Terms Used In Montana Code > Title 46 > Chapter 23
- Affidavit: means a sworn written declaration made before an officer authorized to administer oaths or an unsworn written declaration made under penalty of perjury as provided in 1-6-105. See Montana Code 1-1-203
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Arrest: means taking a person into custody in the manner authorized by law. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Bail: means the security given for the primary purpose of ensuring the presence of the defendant in a pending criminal proceeding. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Board: means the board of pardons and parole provided for in 2-15-2305. See Montana Code 46-23-1001
- Charge: means a written statement that accuses a person of the commission of an offense, that is presented to a court, and that is contained in a complaint, information, or indictment. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Compliance violation: means a violation of the conditions of supervision that is not:
(a) a new criminal offense;
(b) possession of a firearm in violation of a condition of probation or parole;
(c) behavior by the offender or any person acting at the offender's direction that could be considered stalking, harassing, or threatening the victim of an offense or a member of the victim's immediate family or support network;
(d) absconding; or
(e) failure to enroll in or complete a required sex offender treatment program or a treatment program designed to treat violent offenders. See Montana Code 46-23-1001
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Conviction: means a judgment or sentence entered upon a guilty or nolo contendere plea or upon a verdict or finding of guilty rendered by a legally constituted jury or by a court of competent jurisdiction authorized to try the case without a jury. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Court: means a place where justice is judicially administered and includes the judge of the court. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Department: means the department of corrections provided for in 2-15-2301. See Montana Code 46-23-1001
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Judge: means a person who is vested by law with the power to perform judicial functions. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Judgment: means an adjudication by a court that the defendant is guilty or not guilty, and if the adjudication is that the defendant is guilty, it includes the sentence pronounced by the court. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Knowingly: means only a knowledge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission within the provisions of this code. See Montana Code 1-1-204
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Notice to appear: means a written direction that is issued by a peace officer and that requests a person to appear before a court at a stated time and place to answer a charge for the alleged commission of an offense. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Oath: includes an affirmation or declaration. See Montana Code 1-1-201
- Offense: means a violation of any penal statute of this state or any ordinance of its political subdivisions. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Parole: means the release to the community of a prisoner by the decision of the board prior to the expiration of the prisoner's term, subject to conditions imposed by the board and subject to supervision of the department. See Montana Code 46-23-1001
- Parole: means the release to the community of a prisoner by a decision of the board of pardons and parole prior to the expiration of the prisoner's term subject to conditions imposed by the board of pardons and parole and the supervision of the department of corrections. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Person: includes a corporation or other entity as well as a natural person. See Montana Code 1-1-201
- Personal property: means money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt. See Montana Code 1-1-205
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: means release by the court without imprisonment of a defendant found guilty of a crime. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Probation: means the release by the court without imprisonment, except as otherwise provided by law, of a defendant found guilty of a crime upon verdict or plea, subject to conditions imposed by the court and subject to the supervision of the department upon direction of the court. See Montana Code 46-23-1001
- Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
- Process: means a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings. See Montana Code 1-1-202
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real property: means lands, tenements, hereditaments, and possessory title to public lands. See Montana Code 1-1-205
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Sentence: means the judicial disposition of a criminal proceeding upon a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or upon a verdict or finding of guilty. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Statement: means :
(a) a writing signed or otherwise adopted or approved by a person;
(b) a video or audio recording of a person's communications or a transcript of the communications; and
(c) a writing containing a summary of a person's oral communications or admissions. See Montana Code 46-1-202
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Testify: means every mode of oral statement under oath or affirmation. See Montana Code 1-1-202
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- United States: includes the District of Columbia and the territories. See Montana Code 1-1-201
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- Writing: includes printing. See Montana Code 1-1-203