New York Laws > General Business > Article 23-A – Fraudulent Practices in Respect to Stocks, Bonds and Other Securities
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Terms Used In New York Laws > General Business > Article 23-A - Fraudulent Practices in Respect to Stocks, Bonds and Other Securities
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- bank: shall mean and include a state or national bank, trust company or savings institution incorporated under the laws and subject to the examination, supervision and control of any state or of the United States or of any insular possession thereof. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- broker: shall mean and include any person, firm, association or corporation, other than a dealer, engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities for the account of others within or from this state, but does not include a bank unless such bank is considered a broker under the federal securities exchange act of 1934. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
- Commodity: means , except as otherwise specified by the attorney general by rule, regulation or order, any agricultural, grain, animal, chemical, metal or mineral product or byproduct, any gem or gemstone (whether characterized as precious, semi-precious or otherwise), any fuel (whether liquid, gaseous or otherwise), any foreign currency, and any other good, article, or material. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Commodity investment advisor: means any person who, for compensation, within or from the state of New York, engages in the business of advising members of the public, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, selling or holding commodity contracts. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Commodity salesperson: means any person employed by or representing a commodity broker-dealer in selling or offering for sale commodities through commodity contracts to the public within or from the state of New York. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Commodity broker-dealer: means any person engaged in the business of selling or offering to sell commodities through commodity contracts to the public within or from the state of New York. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Contemplation of death: The expectation of death that provides the primary motive to make a gift.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- dealer: shall mean and include any person, firm, association or corporation engaged in the business of buying and selling securities from or to the public within or from this state for his or its own account, through a broker or otherwise, except a bank unless such bank is considered a dealer under the federal securities exchange act of 1934, but does not include any person, firm, association or corporation in so far as he or it buys or sells securities for his or its bona fide investment account, either individually or in some fiduciary capacity. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
- Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
- Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- principal: shall mean and include every person or firm directly or indirectly controlling any broker or dealer. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- salesman: shall mean and include every person employed by a broker or dealer as said terms are defined in this section, for the purpose of representing such broker or dealer in the sale or purchase of securities to or from the public within or from this state. See N.Y. General Business Law 359-E
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.