Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
blind person: means a natural person who has no vision or whose vision with correcting glasses is so defective as to prevent the performance of ordinary activities for which eyesight is essential, or who has central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correcting glasses, or whose central visual acuity is more than 20/200 in the better eye with correcting glasses but whose peripheral field has contracted to such an extent that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees. See Alabama Code 30-3D-610
Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
day: When used in the computation of time excludes the first day and includes the last day of the period so computed, unless the last day is a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, in which event the period runs until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday, or a legal holiday. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
Decedent: A deceased person.
Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
distributor: Any person engaged in the business of making sales of fireworks for resale to all holders of the required Alabama permits who in turn shall resell to any permit holder; or any person who receives, brings, or imports any fireworks of any kind into the State of Alabama, except to a holder of an Alabama manufacturer's or distributor's permit. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
father: A male person who is the biological father of the minor or is treated by law as the father. See Alabama Code 45-37-162.06
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
FEED DISTRIBUTOR: Any person residing in Alabama, or any Alabama corporation, or Alabama legal business entity that sells directly to a ratite producer feed of any sort that is intended for ratite consumption regardless of where the feed is manufactured. See Alabama Code 34-13-50
Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
FILING INSTRUMENT: An instrument, document, or statement that is required or authorized by this title to be filed by or for an entity with the filing officer in accordance with Article 4. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
FILING OFFICER: The officer with whom a filing instrument is required or permitted to be filed under Article 4 or under any other provision of this title. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
FIREWORKS SEASONS: The dates of June 20 through July 10 and December 15 through January 2 of each year shall be the only periods when seasonal retailers may sell fireworks. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
JUDGE OF PROBATE: The judge of probate of the county in which a domestic entity's certificate of formation is filed, or, with respect to a statement of authority under Chapter 8A, which is to be filed in the real property records of a particular county, the judge of probate of the county in which that statement is filed. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
juries: include courts or judges in all cases when a jury trial is waived, or when the court or judge is authorized to ascertain and determine the facts as well as the law. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
LICENSED CHILD PLACING AGENCY: Any adoption agency that is licensed under the provisions of the Alabama Child Care Act of 1971 or any adoption agency approved by the Department of Human Resources. See Alabama Code 45-37-162.06
Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
manufacturer: Any person engaged in the making, manufacture, or construction of fireworks of any kind within the State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
minor: A person under the age of 19 or a person who is not an adult under the law in the jurisdiction where he or she resides. See Alabama Code 45-37-162.06
Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
payee: The person or entity who claims the right to receive or collect a private transfer fee payable under a private transfer obligation. See Alabama Code 35-4-431
permit: The written authority of the State Fire Marshal issued under the authority of this article. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
person: An individual, including the estate of an incompetent or deceased individual, or an organization, whether created by the laws of this state or another state or foreign country, including, without limitation, a general partnership, limited liability partnership, limited partnership, limited liability limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation, professional corporation, professional association, trustee, personal representative, fiduciary, as defined in Section 19-3-150 or person performing in any similar capacity, business trust, estate, trust, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
person: Includes any corporation, association, copartnership or one or more individuals. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
PRIVATE TRANSFER FEE: A fee or charge payable upon the transfer of an interest in real property, or payable for the right to make or accept such transfer, regardless of whether the fee or charge is a fixed amount or is determined as a percentage of the value of the property, the purchase price, or other consideration given for the transfer. See Alabama Code 35-4-431
PRIVATE TRANSFER FEE OBLIGATION: An obligation arising under a declaration or covenant recorded against the title to real property, or under any other contractual agreement or promise, whether or not recorded, that requires or purports to require the payment of a private transfer fee upon a subsequent transfer of an interest in the real property. See Alabama Code 35-4-431
Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
Probate: Proving a will
Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
relinquishment: Giving up the physical custody of a minor for purpose of placement for adoption to a licensed child placing agency or the Department of Human Resources. See Alabama Code 45-37-162.06
Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
retailer: Any person engaged in the business of making sales of fireworks to consumers within the State of Alabama during a calendar year from January 1 through December 31. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
sale: An exchange of articles or fireworks for money, including barter, exchange, gift, or offer thereof, and each such transaction made by any person, whether as principal proprietor, salesman, agent, association, copartnership, or one or more individuals. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
SEASONAL RETAILER: Any person engaged in the business of making sales of fireworks to consumers within the State of Alabama during the fireworks season(s) only, from permanent buildings or temporary or moveable stands. See Alabama Code 34-23-50
Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
state: Includes, when referring to a part of the United States, a state or commonwealth, and its agencies and governmental subdivisions, and a territory or possession, and its agencies and governmental subdivisions, of the United States. See Alabama Code 45-26-231.06
state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the several territories of the United States. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608
Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
Testify: Answer questions in court.
transfer: The sale, gift, conveyance, assignment, inheritance, or other transfer of an ownership interest in real property located in this state. See Alabama Code 35-4-431
Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
year: means a calendar year; but, whenever the word "year" is used in reference to any appropriations for the payment of money out of the treasury, it shall mean fiscal year. See Alabama Code 30-3D-608