Article 1 General Provisions 35-12-1 – 35-12-6
Article 2 Uniform Disposition of Unclaimed Property Act 35-12-20 – 35-12-96

Terms Used In Alabama Code > Title 35 > Chapter 12

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • airport: Any area of land or water designed and set aside for the landing and taking-off of aircraft and utilized or to be utilized in the interest of the public for such purposes. See Alabama Code 4-6-2
  • AIRPORT HAZARD: Any structure or tree or use of land which obstructs the airspace required for the flight of aircraft in landing or taking-off at any airport or is otherwise hazardous to such landing or taking-off of aircraft. See Alabama Code 4-6-2
  • AIRPORT HAZARD AREA: Any area of land or water upon which an airport hazard might be established if not prevented as provided in this chapter. See Alabama Code 4-6-2
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • APPARENT OWNER: A person whose name appears on the records of a holder as the person entitled to property held, issued, or owing by the holder. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • association: as used in this article , shall refer to agricultural cooperative marketing associations and other organizations, whether incorporated or not, which have for their objects engaging in activities similar to those of a cooperative marketing association. See Alabama Code 2-10-20
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequeath: To gift property by will.
  • Business: includes every trade, occupation, and profession for profit. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • BUSINESS ASSOCIATION: A corporation, joint stock company, investment company, partnership, unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, business trust, trust company, safe deposit company, financial organization, insurance company, mutual fund, utility, or other business entity consisting of one or more persons, whether or not for profit. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • Commercial or nongame fish: as used in this article shall be limited to those freshwater fish designated as such by the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and all species of saltwater fish. See Alabama Code 9-11-170
  • commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-1-1
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Constituent organization: means an organization that is party to a merger under this article. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01
  • Constituent partnership: means a constituent organization that is a partnership. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • contribution: A tangible or intangible benefit that a person transfers to an entity in consideration for an ownership interest in the entity or otherwise in the person's capacity as an owner or a member. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • CONVERTED ENTITY: An entity resulting from a conversion. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Converted organization: means the organization into which a converting organization converts pursuant to this article. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01
  • CONVERTING ENTITY: An entity as the entity existed before the entity's conversion. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Converting organization: means an organization that converts into another organization pursuant to this article. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01
  • Converting partnership: means a converting organization that is a partnership. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01
  • cooperative: A cooperative marketing association for marketing of farm products. See Alabama Code 2-1-1
  • corporation: Includes a domestic or foreign business corporation as defined in Chapter 2 or Chapter 2A, as applicable, a domestic or foreign nonprofit corporation as defined in Chapter 3, a domestic or foreign professional corporation as defined in Chapter 4, and those entities specified in Chapter 20 as corporate. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: The Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency acting directly or through its duly authorized officers and agents. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: The Secretary of the Alabama State Law Enforcement Agency. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Disqualified person: means any person who is not a qualified person. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • domestic: With respect to an entity, that the entity is formed and exists pursuant to this title. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • DOMESTIC INSURER: Any insurer domiciled in this state. See Alabama Code 27-2B-2
  • domicile: The state of incorporation of a corporation and the state of the principal place of business of a holder other than a corporation. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • entity: A domestic entity or foreign entity. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • FILING ENTITY: A domestic entity that is a corporation, limited partnership, limited liability limited partnership, limited liability company, professional association, employee cooperative corporation, or real estate investment trust. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • FILING INSTRUMENT: An instrument, document, or statement that is required or permitted by this title to be delivered for filing by or for an entity to a filing officer. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Finance charge: The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. Source: OCC
  • FINANCIAL ORGANIZATION: A savings and loan association, building and loan association, industrial loan organization, credit union, cooperative bank, bank, or banking organization. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • foreign: With respect to an entity, that the entity is formed and existing under the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • FOREIGN ENTITY: An organization formed and existing under the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • FOREIGN FILING ENTITY: A foreign entity that registers or is required to register as a foreign entity under Article 7. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • FOREIGN INSURER: Any insurer which is licensed to do business in this state but not domiciled in this state. See Alabama Code 27-2B-2
  • Foreign limited liability partnership: means a foreign partnership whose partners have limited liability for the debts, obligations, or other liabilities of the foreign partnership under a provision similar to Section 10A-8A-3. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • FOREIGN LIMITED PARTNERSHIP: A foreign limited partnership as defined in Chapter 9A. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Foreign partnership: means a partnership governed by the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state which would be a partnership if governed by the laws of this state. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • holder: A person in possession of property belonging to another, or who is a trustee in case of a trust, obligated to hold for the account of, or deliver to, or pay to, the owner or apparent owner as applicable, property that is subject to this article. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • individual: A natural person and the estate of an incompetent or deceased natural person. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • INSURANCE COMPANY: An association, corporation, or fraternal or mutual benefit organization, whether or not for profit, engaged in the business of providing life endowments, annuities, or insurance, including, but not limited to, accidental, burial, casualty, credit life, contract performance, dental, disability, fidelity, fire, health, hospitalization, illness, life, malpractice, marine, mortgage, surety, wage protection, and workers' compensation insurance. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • insurer: As defined in Section 27-1-2, including, without limitation, any fraternal benefit society and any health organization. See Alabama Code 27-2B-2
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • JUDGE OF PROBATE: The judge of probate of the county in which a domestic entity is required or permitted to deliver a filing instrument for filing pursuant to this title. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • juries: include courts or judges in all cases when a jury trial is waived, or when the court or judge is authorized to ascertain and determine the facts as well as the law. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • LICENSING AUTHORITY: The state court, state regulatory licensing board, or other like agency which has the power to issue a license or other legal authorization to render professional services. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • LIMITED LIABILITY LIMITED PARTNERSHIP: A limited liability limited partnership as defined in Chapter 9A. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIP: A limited liability partnership as defined in Chapter 8A. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • LIMITED PARTNERSHIP: A limited partnership as defined in Chapter 9A. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • merger: The combination of one or more domestic entities with one or more domestic entities or non-code organizations resulting in:

    (A) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations;

    (B) the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations, or one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations; or

    (C) one or more surviving domestic entities or non-code organizations and the creation of one or more new domestic entities or non-code organizations. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03

  • mineral: Gas; oil; coal; other gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbons; oil shale; cement material; sand and gravel; road material; building stone; chemical raw material; gemstone; fissionable and nonfissionable ores; colloidal and other clay; steam and other geothermal resource; or any other substance defined as a mineral by the law of this state. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • MINERAL PROCEEDS: Amounts payable for the extraction, production, or sale of minerals, or, upon the abandonment of those payments, all payments that become payable thereafter. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • MOTOR VEHICLE: Every vehicle which is self-propelled and every vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails, except for electric personal assistive mobility devices. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • municipality: Any county, city, town or incorporated village of the State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 4-4-1
  • NONPROFIT CORPORATION: A domestic or foreign nonprofit corporation as defined in Chapter 3. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Not for profit activity: includes every undertaking not for profit. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • oath: includes affirmation. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • officer: The term includes every person authorized to enforce the game and fish laws of this state, and whenever the possession, use, importation, transportation, storage, sale, offering, or exposing for sale of game birds, animals, or fish is prohibited or restricted, the prohibition or restriction shall extend to and include every part of the game, bird, animal, or fish, and a violation as to each animal, bird, or fish, or part thereof, shall be a separate offense. See Alabama Code 9-11-1
  • Open-end credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or revolving credit.) Source: OCC
  • organization: A corporation, limited partnership, general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, joint venture, joint stock company, cooperative, association, bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, or other organization, regardless of whether the organization is for profit, not for profit, nonprofit, domestic, or foreign. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Organization: means a partnership, including a limited liability partnership; limited partnership, including a limited liability limited partnership; limited liability company; business trust; corporation; nonprofit corporation; professional corporation; or any other person having a governing statute. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01
  • Organizational documents: means :

    (A)(i) for a partnership, its partnership agreement and, if applicable, its statement of partnership, statement of not for profit partnership, or statement of limited liability partnership; and (ii) for a foreign partnership, its partnership agreement and, if applicable, its statement of foreign limited liability partnership;

    (B) for a limited partnership or foreign limited partnership, its certificate of formation and partnership agreement, or comparable writings as provided in its governing statute;

    (C) for a limited liability company or foreign limited liability company, its certificate of formation and limited liability company agreement, or comparable writings as provided in its governing statute;

    (D) for a business or statutory trust or foreign business or statutory trust its agreement of trust and declaration of trust, or comparable writings as provided in its governing statute;

    (E) for a corporation for profit or foreign corporation for profit, its certificate of formation, bylaws, and other agreements among its shareholders that are authorized by its governing statute, or comparable writings as provided in its governing statute;

    (F) for a nonprofit corporation or foreign nonprofit corporation, its certificate of formation, bylaws, and other agreements that are authorized by its governing statute, or comparable writings as provided in its governing statute;

    (G) for a professional corporation or foreign professional corporation, its certificate of formation, bylaws, and other agreements among its shareholders that are authorized by its governing statute, or comparable writings as provided in its governing statute; and

    (H) for any other organization, the basic writings that create the organization and determine its internal governance and the relations among the persons that own it, have an interest in it, or are members of it. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01

  • organizer: A person, who need not be an owner or member of the entity, who, having the capacity to contract, is authorized to execute documents in connection with the formation of the entity. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner: A person, other than a lienholder, having the property in or title to a vehicle. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • owner: A person who has a legal or equitable interest in property subject to this article or the person's legal representative. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • partner: A limited partner or general partner. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • Partner: means a person that:

    (A) has become a partner in a partnership under Section 10A-8A-4. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02

  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Partnership: means an entity that is formed under this chapter or that is governed by this chapter. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • Partnership agreement: means any agreement (whether referred to as a partnership agreement or otherwise), written, oral or implied, of the partners as to the business or not for profit activity of a partnership. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • Partnership at will: means a partnership in which the partners have not agreed to remain partners until the expiration of a definite term or the completion of a particular undertaking. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • PARTY TO THE MERGER: A domestic entity or non-code organization that under a plan of merger is combined by a merger. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • person: Any individual, firm, copartnership, corporation, company, association, joint stock association or body politic and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee or other similar representative thereof. See Alabama Code 4-6-2
  • person: An individual, a partnership, a corporation or two or more individuals having a joint or common interest. See Alabama Code 2-1-1
  • person: Every natural person, firm, copartnership, association, or corporation. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • person: An individual, business association, financial organization, estate, trust, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Person dissociated as a partner: means a person dissociated as a partner of a partnership. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • POLITICAL SUBDIVISION: Any municipality, city, town, village or county. See Alabama Code 4-6-2
  • preceding: means next before. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • PROFESSIONAL CORPORATION: A domestic or foreign professional corporation as defined in Chapter 4. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • PROFESSIONAL SERVICE: Any type of service that may lawfully be performed only pursuant to a license issued by a state court, state regulatory licensing board, or other like agency pursuant to state laws. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • property: Includes all property, whether real, personal, or mixed, or tangible or intangible, or any right or interest therein. See Alabama Code 10A-1-1.03
  • property: Tangible property held in a safe deposit box or other safekeeping depository in this state, and fixed and certain interest in intangible property that is held, issued, or owed in the course of a holder's business, or by a government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, and all income or increments therefrom. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • rbc: Risk-based capital. See Alabama Code 27-2B-2
  • real property: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • record: Information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • registration: The registration certificate or certificates and registration plates issued under the laws of this state pertaining to the registration of vehicles. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • rules: Rules necessary to carry out this article adopted pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Spearing: as used in this article shall be limited to the use of a spear or similar instrument that is held in the hand of the person using same and the use of a weapon, other than a firearm, which propels or forces a projectile, arrow or similar device therefrom to which a wire, rope, line, cord or other means of recovering the propelled projectile, arrow or similar device is attached and is secured to the weapon or to the person using the weapon. See Alabama Code 9-11-170
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 4-4-1
  • state: A state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • state: A state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a province of Canada. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Statement: means a statement of partnership under Section 10A-8A-2. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • structure: Any object constructed or installed by man including, but without limitation, buildings, towers, smokestacks and overhead transmission lines. See Alabama Code 4-6-2
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Surviving organization: means an organization into which one or more other organizations are merged under this article, whether the organization pre-existed the merger or was created pursuant to the merger. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-9.01
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transfer: means an assignment, conveyance, deed, bill of sale, lease, mortgage, security interest, encumbrance, gift, or transfer by operation of law. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • Transferable interest: means a partner's right to receive distributions from a partnership. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • Transferee: means a person to which all or part of a transferable interest has been transferred, whether or not the transferor is a partner. See Alabama Code 10A-8A-1.02
  • treasurer: The Treasurer of the State of Alabama, or the designee of the Treasurer. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • tree: Any object of natural growth. See Alabama Code 4-6-2
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
  • utility: Any person who owns or operates, for public use, any plant, equipment, real property, franchise, or license for the transmission of communications or the production, storage, transmission, sale, delivery, or furnishing of electricity, water, steam, or gas. See Alabama Code 35-12-71
  • vehicle: Every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, excepting devices moved by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks or electric personal assistive mobility devices; provided, that for the purposes of this title, a bicycle or a ridden animal shall be deemed a vehicle, except those provisions of this title, which by their very nature can have no application. See Alabama Code 32-1-1.1
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.