§ 1001 Necessary Joinder of Parties
§ 1002 Permissive Joinder of Parties
§ 1003 Nonjoinder and Misjoinder of Parties
§ 1004 When Joinder Unnecessary
§ 1006 Interpleader
§ 1007 When Third-Party Practice Allowed
§ 1008 Answer of Third-Party Defendant; Defenses
§ R1009 Claim by Plaintiff Against Third-Party Defendant
§ R1010 Dismissal or Separate Trial of Third-Party Complaint
§ R1011 Successive Third-Party Proceedings; Counterclaims
§ 1012 Intervention as of Right; Notice to Attorney-General, City, County, Town or Village Where Constitutionality in Issue
§ 1013 Intervention by Permission
§ 1014 Proposed Intervention Pleading
§ 1015 Substitution Upon Death
§ 1016 Substitution of Committee or Conservator
§ 1017 Substitution in Case of Receivership or Dissolution of a Corporation
§ 1018 Substitution Upon Transfer of Interest
§ 1019 Substitution of Public Officers
§ 1020 Substitution of Indemnitors for Executing or Attaching Officer
§ 1021 Substitution Procedure; Dismissal for Failure to Substitute; Presentation of Appeal
§ 1022 Substitution: Extension of Time for Taking Procedural Steps
§ 1023 Public Body or Officer Described by Official Title
§ 1024 Unknown Parties
§ 1025 Partnerships and Unincorporated Associations
§ 1026 Review of Determinations by Administrative Officers of the Unified Court System

Terms Used In New York Laws > Civil Practice Law and Rules > Article 10

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Cost: means the cost of an approved project, which shall include engineering and architectural services, plans and specifications, consultant and legal services, and other direct expenses incident to such project less any federal assistance received or to be received and any other assistance from other parties. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 54-0101
  • Cost: means the cost of an approved project, which shall include appraisal, surveying, engineering and architectural services, plans and specifications, consultant and legal services, construction and other direct expenses incident to such project less any federal or state funds, other than those provided pursuant to this article, for such project received or to be received. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the department of environmental conservation. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 54-0101
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Environmental restoration project: means a project to investigate or to remediate contamination pursuant to title five of this article. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Facility: means any structure or site improvement including paths, trails, roads, bridges, ramps and buildings. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 54-0101
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Governing body: means :

    a. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 54-0101

  • Governing body: means :

    (a) in the case of a county outside of the city of New York, the county board of supervisors or other elective governing body;

    (b) in the case of a city or village, the local legislative body thereof, as the term is defined in the municipal home rule law;

    (c) in the case of a town, the town board;

    (d) in the case of a school district, the board of education thereof;

    (e) in the case of a supervisory district, the board of cooperative educational services thereof;

    (f) in the case of a public benefit corporation, the board of directors, members or trustees thereof;

    (g) in the case of a public authority, the governing board of directors, members, or trustees thereof;

    (h) in the case of a not-for-profit corporation, the board of directors thereof or such other body designated in the certificate of incorporation to manage the corporation; and

    (i) in the case of an Indian tribe, any governing body recognized by the United States or the state of New York. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101

  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Marine holding tank: means any container aboard any vessel, as defined in section two of the navigation law, that is designed and used for the purpose of collecting and storing treated or untreated sewage from marine toilets. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Municipality: means a local public authority or public benefit corporation, a county, city, town, village, or Indian tribe or nation residing within New York state, or any combination thereof. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 54-0101
  • Municipality: means a local public authority or public benefit corporation, a county, city, town, village, school district, supervisory district, district corporation, improvement district within a county, city, town or village, or Indian nation or tribe recognized by the state or the United States with a reservation wholly or partly within the boundaries of New York state, or any combination thereof. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Not-for-profit corporation: means a corporation formed pursuant to the not-for-profit corporation law and qualified for tax-exempt status under the federal internal revenue code. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Office: means the office of parks, recreation and historic preservation. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Open space land conservation project: means acquisition projects undertaken with willing sellers including, but not limited to, the purchase of conservation easements, undertaken by the commissioner, the commissioner of the office of parks, recreation and historic preservation or by municipalities pursuant to article twenty-five-AAA of the agriculture and markets law. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State assistance payment: means payment of the state share of the cost of projects authorized by this act to preserve, enhance, restore and improve the quality of the state's environment. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 56-0101
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.