(1) As used in this article:

(a) “Accession” means goods that are physically united with other goods in such a manner that the identity of the original goods is not lost.

Terms Used In Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Account debtor: means a person obligated on an account, chattel paper, or general intangible. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Agricultural lien: means an interest, other than a security interest, in farm products that meets all of the following requirements:

    (i) The interest secures payment or performance of an obligation for 1 or more of the following:

    (A) Goods or services furnished in connection with a debtor's farming operation. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bank: means an organization that is engaged in the business of banking. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Cash proceeds: means proceeds that are money, checks, deposit accounts, or the like. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Certificate of title: means a certificate of title with respect to which a statute provides for the security interest in question to be indicated on the certificate as a condition or result of the security interest's obtaining priority over the rights of a lien creditor with respect to the collateral. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Chattel paper: means a record or records that evidence both a monetary obligation and a security interest in specific goods, a security interest in specific goods and software used in the goods, a security interest in specific goods and license of software used in the goods, a lease of specific goods, or a lease of specific goods and license of software used in the goods. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Collateral: means the property subject to a security interest or agricultural lien. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Commodity account: means an account maintained by a commodity intermediary in which a commodity contract is carried for a commodity customer. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Commodity contract: means a commodity futures contract, an option on a commodity futures contract, a commodity option, or another contract if the contract or option is 1 of the following:

    (i) Traded on or subject to the rules of a board of trade that has been designated as a contract market for such a contract pursuant to federal commodities laws. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Commodity customer: means a person for which a commodity intermediary carries a commodity contract on its books. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Commodity intermediary: means 1 of the following:

    (i) A person that is registered as a futures commission merchant under federal commodities law. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Consignee: means a merchant to which goods are delivered in a consignment. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Consignment: means a transaction, regardless of its form, in which a person delivers goods to a merchant for the purpose of sale and that meets all of the following:

    (i) The merchant deals in goods of that kind under a name other than the name of the person making delivery, is not an auctioneer, and is not generally known by its creditors to be substantially engaged in selling the goods of others. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Consignor: means a person that delivers goods to a consignee in a consignment. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Consumer: means an individual who enters into a transaction primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Consumer goods: means goods that are used or bought for use primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Consumer transaction: means a transaction in which an individual incurs an obligation primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, a security interest secures the obligation, and the collateral is held or acquired primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Continuation statement: means an amendment of a financing statement which identifies, by its file number, the initial financing statement to which it relates and indicates that it is a continuation statement for, or that it is filed to continue the effectiveness of, the identified financing statement. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Creditor: includes a general creditor, a secured creditor, a lien creditor, and any representative of creditors, including an assignee for the benefit of creditors, a trustee in bankruptcy, a receiver in equity, and an executor or administrator of an insolvent debtor's or assignor's estate. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Debtor: means 1 of the following:

    (i) A person having an interest, other than a security interest or other lien, in the collateral, whether or not the person is an obligor. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Delivery: means either of the following:

    (i) With respect to an electronic document of title, a voluntary transfer of control. See Michigan Laws 440.1201

  • Document: means a document of title or a receipt of the type described in section 7201(2). See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Document of title: means a record that in the regular course of business or financing is treated as adequately evidencing that the person in possession or control of the record is entitled to receive, control, hold, and dispose of the record and the goods the record covers and that purports to be issued by or addressed to a bailee and to cover goods in the bailee's possession which are either identified or are fungible portions of an identified mass. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Farm products: means goods, other than standing timber, with respect to which the debtor is engaged in a farming operation and which are 1 of the following:

    (i) Crops grown, growing, or to be grown, including crops produced on trees, vines, and bushes, and aquatic goods produced in aquacultural operations. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Farming operation: means raising, cultivating, propagating, fattening, grazing, or any other farming, livestock, or aquacultural operation. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • File number: means the number assigned to an initial financing statement pursuant to section 9519(1). See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Filing office: means an office designated in section 9501 as the place to file a financing statement. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Filing-office rule: means a rule adopted pursuant to section 9526. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Financing statement: means a record or records composed of an initial financing statement and any filed record relating to the initial financing statement. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Fixtures: means goods that have become so related to particular real property that an interest in them arises under real property law. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • General intangible: means any personal property, including things in action, other than accounts, chattel paper, commercial tort claims, deposit accounts, documents, goods, instruments, investment property, letter-of-credit rights, letters of credit, money, and oil, gas, or other minerals before extraction. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Goods: means all things that are movable when a security interest attaches. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Governmental unit: means a subdivision, agency, department, county, parish, municipality, or other unit of the government of the United States, a state, or a foreign country. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Health-care-insurance receivable: means an interest in or claim under a policy of insurance which is a right to payment of a monetary obligation for health-care goods or services provided. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • in writing: shall be construed to include printing, engraving, and lithographing; except that if the written signature of a person is required by law, the signature shall be the proper handwriting of the person or, if the person is unable to write, the person's proper mark, which may be, unless otherwise expressly prohibited by law, a clear and classifiable fingerprint of the person made with ink or another substance. See Michigan Laws 8.3q
  • Instrument: means a negotiable instrument or any other writing that evidences a right to the payment of a monetary obligation, is not itself a security agreement or lease, and is of a type that in ordinary course of business is transferred by delivery with any necessary indorsement or assignment. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Inventory: means goods, other than farm products, that meet 1 of the following:

    (i) Are leased by a person as lessor. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Investment property: means a security, whether certificated or uncertificated, security entitlement, securities account, commodity contract, or commodity account. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Letter-of-credit right: means a right to payment or performance under a letter of credit, whether or not the beneficiary has demanded or is at the time entitled to demand payment or performance. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Lien creditor: means 1 or more of the following:

    (i) A creditor that has acquired a lien on the property involved by attachment, levy, or the like. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Manufactured home: means a structure, transportable in 1 or more sections, which, in the traveling mode, is 8 body feet or more in width or 40 body feet or more in length, or when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Manufactured-home transaction: means a secured transaction that creates a purchase-money security interest in a manufactured home, other than a manufactured home held as inventory, or in which a manufactured home, other than a manufactured home held as inventory, is the primary collateral. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • monetary obligation: means a monetary obligation secured by the goods or owed under a lease of the goods and includes a monetary obligation with respect to software used in the goods. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Money: means a medium of exchange authorized or adopted by a domestic or foreign government. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Mortgage: means a consensual interest in real property, including fixtures, which secures payment or performance of an obligation. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • New debtor: means a person that becomes bound as debtor under section 9203(4) by a security agreement previously entered into by another person. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • New value: means money, money's worth in property, services, or new credit, or release by a transferee of an interest in property previously transferred to the transferee. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Noncash proceeds: means proceeds other than cash proceeds. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Obligor: means a person that, with respect to an obligation secured by a security interest in or an agricultural lien on the collateral, owes payment or other performance of the obligation, has provided property other than the collateral to secure payment or other performance of the obligation, or is otherwise accountable in whole or in part for payment or other performance of the obligation. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Organization: means a person other than an individual. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Original debtor: means , except as used in section 9310(3), a person that, as debtor, entered into a security agreement to which a new debtor has become bound under section 9203(4). See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Payment intangible: means a general intangible under which the account debtor's principal obligation is a monetary obligation. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Proceeds: means , except as used in section 9609(2), 1 or more of the following property:

    (i) Whatever is acquired upon the sale, lease, license, exchange, or other disposition of collateral. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Promissory note: means an instrument that evidences a promise to pay a monetary obligation, does not evidence an order to pay, and does not contain an acknowledgment by a bank that the bank has received for deposit a sum of money or funds. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Proposal: means a record authenticated by a secured party which includes the terms on which the secured party is willing to accept collateral in full or partial satisfaction of the obligation it secures pursuant to sections 9620, 9621, and 9622. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Public organic record: means a record that is available to the public for inspection and is any of the following:

    (i) A record consisting of the record initially filed with or issued by a state or the United States to form or organize an organization and any record filed with or issued by the state or the United States which amends or restates the initial record. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • record owner: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or which is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Registered organization: means an organization organized solely under the law of a single state or the United States by the filing of a public organic record with, the issuance of a public organic record by, or the enactment of legislation by the state or the United States. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Representative: means a person empowered to act for another, including an agent, an officer of a corporation or association, and a trustee, executor, or administrator of an estate. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Right: includes remedy. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Secondary obligor: means an obligor to the extent that the obligor's obligation is secondary or the obligor has a right of recourse with respect to an obligation secured by collateral against the debtor, another obligor, or property of either. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Secured party: means 1 or more of the following:

    (i) A person in whose favor a security interest is created or provided for under a security agreement, whether or not any obligation to be secured is outstanding. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Security agreement: means an agreement that creates or provides for a security interest. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Security interest: means an interest in personal property or fixtures which secures payment or performance of an obligation. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Software: means a computer program and any supporting information provided in connection with a transaction relating to the program. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • State: means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Supporting obligation: means a letter-of-credit right or secondary obligation that supports the payment or performance of an account, chattel paper, a document, a general intangible, an instrument, or investment property. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Tangible chattel paper: means chattel paper evidenced by a record or records consisting of information that is inscribed on a tangible medium. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Term: means a portion of an agreement that relates to a particular matter. See Michigan Laws 440.1201
  • Termination statement: means an amendment of a financing statement that identifies, by its file number, the initial financing statement to which it relates and indicates either that it is a termination statement or that the identified financing statement is no longer effective. See Michigan Laws 440.9102
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transmitting utility: means a person primarily engaged in the business of 1 of the following:

    (i) Operating a railroad, subway, street railway, or trolley bus. See Michigan Laws 440.9102

  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: shall be construed to include the district and territories. See Michigan Laws 8.3o
  • writing: includes printing, typewriting, or any other intentional reduction to tangible form. See Michigan Laws 440.1201

(b) “Account”, except as used in “account for”, means a right to payment of a monetary obligation, whether or not earned by performance, for property that has been or is to be sold, leased, licensed, assigned, or otherwise disposed of, for services rendered or to be rendered, for a policy of insurance issued or to be issued, for a secondary obligation incurred or to be incurred, for energy provided or to be provided, for the use or hire of a vessel under a charter or other contract, arising out of the use of a credit or charge card or information contained on or for use with the card, or as winnings in a lottery or other game of chance operated or sponsored by a state, governmental unit of a state, or person licensed or authorized to operate the game by a state or governmental unit of a state. The term includes health-care-insurance receivables. The term does not include rights to payment evidenced by chattel paper or an instrument, commercial tort claims, deposit accounts, investment property, letter-of-credit rights or letters of credit, or rights to payment for money or funds advanced or sold, other than rights arising out of the use of a credit or charge card or information contained on or for use with the card.

(c) “Account debtor” means a person obligated on an account, chattel paper, or general intangible. The term does not include persons obligated to pay a negotiable instrument, even if the instrument constitutes part of chattel paper.

(d) “Accounting”, except as used in “accounting for”, means a record that meets all of the following requirements:

(i) Authenticated by a secured party.

(ii) Indicating the aggregate unpaid secured obligations as of a date not more than 35 days earlier or 35 days later than the date of the record.

(iii) Identifying the components of the obligations in reasonable detail.

(e) “Agricultural lien” means an interest, other than a security interest, in farm products that meets all of the following requirements:

(i) The interest secures payment or performance of an obligation for 1 or more of the following:

(A) Goods or services furnished in connection with a debtor‘s farming operation.

(B) Rent on real property leased by a debtor in connection with its farming operation.

(ii) The interest is created by statute in favor of a person that did 1 or more of the following:

(A) In the ordinary course of its business furnished goods or services to a debtor in connection with a debtor’s farming operation.

(B) Leased real property to a debtor in connection with the debtor’s farming operation.

(iii) The effectiveness of the interest does not depend on the person’s possession of the personal property.

(f) “As-extracted collateral” means 1 or more of the following:

(i) Oil, gas, or other minerals that are subject to a security interest that is created by a debtor having an interest in the minerals before extraction and attaches to the minerals as extracted.

(ii) Accounts arising out of the sale at the wellhead or minehead of oil, gas, or other minerals in which the debtor had an interest before extraction.

(g) “Authenticate” means either of the following:

(i) To sign.

(ii) With present intent to adopt or accept a record, to attach to or logically associate with the record an electronic sound, symbol, or process.

(h) “Bank” means an organization that is engaged in the business of banking. The term includes savings banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and trust companies.

(i) “Cash proceeds” means proceeds that are money, checks, deposit accounts, or the like.

(j) “Certificate of title” means a certificate of title with respect to which a statute provides for the security interest in question to be indicated on the certificate as a condition or result of the security interest’s obtaining priority over the rights of a lien creditor with respect to the collateral. The term includes another record maintained as an alternative to a certificate of title by the governmental unit that issues certificates of title if a statute permits the security interest in question to be indicated on the record as a condition or result of the security interest’s obtaining priority over the rights of a lien creditor with respect to the collateral.

(k) “Chattel paper” means a record or records that evidence both a monetary obligation and a security interest in specific goods, a security interest in specific goods and software used in the goods, a security interest in specific goods and license of software used in the goods, a lease of specific goods, or a lease of specific goods and license of software used in the goods. As used in this subdivision, “monetary obligation” means a monetary obligation secured by the goods or owed under a lease of the goods and includes a monetary obligation with respect to software used in the goods. The term does not include charters or other contracts involving the use or hire of a vessel, or records that evidence a right to payment arising out of the use of a credit or charge card or information contained on or for use with the card. If a transaction is evidenced by records that include an instrument or series of instruments, the group of records taken together constitutes chattel paper.

(l) “Collateral” means the property subject to a security interest or agricultural lien. The term includes 1 or more of the following:

(i) Proceeds to which a security interest attaches.

(ii) Accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, and promissory notes that have been sold.

(iii) Goods that are the subject of a consignment.

(m) “Commercial tort claim” means a claim arising in tort with respect to which of the following applies:

(i) The claimant is an organization.

(ii) The claimant is an individual and the claim arose in the course of the claimant’s business or profession and does not include damages arising out of personal injury to or the death of an individual.

(n) “Commodity account” means an account maintained by a commodity intermediary in which a commodity contract is carried for a commodity customer.

(o) “Commodity contract” means a commodity futures contract, an option on a commodity futures contract, a commodity option, or another contract if the contract or option is 1 of the following:

(i) Traded on or subject to the rules of a board of trade that has been designated as a contract market for such a contract pursuant to federal commodities laws.

(ii) Traded on a foreign commodity board of trade, exchange, or market, and is carried on the books of a commodity intermediary for a commodity customer.

(p) “Commodity customer” means a person for which a commodity intermediary carries a commodity contract on its books.

(q) “Commodity intermediary” means 1 of the following:

(i) A person that is registered as a futures commission merchant under federal commodities law.

(ii) A person that in the ordinary course of its business provides clearance or settlement services for a board of trade that has been designated as a contract market pursuant to federal commodities law.

(r) “Communicate” means 1 or more of the following:

(i) To send a written or other tangible record.

(ii) To transmit a record by any means agreed upon by the persons sending and receiving the record.

(iii) In the case of transmission of a record to or by a filing office, to transmit a record by any means prescribed by filing-office rule.

(s) “Consignee” means a merchant to which goods are delivered in a consignment.

(t) “Consignment” means a transaction, regardless of its form, in which a person delivers goods to a merchant for the purpose of sale and that meets all of the following:

(i) The merchant deals in goods of that kind under a name other than the name of the person making delivery, is not an auctioneer, and is not generally known by its creditors to be substantially engaged in selling the goods of others.

(ii) With respect to each delivery, the aggregate value of the goods is $1,000.00 or more at the time of delivery.

(iii) The goods are not consumer goods immediately before delivery.

(iv) The transaction does not create a security interest that secures an obligation.

(u) “Consignor” means a person that delivers goods to a consignee in a consignment.

(v) “Consumer debtor” means a debtor in a consumer transaction.

(w) “Consumer goods” means goods that are used or bought for use primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.

(x) “Consumer-goods transaction” means a consumer transaction in which an individual incurs an obligation primarily for personal, family, or household purposes and a security interest in consumer goods secures the obligation.

(y) “Consumer obligor” means an obligor who is an individual and who incurred the obligation as part of a transaction entered into primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.

(z) “Consumer transaction” means a transaction in which an individual incurs an obligation primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, a security interest secures the obligation, and the collateral is held or acquired primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. The term includes consumer-goods transactions.

(aa) “Continuation statement” means an amendment of a financing statement which identifies, by its file number, the initial financing statement to which it relates and indicates that it is a continuation statement for, or that it is filed to continue the effectiveness of, the identified financing statement.

(bb) “Debtor” means 1 of the following:

(i) A person having an interest, other than a security interest or other lien, in the collateral, whether or not the person is an obligor.

(ii) A seller of accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes.

(iii) A consignee.

(cc) “Deposit account” means a demand, time, savings, passbook, or similar account maintained with a bank. The term does not include investment property or accounts evidenced by an instrument.

(dd) “Document” means a document of title or a receipt of the type described in section 7201(2).

(ee) “Electronic chattel paper” means chattel paper evidenced by a record or records consisting of information stored in an electronic medium.

(ff) “Encumbrance” means a right, other than an ownership interest, in real property. The term includes mortgages and other liens on real property.

(gg) “Equipment” means goods other than inventory, farm products, or consumer goods.

(hh) “Farm products” means goods, other than standing timber, with respect to which the debtor is engaged in a farming operation and which are 1 of the following:

(i) Crops grown, growing, or to be grown, including crops produced on trees, vines, and bushes, and aquatic goods produced in aquacultural operations.

(ii) Livestock, born or unborn, including aquatic goods produced in aquacultural operations.

(iii) Supplies used or produced in a farming operation.

(iv) Products of crops or livestock in their unmanufactured states.

(ii) “Farming operation” means raising, cultivating, propagating, fattening, grazing, or any other farming, livestock, or aquacultural operation.

(jj) “File number” means the number assigned to an initial financing statement pursuant to section 9519(1).

(kk) “Filing office” means an office designated in section 9501 as the place to file a financing statement.

(ll) “Filing-office rule” means a rule adopted pursuant to section 9526.

(mm) “Financing statement” means a record or records composed of an initial financing statement and any filed record relating to the initial financing statement.

(nn) “Fixture filing” means the filing of a financing statement covering goods that are or are to become fixtures and satisfying section 9502(1) and (2). The term includes the filing of a financing statement covering goods of a transmitting utility which are or are to become fixtures.

(oo) “Fixtures” means goods that have become so related to particular real property that an interest in them arises under real property law.

(pp) “General intangible” means any personal property, including things in action, other than accounts, chattel paper, commercial tort claims, deposit accounts, documents, goods, instruments, investment property, letter-of-credit rights, letters of credit, money, and oil, gas, or other minerals before extraction. The term includes payment intangibles and software.

(qq) “Goods” means all things that are movable when a security interest attaches. The term includes fixtures, standing timber that is to be cut and removed under a conveyance or contract for sale, the unborn young of animals, crops grown, growing, or to be grown, even if the crops are produced on trees, vines, or bushes, and manufactured homes. The term also includes a computer program embedded in goods and any supporting information provided in connection with a transaction relating to the program if the program is associated with the goods in such a manner that it customarily is considered part of the goods, or by becoming the owner of the goods, a person acquires a right to use the program in connection with the goods. The term does not include a computer program embedded in goods that consist solely of the medium in which the program is embedded. The term also does not include accounts, chattel paper, commercial tort claims, deposit accounts, documents, general intangibles, instruments, investment property, letter-of-credit rights, letters of credit, money, or oil, gas, or other minerals before extraction.

(rr) “Governmental unit” means a subdivision, agency, department, county, parish, municipality, or other unit of the government of the United States, a state, or a foreign country. The term includes an organization having a separate corporate existence if the organization is eligible to issue debt on which interest is exempt from income taxation under the laws of the United States.

(ss) “Health-care-insurance receivable” means an interest in or claim under a policy of insurance which is a right to payment of a monetary obligation for health-care goods or services provided.

(tt) “Instrument” means a negotiable instrument or any other writing that evidences a right to the payment of a monetary obligation, is not itself a security agreement or lease, and is of a type that in ordinary course of business is transferred by delivery with any necessary indorsement or assignment. The term does not include investment property, letters of credit, or writings that evidence a right to payment arising out of the use of a credit or charge card or information contained on or for use with the card.

(uu) “Inventory” means goods, other than farm products, that meet 1 of the following:

(i) Are leased by a person as lessor.

(ii) Are held by a person for sale or lease or to be furnished under a contract of service.

(iii) Are furnished by a person under a contract of service.

(iv) Consist of raw materials, work in process, or materials used or consumed in a business.

(vv) “Investment property” means a security, whether certificated or uncertificated, security entitlement, securities account, commodity contract, or commodity account.

(ww) “Jurisdiction of organization”, with respect to a registered organization, means the jurisdiction under whose law the organization is formed or organized.

(xx) “Letter-of-credit right” means a right to payment or performance under a letter of credit, whether or not the beneficiary has demanded or is at the time entitled to demand payment or performance. The term does not include the right of a beneficiary to demand payment or performance under a letter of credit.

(yy) “Lien creditor” means 1 or more of the following:

(i) A creditor that has acquired a lien on the property involved by attachment, levy, or the like.

(ii) An assignee for benefit of creditors from the time of assignment.

(iii) A trustee in bankruptcy from the date of the filing of the petition.

(iv) A receiver in equity from the time of appointment.

(zz) “Manufactured home” means a structure, transportable in 1 or more sections, which, in the traveling mode, is 8 body feet or more in width or 40 body feet or more in length, or when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein. The term includes any structure that meets all of the requirements of this paragraph except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the secretary of the department of housing and urban development and complies with the standards established under title 42 of the United States Code.

(aaa) “Manufactured-home transaction” means a secured transaction that creates a purchase-money security interest in a manufactured home, other than a manufactured home held as inventory, or in which a manufactured home, other than a manufactured home held as inventory, is the primary collateral.

(bbb) “Mortgage” means a consensual interest in real property, including fixtures, which secures payment or performance of an obligation.

(ccc) “New debtor” means a person that becomes bound as debtor under section 9203(4) by a security agreement previously entered into by another person.

(ddd) “New value” means money, money’s worth in property, services, or new credit, or release by a transferee of an interest in property previously transferred to the transferee. The term does not include an obligation substituted for another obligation.

(eee) “Noncash proceeds” means proceeds other than cash proceeds.

(fff) “Obligor” means a person that, with respect to an obligation secured by a security interest in or an agricultural lien on the collateral, owes payment or other performance of the obligation, has provided property other than the collateral to secure payment or other performance of the obligation, or is otherwise accountable in whole or in part for payment or other performance of the obligation. The term does not include issuers or nominated persons under a letter of credit.

(ggg) “Original debtor” means, except as used in section 9310(3), a person that, as debtor, entered into a security agreement to which a new debtor has become bound under section 9203(4).

(hhh) “Payment intangible” means a general intangible under which the account debtor‘s principal obligation is a monetary obligation.

(iii) “Person related to”, with respect to an individual, means 1 or more of the following:

(i) The spouse of the individual.

(ii) A brother, brother-in-law, sister, or sister-in-law of the individual.

(iii) An ancestor or lineal descendant of the individual or the individual’s spouse.

(iv) Any other relative, by blood or marriage, of the individual or the individual’s spouse who shares the same home with the individual.

(jjj) “Person related to”, with respect to an organization, means 1 or more of the following:

(i) A person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the organization.

(ii) An officer or director of, or a person performing similar functions with respect to, the organization.

(iii) An officer or director of, or a person performing similar functions with respect to, a person described in subparagraph (i).

(iv) The spouse of an individual described in subparagraph (i), (ii), or (iii).

(v) An individual who is related by blood or marriage to an individual described in subparagraph (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) and shares the same home with the individual.

(kkk) “Proceeds” means, except as used in section 9609(2), 1 or more of the following property:

(i) Whatever is acquired upon the sale, lease, license, exchange, or other disposition of collateral.

(ii) Whatever is collected on, or distributed on account of, collateral.

(iii) Rights arising out of collateral.

(iv) To the extent of the value of collateral, claims arising out of the loss, nonconformity, or interference with the use of, defects or infringement of rights in, or damage to, the collateral.

(v) To the extent of the value of collateral and to the extent payable to the debtor or the secured party, insurance payable by reason of the loss or nonconformity of, defects or infringement of rights in, or damage to, the collateral.

(lll) “Promissory note” means an instrument that evidences a promise to pay a monetary obligation, does not evidence an order to pay, and does not contain an acknowledgment by a bank that the bank has received for deposit a sum of money or funds.

(mmm) “Proposal” means a record authenticated by a secured party which includes the terms on which the secured party is willing to accept collateral in full or partial satisfaction of the obligation it secures pursuant to sections 9620, 9621, and 9622.

(nnn) “Public organic record” means a record that is available to the public for inspection and is any of the following:

(i) A record consisting of the record initially filed with or issued by a state or the United States to form or organize an organization and any record filed with or issued by the state or the United States which amends or restates the initial record.

(ii) An organic record of a business trust consisting of the record initially filed with a state and any record filed with the state which amends or restates the initial record, if a statute of the state governing business trusts requires that the record be filed with the state.

(iii) A record consisting of legislation enacted by the legislature of a state or the congress of the United States which forms or organizes an organization, any record amending the legislation, and any record filed with or issued by the state or the United States which amends or restates the name of the organization.

(ooo) “Pursuant to commitment”, with respect to an advance made or other value given by a secured party, means pursuant to the secured party’s obligation, whether or not a subsequent event of default or other event not within the secured party’s control has relieved or may relieve the secured party from its obligation.

(ppp) “Record”, except as used in “for record”, “of record”, “record or legal title”, and “record owner”, means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or which is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

(qqq) “Registered organization” means an organization organized solely under the law of a single state or the United States by the filing of a public organic record with, the issuance of a public organic record by, or the enactment of legislation by the state or the United States. The term includes a business trust that is formed or organized under the law of a single state if a statute of the state governing business trusts requires that the business trust’s organic record be filed with the state.

(rrr) “Secondary obligor” means an obligor to the extent that the obligor’s obligation is secondary or the obligor has a right of recourse with respect to an obligation secured by collateral against the debtor, another obligor, or property of either.

(sss) “Secured party” means 1 or more of the following:

(i) A person in whose favor a security interest is created or provided for under a security agreement, whether or not any obligation to be secured is outstanding.

(ii) A person that holds an agricultural lien.

(iii) A consignor.

(iv) A person to which accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes have been sold.

(v) A trustee, indenture trustee, agent, collateral agent, or other representative in whose favor a security interest or agricultural lien is created or provided for.

(vi) A person that holds a security interest arising under section 2401, 2505, 2711(3), 2A508(5), 4210, or 5118.

(ttt) “Security agreement” means an agreement that creates or provides for a security interest.

(uuu) “Send”, in connection with a record or notification, means 1 of the following:

(i) To deposit in the mail, deliver for transmission, or transmit by any other usual means of communication, with postage or cost of transmission provided for, addressed to any address reasonable under the circumstances.

(ii) To cause the record or notification to be received within the time that it would have been received if properly sent under subparagraph (i).

(vvv) “Software” means a computer program and any supporting information provided in connection with a transaction relating to the program. The term does not include a computer program that is included in the definition of goods.

(www) “State” means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(xxx) “Supporting obligation” means a letter-of-credit right or secondary obligation that supports the payment or performance of an account, chattel paper, a document, a general intangible, an instrument, or investment property.

(yyy) “Tangible chattel paper” means chattel paper evidenced by a record or records consisting of information that is inscribed on a tangible medium.

(zzz) “Termination statement” means an amendment of a financing statement that identifies, by its file number, the initial financing statement to which it relates and indicates either that it is a termination statement or that the identified financing statement is no longer effective.

(aaaa) “Transmitting utility” means a person primarily engaged in the business of 1 of the following:

(i) Operating a railroad, subway, street railway, or trolley bus.

(ii) Transmitting communications electrically, electromagnetically, or by light.

(iii) Transmitting goods by pipeline or sewer.

(iv) Transmitting or producing and transmitting electricity, steam, gas, or water.

(2) “Control” as provided in section 7106 and the following definitions in other articles apply to this article:

“Applicant” Section 5102
“Beneficiary” Section 5102
“Broker” Section 8102
“Certificated security” Section 8102
“Check” Section 3104
“Clearing corporation” Section 8102
“Contract for sale” Section 2106
“Customer” Section 4104
“Entitlement holder” Section 8102
“Financial asset” Section 8102
“Holder in due course” Section 3302
“Issuer” (with respect to a document
of title) Section 7102
“Issuer” (with respect to a letter
of credit or letter-of-credit right) Section 5102
“Issuer” (with respect to a security) Section 8201
“Lease” Section 2A103
“Lease agreement” Section 2A103
“Lease contract” Section 2A103
“Leasehold interest” Section 2A103
“Lessee” Section 2A103
“Lessee in ordinary course of business” Section 2A103
“Lessor” Section 2A103
“Lessor’s residual interest” Section 2A103
“Letter of credit” Section 5102
“Merchant” Section 2104
“Negotiable instrument” Section 3104
“Nominated person” Section 5102
“Note” Section 3104
“Proceeds of a letter of credit” Section 5114
“Prove” Section 3103
“Sale” Section 2106
“Securities account” Section 8501
“Securities intermediary” Section 8102
“Security” Section 8102
“Security certificate” Section 8102
“Security entitlement” Section 8102
“Uncertificated security” Section 8102.

(3) Article 1 contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout this article.