality. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • person: Any individual, trust, estate, corporation, association, disregarded entity, or subchapter K entity. See Alabama Code 40-18-1
  • person: An individual, corporation, association, partnership, or other entity. See Alabama Code 34-35-1
  • person: A human person, not a legal entity. See Alabama Code 34-36-3
  • person: An individual, a partnership, a corporation or two or more individuals having a joint or common interest. See Alabama Code 2-1-1
  • person: An individual, partnership, corporation, or association or any combination thereof. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • person: An individual, a corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint stock company, a trust, or any unincorporated organization. See Alabama Code 20-1-71
  • person: Such term shall include individuals, firms, partnerships and associations. See Alabama Code 2-10-50
  • personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action and evidence of debt, deeds and conveyances. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOOD: A food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms or the growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum or the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • preceding: means next before. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Present value: means the amount as of a date certain of one or more sums payable in the future, discounted to the date certain. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • PRODUCERS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: Individual persons, partnerships, associations and corporations who produce such products either directly or as landlords, tenants or sharecroppers. See Alabama Code 2-10-90
  • PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: Such term shall include fishing activities and the harvesting of aquatic and seafood products as well as the production of other agricultural or farm products hereinabove defined in subdivision (1) of this section. See Alabama Code 2-10-50
  • PROFESSIONAL BAIL COMPANY: A person, individual proprietor, partnership, corporation, or other entity, other than a professional surety company, that furnishes bail or becomes surety for a person on an appearance bond and does so for a valuable consideration. See Alabama Code 15-13-101
  • PROFESSIONAL BONDSMAN: An individual person or agent employed by a professional surety company or professional bail company to solicit and execute appearance bonds or actively seek bail bond business for or on behalf of a professional surety company or a professional bail company. See Alabama Code 15-13-101
  • PROFESSIONAL SURETY COMPANY: An insurance company, domestic or foreign corporation, or association engaged in the business of insurance, or a surety with a bail line of insurance to which has been issued a certificate of authority or certificate of compliance by the Alabama Department of Insurance to execute appearance bonds or bail bonds in criminal cases in the State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 15-13-101
  • property: Such term shall include real, personal and mixed property and interests therein. See Alabama Code 9-6-2
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • real property: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • SHEEP OR GOAT PRODUCER: Any person residing in Alabama, any Alabama corporation, or Alabama legal business entity that owns or has a financial investment in sheep or goats located in Alabama. See Alabama Code 2-8-310
  • STANDARD OF PURITY OR QUALITY: The standard of purity and quality fixed by the State Board of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 20-1-50
  • STANDARD OF PURITY OR QUALITY: The standards of purity for food products promulgated by the State Board of Agriculture and Industries and by statutes of this state. See Alabama Code 20-1-20
  • state: A state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a province of Canada. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • street: The entire width between boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: include a mark when the person cannot write, if his name is written near the mark, and witnessed by a person who writes his own name as a witness, and include with respect to corporate securities facsimile signature placed upon any instrument or writing with intent to execute or authenticate such instrument or writing. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplier: means a person from whom a lessor buys or leases goods to be leased under a finance lease. See Alabama Code 7-2A-103
  • TAXABLE YEAR: The calendar year or the fiscal year ending during the calendar year upon the basis of which net income is computed, or a period of less than 12 months resulting from a change in accounting period as provided in Section 40-18-30. See Alabama Code 40-18-1
  • taxpayer: Any person subject to a tax imposed by this chapter, or whose income is, in whole or in part, subject to a tax imposed by this chapter. See Alabama Code 40-18-1
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • TRANSIENT BUSINESS: Any business conducted for the sale of merchandise or services that is carried on in any building, structure, motor vehicle, railroad car, or real property for a period of less than six months in each year. See Alabama Code 34-35-1
  • TRANSIENT MERCHANT: Any person that transacts transient business in this state either in one locality or by traveling from place to place in this state. See Alabama Code 34-35-1
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • trust: Any entity which is a trust for federal income tax purposes. See Alabama Code 40-18-1
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • vehicle: Every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices moved by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks or electric personal assistive mobility devices; provided, that for the purposes of this title, a bicycle or a ridden animal shall be deemed a vehicle, except those provisions of this title, which by their very nature can have no application. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes typewriting and printing on paper. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • year: means a calendar year; but, whenever the word "year" is used in reference to any appropriations for the payment of money out of the treasury, it shall mean fiscal year. See Alabama Code 1-1-1