• As used in chapters 11-27 of this title, unless the context otherwise requires (or the term is otherwise defined in another chapter of the Tennessee Business Corporation Act, in which event the term shall have such other meaning for that chapter):
    • (1) “Affiliate” of a specific person means a person that directly, or indirectly through one (1) or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, the person specified;

    • Terms Used In Tennessee Code 48-11-201

      • board of directors: means the governing board of a corporation, whether denominated the board of directors or otherwise, except that no person or group of persons is the board of directors because of powers delegated to that person or group pursuant to §. See Tennessee Code 48-51-201
      • Business: includes every trade, occupation, profession, investment activity and other lawful purpose for gain or the preservation of assets whether or not carried on for profits. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
      • Bylaws: means the code or codes of rules (other than the charter) adopted pursuant to chapters 51-68 of this title for the regulation or management of the affairs of the corporation irrespective of the name or names by which such rules are designated. See Tennessee Code 48-51-201
      • Charter: includes amended and restated charters and articles of merger. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
      • Conspicuous: means so written that a reasonable person against whom the writing is to operate should have noticed it. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
      • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
      • delivery: means any method of delivery used in conventional commercial practice, including delivery by hand, mail, commercial delivery, and, if authorized in accordance with §. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
      • Directors: means natural persons, designated in the charter or bylaws or elected or appointed by the incorporators, and their successors and natural persons elected or appointed to act as members of the board, irrespective of the names or titles by which such persons are described. See Tennessee Code 48-51-201
      • Distribution: means a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property (except its own membership interests) with or without consideration, or an incurrence or issuance of indebtedness, (whether directly or indirectly, including through a guaranty) by an LLC to or for the benefit of any of its members in respect of membership interests. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
      • Document: means :

        • (A) Any tangible medium on which information is inscribed, and includes any writing or written instrument. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201

        • Electronic: means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
        • Electronic record: means information that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in paper form through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice, unless otherwise authorized in accordance with §. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
        • Employee: includes an officer but not a director. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
        • Entity: includes the following, whether foreign or domestic: LLCs. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
        • Foreign corporation: means a corporation for profit incorporated under a law other than the laws of this state. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
        • Foreign nonprofit corporation: means a corporation incorporated under a law other than the law of this state, which would be a nonprofit corporation if incorporated under the laws of this state. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
        • Individual: includes the estate of an incompetent or deceased individual. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
        • Interest: means either or both of the following rights under the organic law of an unincorporated entity:

          • (A) The right to receive distributions from the entity either in the ordinary course or upon liquidation. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201

          • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
          • Month: means the time from any day of any month to the corresponding day of the succeeding month, if any, and if none, the last day of the succeeding month. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
          • Organic document: means a public organic document or a private organic document. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
          • Organic law: means the statute governing the internal affairs of a domestic or foreign business or nonprofit corporation or unincorporated entity. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
          • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
          • Person: includes individual and entity. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
          • Private organic document: means any document (other than the public organic document, if any) that determines the internal governance of an unincorporated entity. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
          • Property: includes both personal and real property. See Tennessee Code 1-3-105
          • Public organic document: means the document, if any, that is filed of public record to create an unincorporated entity. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
          • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
          • real property: include lands, tenements and hereditaments, and all rights thereto and interests therein, equitable as well as legal. See Tennessee Code 1-3-105
          • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in a perceivable form. See Tennessee Code 1-3-105
          • Secretary: means the corporate officer to whom the bylaws or the board of directors has delegated responsibility under §. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
          • Secretary of state: means the person who holds the office of secretary of state of Tennessee. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
          • Series: means a category of membership interests, within a class of membership interests, that have some of the same rights and preferences as other membership interests within the same class, but that differ in one (1) or more rights and preferences from another category of membership interests within that class. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
          • signature: means , with present intent to authenticate or adopt a document:

            • (A) To execute or adopt a tangible symbol to a document, and includes any manual, facsimile, or conformed signature. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201

            • State: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the several territories of the United States. See Tennessee Code 1-3-105
            • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
            • Termination: means the end of an LLC's existence as a legal entity and occurs when the articles of termination are filed with the secretary of state under §. See Tennessee Code 48-202-101
            • Unincorporated entity: means an organization or artificial legal person that either has a separate legal existence or has the power to acquire an estate in real property in its own name and that is not any of the following: a domestic or foreign business or nonprofit corporation, an estate, a trust, a state, the United States, or a foreign government. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
            • United States: includes district, authority, bureau, commission, department, and any other agency of the United States. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
            • Voting group: means all shares of one (1) or more classes or series that under the charter or chapters 11-27 of this title are entitled to vote and be counted together collectively on a matter at a meeting of shareholders. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201
            • written: means any information in the form of a document. See Tennessee Code 48-11-201

      (2) “Authorized shares” means the shares of all classes a domestic or foreign corporation is authorized to issue;

    • (3) “Business” means any activity or function;

    • (4) “Charter” includes amended and restated charters and articles of merger;

    • (5) “Confirmation of good standing” means confirmation by the commissioner of revenue issued through electronic communication to the secretary of state or a certificate of tax clearance that at the time such confirmation is issued a domestic or foreign corporation is current on all taxes and penalties to the satisfaction of the commissioner;

    • (6) “Conspicuous” means so written that a reasonable person against whom the writing is to operate should have noticed it. For example, printing in italics or boldface or contrasting color, or typing in capitals or underlined, is conspicuous;

    • (7) “Corporation,” “domestic corporation” or “domestic business corporation” means a corporation for profit, which is not a foreign corporation, incorporated under or subject to chapters 11-27 of this title;

    • (8) “Deliver” or “delivery” means any method of delivery used in conventional commercial practice, including delivery by hand, mail, commercial delivery, and, if authorized in accordance with § 48-11-202, by electronic transmission;

    • (9) “Distribution” means a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property (except its own shares) or incurrence of indebtedness (whether directly or indirectly, including through a guaranty) by a corporation to or for the benefit of its shareholders in respect of any of its shares. A distribution may be in the form of a declaration or payment of a dividend; a purchase, redemption, or other acquisition of shares; a distribution of indebtedness (which includes the incurrence of indebtedness for the benefit of the shareholders); or otherwise;

    • (10) “Document” means:

      • (A) Any tangible medium on which information is inscribed, and includes any writing or written instrument; or

      • (B) An electronic record;

    • (11) “Effective date of notice,” as defined in § 48-11-202(i);

    • (12) “Electronic” means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities;

    • (13) “Electronic record” means information that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in paper form through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice, unless otherwise authorized in accordance with § 48-11-202;

    • (14) “Electronic transmission” or “electronically transmitted” means any form or process of communication not directly involving the physical transfer of paper or another tangible medium, which is:

      • (A) Suitable for the retention, retrieval, and reproduction of information by the recipient; and

      • (B) Is retrievable in paper form by the recipient through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice, unless otherwise authorized in accordance with § 48-11-202(j);

    • (15) “Emergency” exists when a quorum of the corporate directors cannot readily be assembled because of some catastrophic event;

    • (16) “Employee” includes an officer but not a director. A director may accept duties that make the director also an employee;

    • (17) “Entity” includes domestic and foreign business corporation; domestic and foreign nonprofit corporation; estate; trust; domestic and foreign unincorporated entity and state, United States, and foreign government. The term includes two (2) or more persons having a joint or common economic interest;

    • (18) “Filing entity” means an unincorporated entity that is of a type that is created by filing a public organic document;

    • (19) “Foreign corporation” means a corporation for profit incorporated under a law other than the laws of this state;

    • (20) “Foreign nonprofit corporation” means a corporation incorporated under a law other than the law of this state, which would be a nonprofit corporation if incorporated under the laws of this state;

    • (21) “Foreign unincorporated entity” means an unincorporated entity whose internal affairs are governed by an organic law of a jurisdiction other than this state;

    • (22) “Governmental subdivision” includes authority, county, district, and municipality;

    • (23) “Includes” denotes a partial definition;

    • (24) “Individual” includes the estate of an incompetent or deceased individual;

    • (25) “Interest” means either or both of the following rights under the organic law of an unincorporated entity:

      • (A) The right to receive distributions from the entity either in the ordinary course or upon liquidation; or

      • (B) The right to receive notice or vote on issues involving its internal affairs, other than as an agent, assignee, proxy, or person responsible for managing its business and affairs;

    • (26) “Means” denotes an exhaustive definition;

    • (27) “Month” means the time from any day of any month to the corresponding day of the succeeding month, if any, and if none, the last day of the succeeding month. “A period of two (2) or more months” means the time from any day of the first month in such period to the corresponding day of the last month in such period, if any, and if none, the last day of the last month in such period;

    • (28) “Nonfiling entity” means an unincorporated entity that is of a type that is not created by filing a public organic document;

    • (29) “Nonprofit corporation” or “domestic nonprofit corporation” means a corporation incorporated under the laws of this state and subject to the Tennessee Nonprofit Corporation Act, compiled in chapters 51-68 of this title;

    • (30) “Notice,” as defined in § 48-11-202;

    • (31) “Organic document” means a public organic document or a private organic document;

    • (32) “Organic law” means the statute governing the internal affairs of a domestic or foreign business or nonprofit corporation or unincorporated entity;

    • (33) “Person” includes individual and entity;

    • (34) “Principal office” means the office (in or out of this state) so designated in the annual report where the principal executive offices of a domestic or foreign corporation are located;

    • (35) “Private organic document” means any document (other than the public organic document, if any) that determines the internal governance of an unincorporated entity. Where a private organic document has been amended or restated, the term means the private organic document as last amended or restated;

    • (36) “Proceeding” includes civil suit and criminal, administrative, and investigatory action;

    • (37) “Public organic document” means the document, if any, that is filed of public record to create an unincorporated entity. Where a public organic document has been amended or restated, the term means the public organic document as last amended or restated;

    • (38) “Record date” means the date established under chapter 16 or 17 on which a corporation determines the identity of its shareholders for purposes of chapters 11-27 of this title;

    • (39) “Secretary” means the corporate officer to whom the bylaws or the board of directors has delegated responsibility under § 48-18-401(c) for custody of the minutes of the meetings of the board of directors and of the shareholders and for authenticating records of the corporation;

    • (40) “Share” means the unit into which the proprietary interests in a corporation are divided;

    • (41) “Shareholder” means the person in whose name shares are registered in the records of a corporation or the beneficial owner of shares to the extent of the rights granted by a nominee certificate on file with a corporation;

    • (42) “Sign” or “signature” means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a document:

      • (A) To execute or adopt a tangible symbol to a document, and includes any manual, facsimile, or conformed signature; or

      • (B) To attach to or logically associate with an electronic transmission an electronic sound, symbol, or process, and includes an electronic signature in an electronic transmission;

    • (43) “State,” when referring to a part of the United States, includes a state and commonwealth (and their agencies and governmental subdivisions) and a territory and insular possession (and their agencies and governmental subdivisions) of the United States;

    • (44) “Subscriber” means a person who subscribes for shares in a corporation, whether before or after incorporation;

    • (45) “Subsidiary” means a corporation more than fifty percent (50%) of whose outstanding voting shares are owned by its parent and/or the parent’s other wholly-owned subsidiaries;

    • (46) “Tax clearance for termination or withdrawal” means confirmation by the commissioner of revenue issued through electronic communication to the secretary of state or a certificate of tax clearance that a domestic or foreign corporation has filed all applicable reports, including, but not limited to, a final report, and has paid all fees, penalties and taxes as required by the revenue laws of this state;

    • (47) “Unincorporated entity” means an organization or artificial legal person that either has a separate legal existence or has the power to acquire an estate in real property in its own name and that is not any of the following: a domestic or foreign business or nonprofit corporation, an estate, a trust, a state, the United States, or a foreign government. The term includes a general partnership, limited liability company, limited partnership, business trust, joint stock association, and unincorporated nonprofit association;

    • (48) “United States” includes district, authority, bureau, commission, department, and any other agency of the United States;

    • (49) “Voting group” means all shares of one (1) or more classes or series that under the charter or chapters 11-27 of this title are entitled to vote and be counted together collectively on a matter at a meeting of shareholders. All shares entitled by the charter or chapters 11-27 of this title to vote generally on the matter are for that purpose a single voting group; and

    • (50) “Writing” or “written” means any information in the form of a document.