Title 1 Presidential and Vice Presidential Electors
Title 2 United States Senators
Title 3 Representatives in Congress
Title 4 Agreement Among the States to Elect the President by National Popular Vote

Terms Used In New York Laws > Election > Article 12 - Presidential Electors and Federal Elected Officers

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Adoption: means the delivery to any natural person eighteen years of age or older, for the limited purpose of harboring a pet, of any dog or cat, seized or surrendered. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Agricultural and farmland protection: means the preservation, conservation, management or improvement of lands which are part of viable farming operations, for the purpose of encouraging such lands to remain in agricultural production. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Agricultural assessment value: means the value per acre assigned to land for assessment purposes determined pursuant to the capitalized value of production procedure prescribed by section three hundred four-a of this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Agricultural data statement: means an identification of farm operations within an agricultural district located within five hundred feet of the boundary of property upon which an action requiring municipal review and approval by the planning board, zoning board of appeals, town board, or village board of trustees pursuant to article sixteen of the town law or article seven of the village law is proposed, as provided in section three hundred five-b of this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Agricultural use value: means the fair market value of a property that is restricted by an easement to its productive commercial agricultural use value rather than the highest and/or best potential use value for residential or other non-agricultural purposes. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Animal: as used in this article , includes every living creature except a human being;

    2. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350

  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Apiary products operation: means an agricultural enterprise, consisting of land owned by the operation, upon which bee hives are located and maintained for the purpose of producing, harvesting and storing apiary products for sale. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Commercial equine operation: means an agricultural enterprise, consisting of at least seven acres and stabling at least ten horses, regardless of ownership, that receives ten thousand dollars or more in gross receipts annually from fees generated through the provision of commercial equine activities including, but not limited to riding lessons, trail riding activities or training of horses or through the production for sale of crops, livestock, and livestock products, or through both the provision of such commercial equine activities and such production. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Commercial horse boarding operation: means an agricultural enterprise, consisting of at least seven acres and boarding at least ten horses, regardless of ownership, that receives ten thousand dollars or more in gross receipts annually from fees generated either through the boarding of horses or through the production for sale of crops, livestock, and livestock products, or through both such boarding and such production. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conversion: means an outward or affirmative act changing the use of agricultural land and shall not mean the nonuse or idling of such land. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cruelty: includes every act, omission, or neglect, whereby unjustifiable physical pain, suffering or death is caused or permitted. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Direct marketing: means the sale of farm and food products directly from producers to consumers and food buyers. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 282
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Farm animal: as used in this article , means any ungulate, poultry, species of cattle, sheep, swine, goats, llamas, horses or fur-bearing animals, as defined in section 11-1907 of the environmental conservation law, which are raised for commercial or subsistence purposes. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Farm operation: means the land and on-farm buildings, equipment, manure processing and handling facilities, and practices which contribute to the production, preparation and marketing of crops, livestock and livestock products as a commercial enterprise, including a "commercial horse boarding operation" as defined in subdivision thirteen of this section, a "timber operation" as defined in subdivision fourteen of this section, "compost, mulch or other biomass crops" as defined in subdivision seventeen of this section and "commercial equine operation" as defined in subdivision eighteen of this section. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Farm woodland: means land used for the production of woodland products intended for sale, including but not limited to logs, lumber, posts and firewood. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross sales value: means the proceeds from the sale of:

    a. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301

  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Land used in agricultural production: means not less than seven acres of land used as a single operation in the preceding two years for the production for sale of crops, livestock or livestock products of an average gross sales value of ten thousand dollars or more; or, not less than seven acres of land used in the preceding two years to support a commercial horse boarding operation or a commercial equine operation with annual gross receipts of ten thousand dollars or more. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Not-for-profit conservation organization: means an organization as defined in subdivision two of section 49-0303 of the environmental conservation law. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • nucs: shall mean small honey bee colonies created from larger colonies including the nuc box, which is a smaller version of a beehive, designed to hold up to five frames from an existing colony. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • pet: means any dog or cat, and shall also mean any other domesticated animal normally maintained in or near the household of the owner or person who cares for such other domesticated animal. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 350
  • Petty offense: A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Plan: means the county and municipal agricultural and farmland protection plan as provided for in this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Producer: means any person who grows, produces, or causes to be grown or produced any farm and food products in New York state. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 282
  • Program: means the state agricultural and farmland protection program created pursuant to the provisions of this article. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Public or private agency: shall mean any agency of federal, state or local government, regional market authority, public benefit corporation, not-for-profit corporation, cooperative corporation or educational institution. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 260
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • silvopasturing: shall mean the intentional combination of trees, forages and livestock managed as a single integrated practice for the collective benefit of each, including the planting of appropriate grasses and legume forages among trees for sound grazing and livestock husbandry. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301
  • Soil and water conservation district: means an entity as defined in subdivision one of section three of the soil and water conservation districts law. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 322
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Storage: shall mean a facility or equipment with a refrigerated, controlled atmosphere, or other enclosed unit used for the purpose of long-term storage of farm and food products in connection with a farmers' market. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 260
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Viable agricultural land: means land highly suitable for a farm operation as defined in this section. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 301