Part 1 Rules Governing Trusts
Part 2 Rules Governing Trustees
Part 3 Rights of Purchasers, Creditors and Other Persons
Part 5 Bank Accounts in Trust Form
Part 6 Uniform Transfers to Minors Act
Part 7 Child Performer Trust Account
Part 8 Honorary Trusts for Pets

Terms Used In New York Laws > Estates, Powers and Trusts > Article 7

  • Actions: include :

    (i) projects or activities directly undertaken by any agency; or projects or activities supported in whole or part through contracts, grants, subsidies, loans, or other forms of funding assistance from one or more agencies; or projects or activities involving the issuance to a person of a lease, permit, license, certificate or other entitlement for use or permission to act by one or more agencies;

    (ii) policy, regulations, and procedure-making. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 8-0105

  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Agency: means any state or local agency. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 8-0105
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Authorized internet entity: means any business, organization or other entity providing or offering a service over the internet which permits persons under eighteen years of age to access, meet, congregate or communicate with other users for the purpose of social networking. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • City: means the City of New York. See N.Y. Correction Law 150
  • Coastal waters: means lakes Erie and Ontario, the St. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 14-0105
  • commission: shall mean the Michigan Street African American Heritage Corridor commission created pursuant to this article. See N.Y. Parks, recreation and historic preservation Law 41.03
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of correction of the city provided, however, that if there shall be established by law a correctional administration in the city, "commissioner" shall mean the correctional administrator of the City. See N.Y. Correction Law 150
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Council: means the New York ocean and Great Lakes ecosystem conservation council created by section 14-0107 of this article. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 14-0105
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Criteria: shall mean the state smart growth public infrastructure criteria provided in section 6-0107 of this article. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 6-0103
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the department of correction of the city provided, however, that if there shall be established by law a correctional administration in the city, "department" shall mean such administration. See N.Y. Correction Law 150
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Division: means the division of criminal justice services as defined by section eight hundred thirty-seven of the executive law. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Draft environmental impact statement: means a preliminary statement prepared pursuant to section 8-0109 of this article. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 8-0105
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Environment: means the physical conditions which will be affected by a proposed action, including land, air, water, minerals, flora, fauna, noise, objects of historic or aesthetic significance, existing patterns of population concentration, distribution, or growth, and existing community or neighborhood character. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 8-0105
  • Environmental impact statement: means a detailed statement setting forth the matters specified in section 8-0109 of this article. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 8-0105
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • greenway: shall mean a linear system of state and local parks and conservation areas linked by a network of multi use trails within the greenway area established by an approved plan of the commission as provided for in this article. See N.Y. Parks, recreation and historic preservation Law 39.03
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • heritage corridor: shall mean the preservation corridor located between Broadway, Eagle, Elm and Nash to William street, William street (east) to Pine street, and Pine street (south) to Eagle street in downtown Buffalo including structures, such as the J. See N.Y. Parks, recreation and historic preservation Law 41.03
  • Hospital: means : (a) a hospital as defined in subdivision two of section four hundred of this chapter and applies to persons committed to such hospital by order of commitment made pursuant to article sixteen of this chapter; or (b) a secure treatment facility as defined in section 10. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Institution of higher education: means an institution in the state providing higher education as such term is defined in subdivision eight of section two of the education law. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
  • Internet identifiers: means electronic mail addresses and designations used for the purposes of chat, instant messaging, social networking or other similar internet communication. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Law enforcement agency having jurisdiction: means : (a) (i) the chief law enforcement officer in the village, town or city in which the offender expects to reside upon his or her discharge, probation, parole, release to post-release supervision or upon any form of state or local conditional release; or (ii) if there be no chief law enforcement officer in such village, town or city, the chief law enforcement officer of the county in which the offender expects to reside; or (iii) if there be no chief enforcement officer in such village, town, city or county, the division of state police and (b) in the case of a sex offender who is or expects to be employed by, enrolled in, attending or employed, whether for compensation or not, at an institution of higher education, (i) the chief law enforcement officer in the village, town or city in which such institution is located; or (ii) if there be no chief law enforcement officer in such village, town or city, the chief law enforcement officer of the county in which such institution is located; or (iii) if there be no chief law enforcement officer in such village, town, city or county, the division of state police; and (iv) if such institution operates or employs a campus law enforcement or security agency, the chief of such agency and (c) in the case of a sex offender who expects to reside within a state park or on other land under the jurisdiction of the office of parks, recreation and historic preservation, the state regional park police. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local agency: means any local agency, board, district, commission or governing body, including any city, county, and other political subdivision of the state. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 8-0105
  • Local correctional facility: means a local correctional facility as that term is defined in subdivision sixteen of section two of this chapter. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Mental abnormality: means a congenital or acquired condition of a person that affects the emotional or volitional capacity of the person in a manner that predisposes that person to the commission of criminal sexual acts to a degree that makes the person a menace to the health and safety of other persons. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Municipal centers: shall mean areas of concentrated and mixed land uses that serve as centers for various activities, including, but not limited to, central business districts, main streets, downtown areas, brownfield opportunity areas, downtown areas of local waterfront revitalization

    program

    areas,

    transit-oriented

    development, environmental justice areas, and hardship areas. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 6-0103

  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • Nonresident student: means a person required to register as a sex offender in another jurisdiction who is enrolled on a full-time or part-time basis in any public or private educational institution in this state including any secondary school, trade or professional institution or institution of higher education. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means the owner of the premises, or the lessee of the whole thereof, or the agent in charge of the property. See N.Y. Labor Law 315
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • plan: shall mean a document prepared in conformance with the provisions of section 35. See N.Y. Parks, recreation and historic preservation Law 31.01
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Predatory: means an act directed at a stranger, or a person with whom a relationship has been established or promoted for the primary purpose of victimization. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Predicate sex offender: means a sex offender who has been convicted of an offense set forth in subdivision two or three of this section when the offender has been previously convicted of an offense set forth in subdivision two or three of this section. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sex offender: includes any person who is convicted of any of the offenses set forth in subdivision two or three of this section. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Sex offense: means : (a) (i) a conviction of or a conviction for an attempt to commit any of the provisions of sections 120. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Sexual predator: means a sex offender who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense defined in subdivision three of this section and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder that makes him or her likely to engage in predatory sexually violent offenses. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Sexually violent offender: means a sex offender who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense defined in subdivision three of this section. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • Sexually violent offense: means : (a) (i) a conviction of or a conviction for an attempt to commit any of the provisions of sections 130. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
  • State agency: shall mean any state department, agency, board or commission of the state, or a public benefit corporation or public authority at least one of whose members is appointed by the governor. See N.Y. Parks, recreation and historic preservation Law 31.01
  • State infrastructure agency: shall mean the department, the department of transportation, the department of education, the department of health, the department of state, the New York state environmental facilities corporation, the New York state housing finance agency, the housing trust fund corporation, the dormitory authority, the thruway authority, the port authority of New York and New Jersey, the empire state development corporation, the New York state urban development corporation and all other New York authorities. See N.Y. Environmental Conservation Law 6-0103
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Tenant-factory building: means a building, separate parts of which are occupied and used by different persons and one or more of which parts is used as a factory. See N.Y. Labor Law 315
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Victim Impact Statement: A written or spoken statement by the victim or his or her representative about the physical, emotional, and financial impact of a crime on the victim. The statement is given to the court before sentencing.
  • Work release program: means a program in which the limits of place of confinement are extended for the purpose of seeking or engaging in employment or self-employment, attending an educational institution, participating in a training program, or obtaining medical treatment not otherwise available, caring for the prisoner's household and family or for some other compelling reason consistent with the public interest. See N.Y. Correction Law 150