Terms Used In New York Laws > General Business > Article 28
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Apprentice: means a person pursuing in good faith a course of study in the practice of barbering under the tutelage, supervision and direction of a licensee and who assists such licensee in such practice. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Barber: means a person who engages in the practice of barbering. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Barber shop: means any store, establishment, place or premises or part thereof where the practice of barbering is engaged in. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Barber shop owner: is a person who operates or conducts a barber shop as defined by subdivision eight of this section. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- barbering: means and includes the performance of the following practices upon the head of a human being for any purpose whatsoever except for the treatment of disease or of physical or mental ailments:
(a) Shaving or trimming the beard or cutting the hair of humans;
(b) Giving facial or scalp massage with oils, creams, lotions or other preparations, either by hand or mechanical appliances;
(c) Singeing, shampooing, arranging, dressing or dyeing the hair or applying hair tonic;
(d) Applying cosmetic preparations, antiseptics, powders, oils, clays or lotions to scalp, face or neck. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Department: means the department of state. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Licensee: means a person permitted to engage in the practice of barbering pursuant to this article. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Person: means an individual, firm, company, partnership or corporation. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Satisfactory: means satisfactory to the secretary of state. See N.Y. General Business Law 431
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.