Every condominium created in this state shall be created pursuant to this chapter.
(1) A condominium may be created on land owned in fee simple or held under a lease complying with the provisions of s. 718.401.
(2) A condominium is created by recording a declaration in the public records of the county where the land is located, executed and acknowledged with the requirements for a deed. All persons who have record title to the interest in the land being submitted to condominium ownership, or their lawfully authorized agents, must join in the execution of the declaration. Upon the recording of the declaration, or an amendment adding a phase to the condominium under s. 718.403(6), all units described in the declaration or phase amendment as being located in or on the land then being submitted to condominium ownership shall come into existence, regardless of the state of completion of planned improvements in which the units may be located or any other requirement or description that a declaration may provide. Upon recording the declaration of condominium pursuant to this section, the developer shall file the recording information with the division within 120 calendar days on a form prescribed by the division.
(3) All persons who have any record interest in any mortgage encumbering the interest in the land being submitted to condominium ownership must either join in the execution of the declaration or execute, with the requirements for deed, and record, a consent to the declaration or an agreement subordinating their mortgage interest to the declaration.
(4) The declaration must contain or provide for the following matters:
(a) A statement submitting the property to condominium ownership.
Terms Used In Florida Statutes 718.104
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Association: means , in addition to any entity responsible for the operation of common elements owned in undivided shares by unit owners, any entity which operates or maintains other real property in which unit owners have use rights, where membership in the entity is composed exclusively of unit owners or their elected or appointed representatives and is a required condition of unit ownership. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- board: means the board of directors or other representative body which is responsible for administration of the association. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Bylaws: means the bylaws of the association as they are amended from time to time. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Common elements: means the portions of the condominium property not included in the units. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Common expenses: means all expenses properly incurred by the association in the performance of its duties, including expenses specified in…. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Common surplus: means the amount of all receipts or revenues, including assessments, rents, or profits, collected by a condominium association which exceeds common expenses. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Condominium: means that form of ownership of real property created pursuant to this chapter, which is comprised entirely of units that may be owned by one or more persons, and in which there is, appurtenant to each unit, an undivided share in common elements. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Condominium property: means the lands, leaseholds, and personal property that are subjected to condominium ownership, whether or not contiguous, and all improvements thereon and all easements and rights appurtenant thereto intended for use in connection with the condominium. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Conspicuous type: means bold type in capital letters no smaller than the largest type, exclusive of headings, on the page on which it appears and, in all cases, at least 10-point type. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- declaration of condominium: means the instrument or instruments by which a condominium is created, as they are from time to time amended. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Developer: means a person who creates a condominium or offers condominium parcels for sale or lease in the ordinary course of business, but does not include:(a) An owner or lessee of a condominium or cooperative unit who has acquired the unit for his or her own occupancy;(b) A cooperative association that creates a condominium by conversion of an existing residential cooperative after control of the association has been transferred to the unit owners if, following the conversion, the unit owners are the same persons who were unit owners of the cooperative and no units are offered for sale or lease to the public as part of the plan of conversion;(c) A bulk assignee or bulk buyer as defined in…. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Division: means the Division of Florida Condominiums, Timeshares, and Mobile Homes of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Land: means the surface of a legally described parcel of real property and includes, unless otherwise specified in the declaration and whether separate from or including such surface, airspace lying above and subterranean space lying below such surface. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- Multicondominium: means a real estate development containing two or more condominiums, all of which are operated by the same association. See Florida Statutes 718.103
- person: includes individuals, children, firms, associations, joint adventures, partnerships, estates, trusts, business trusts, syndicates, fiduciaries, corporations, and all other groups or combinations. See Florida Statutes 1.01
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Unit: means a part of the condominium property which is subject to exclusive ownership. See Florida Statutes 718.103(b) The name by which the condominium property is to be identified, which shall include the word “condominium” or be followed by the words “a condominium.”(c) The legal description of the land and, if a leasehold estate is submitted to condominium, an identification of the lease.(d) An identification of each unit by letter, name, or number, or combination thereof, so that no unit bears the same designation as any other unit.(e) A survey of the land which meets the standards of practice established by the Board of Professional Surveyors and Mappers, pursuant to s. 472.027, and a graphic description of the improvements in which units are located and a plot plan thereof that, together with the declaration, are in sufficient detail to identify the common elements and each unit and their relative locations and approximate dimensions. Failure of the survey to meet the standards of practice does not invalidate an otherwise validly created condominium. The survey, graphic description, and plot plan may be in the form of exhibits consisting of building plans, floor plans, maps, surveys, or sketches. If the construction of the condominium is not substantially completed, there shall be a statement to that effect, and, upon substantial completion of construction, the developer or the association shall amend the declaration to include the certificate described below. The amendment may be accomplished by referring to the recording data of a survey of the condominium that complies with the certificate. A certificate of a surveyor and mapper authorized to practice in this state shall be included in or attached to the declaration or the survey or graphic description as recorded under s. 718.105 that the construction of the improvements is substantially complete so that the material, together with the provisions of the declaration describing the condominium property, is an accurate representation of the location and dimensions of the improvements and so that the identification, location, and dimensions of the common elements and of each unit can be determined from these materials. Completed units within each substantially completed building in a condominium development may be conveyed to purchasers, notwithstanding that other buildings in the condominium are not substantially completed, provided that all planned improvements, including, but not limited to, landscaping, utility services and access to the unit, and common-element facilities serving such building, as set forth in the declaration, are first completed and the declaration of condominium is first recorded and provided that as to the units being conveyed there is a certificate of a surveyor and mapper as required above, including certification that all planned improvements, including, but not limited to, landscaping, utility services and access to the unit, and common-element facilities serving the building in which the units to be conveyed are located have been substantially completed, and such certificate is recorded with the original declaration or as an amendment to such declaration. This section does not, however, operate to require development of improvements and amenities declared to be included in future phases pursuant to s. 718.403 before conveying a unit as provided in this paragraph. For the purposes of this section, a “certificate of a surveyor and mapper” means certification by a surveyor and mapper in the form provided in this paragraph and may include, along with certification by a surveyor and mapper, when appropriate, certification by an architect or engineer authorized to practice in this state. Notwithstanding the requirements of substantial completion provided in this section, this paragraph does not prohibit or impair the validity of a mortgage encumbering units together with an undivided interest in the common elements as described in a declaration of condominium recorded before the recording of a certificate of a surveyor and mapper as provided in this paragraph.(f) The undivided share of ownership of the common elements and common surplus of the condominium that is appurtenant to each unit stated as a percentage or a fraction of the whole. In the declaration of condominium for residential condominiums created after April 1, 1992, the ownership share of the common elements assigned to each residential unit shall be based either upon the total square footage of each residential unit in uniform relationship to the total square footage of each other residential unit in the condominium or on an equal fractional basis.(g) The percentage or fractional shares of liability for common expenses of the condominium, which, for all residential units, must be the same as the undivided shares of ownership of the common elements and common surplus appurtenant to each unit as provided for in paragraph (f).(h) If a developer reserves the right, in a declaration recorded on or after July 1, 2000, to create a multicondominium, the declaration must state, or provide a specific formula for determining, the fractional or percentage shares of liability for the common expenses of the association and of ownership of the common surplus of the association to be allocated to the units in each condominium to be operated by the association. If a declaration recorded on or after July 1, 2000, for a condominium operated by a multicondominium association as originally recorded fails to so provide, the share of liability for the common expenses of the association and of ownership of the common surplus of the association allocated to each unit in each condominium operated by the association shall be a fraction of the whole, the numerator of which is the number “one” and the denominator of which is the total number of units in all condominiums operated by the association.(i) The name of the association, which must be a corporation for profit or a corporation not for profit.(j) Unit owners’ membership and voting rights in the association.(k) The document or documents creating the association, which may be attached as an exhibit.(l) A copy of the bylaws, which shall be attached as an exhibit. Defects or omissions in the bylaws shall not affect the validity of the condominium or title to the condominium parcels.(m) Other desired provisions not inconsistent with this chapter.(n) The creation of a nonexclusive easement for ingress and egress over streets, walks, and other rights-of-way serving the units of a condominium, as part of the common elements necessary to provide reasonable access to the public ways, or a dedication of the streets, walks, and other rights-of-way to the public. All easements for ingress and egress shall not be encumbered by any leasehold or lien other than those on the condominium parcels, unless:1. Any such lien is subordinate to the rights of unit owners, or2. The holder of any encumbrance or leasehold of any easement has executed and recorded an agreement that the use-rights of each unit owner will not be terminated as long as the unit owner has not been evicted because of a default under the encumbrance or lease, and the use-rights of any mortgagee of a unit who has acquired title to a unit may not be terminated.(o) If timeshare estates will or may be created with respect to any unit in the condominium, a statement in conspicuous type declaring that timeshare estates will or may be created with respect to units in the condominium. In addition, the degree, quantity, nature, and extent of the timeshare estates that will or may be created shall be defined and described in detail in the declaration, with a specific statement as to the minimum duration of the recurring periods of rights of use, possession, or occupancy that may be created with respect to any unit.
(5) The declaration as originally recorded or as amended under the procedures provided therein may include covenants and restrictions concerning the use, occupancy, and transfer of the units permitted by law with reference to real property. However, the rule against perpetuities shall not defeat a right given any person or entity by the declaration for the purpose of allowing unit owners to retain reasonable control over the use, occupancy, and transfer of units.
(6) A person who joins in, or consents to the execution of, a declaration subjects his or her interest in the condominium property to the provisions of the declaration.
(7) All provisions of the declaration are enforceable equitable servitudes, run with the land, and are effective until the condominium is terminated.