Terms Used In Indiana Code > Title 35 > Article 37
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Attorney: includes a counselor or other person authorized to appear and represent a party in an action or special proceeding. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
- Charge to the jury: The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
- Clerk: means the clerk of the court or a person authorized to perform the clerk's duties. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- confidential communication: means any information:
Indiana Code 35-37-6-1
- confidential information: includes :
Indiana Code 35-37-6-1.5
- Criminal justice: includes activities concerning:
Indiana Code 5-2-6-1
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
- Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
- in writing: include printing, lithographing, or other mode of representing words and letters. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- Institute: means the Indiana criminal justice institute. See Indiana Code 5-2-6-1
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Mentally incompetent: means of unsound mind. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- Oath: includes "affirmation" and "to swear" includes to "affirm". See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- personally identifying information: means information that identifies a victim or the location where domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking occurred, including the victim's:
Indiana Code 35-37-6-2.5
- polygraph: means a device that permanently and simultaneously records, at a minimum, an individual's:
Indiana Code 35-37-4.5-1
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Property: includes personal and real property. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
- Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Sheriff: means the sheriff of the county or another person authorized to perform sheriff's duties. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- State: includes any territory of the United States and the District of Columbia. See Indiana Code 35-37-5-1
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- student advocate office: means a student services office, victim assistance office, or other victim counselor as designated by a state educational institution or an approved postsecondary educational institution. See Indiana Code 35-37-6-2.7
- Subpoena: includes a summons in any state where a summons is used in lieu of a subpoena. See Indiana Code 35-37-5-1
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
- United States: includes the District of Columbia and the commonwealths, possessions, states in free association with the United States, and the territories. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- victim: means :
Indiana Code 35-37-6-3
- victim advocate: means an individual employed or appointed by or who volunteers for:
Indiana Code 35-37-6-3.5
- Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
- victim service provider: means a person:
Indiana Code 35-37-6-5
- Witness: shall include a person whose testimony is desired in any proceeding or investigation by a grand jury or in a criminal action, prosecution, or proceeding. See Indiana Code 35-37-5-1
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- Year: means a calendar year, unless otherwise expressed. See Indiana Code 1-1-4-5