Terms Used In Texas Parks and Wildlife Code Chapter 12
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Affidavit: means a statement in writing of a fact or facts signed by the party making it, sworn to before an officer authorized to administer oaths, and officially certified to by the officer under his seal of office. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Affiliate of a declarant: means any person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with a declarant. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Allocated interests: means the undivided interest in the common elements, the common expense liability, and votes in the association allocated to each unit. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Association: means the unit owners' association organized under Section Texas Property Code 82.003
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Board: means the board of directors or the body, regardless of name, designated to act on behalf of the association. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Catch: means take or kill and includes an attempt to take or kill. See Texas Parks and Wildlife Code 1.101
- Common elements: means all portions of a condominium other than the units and includes both general and limited common elements. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Common expense liability: means the liability for common expenses allocated to each unit. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Common expenses: means expenditures made by or financial liabilities of the association, together with any allocations to reserves. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Condominium: means a form of real property with portions of the real property designated for separate ownership or occupancy, and the remainder of the real property designated for common ownership or occupancy solely by the owners of those portions. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Declarant: means a person, or group of persons acting in concert, who:
(A) as part of a common promotional plan, offers to dispose of the person's interest in a unit not previously disposed of; or
(B) reserves or succeeds to any special declarant right. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Declaration: means an instrument, however denominated, that creates a condominium, and any amendment to that instrument. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Dedicatory instrument: means each document governing the establishment, maintenance, or operation of a condominium regime. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Development rights: means a right or combination of rights reserved by a declarant in the declaration to:
(A) add real property to a condominium;
(B) create units, common elements, or limited common elements within a condominium;
(C) subdivide units or convert units into common elements; or
(D) withdraw real property from a condominium. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Disposition: means a voluntary transfer to a purchaser of any legal or equitable interest in a unit but does not include the transfer or release of a security interest. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- Effects: includes all personal property and all interest in that property. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- General common elements: means common elements that are not limited common elements. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Hunt: means capture, trap, take, or kill, or an attempt to capture, trap, take, or kill. See Texas Parks and Wildlife Code 1.101
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Justice: when applied to a magistrate, means justice of the peace. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Licensed practitioner: includes a sex offender treatment provider who is licensed under Chapter Texas Health and Safety Code 1.005
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Limited common element: means a portion of the common elements allocated by the declaration or by operation of Section Texas Property Code 82.003
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Month: means a calendar month. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- Oath: includes affirmation. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plan: means a dimensional drawing that is recordable in the real property records or the condominium plat records and that horizontally and vertically identifies or describes units and common elements that are contained in buildings. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Plat: means a survey recordable in the real property records or the condominium plat records and containing the information required by Section Texas Property Code 82.003
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Population: means the population shown by the most recent federal decennial census. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Purchaser: means a person, other than a declarant, who by means of a voluntary transfer acquires a legal or equitable interest in a unit other than a leasehold interest or as security for an obligation. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Rule: includes regulation. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Sell: means to transfer the ownership or the right of possession of an item to a person for consideration and includes a barter and an even exchange. See Texas Parks and Wildlife Code 1.101
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Signature: includes the mark of a person unable to write, and "subscribe" includes the making of such a mark. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Special declarant rights: means rights reserved for the benefit of a declarant to:
(A) complete improvements indicated on plats and plans filed with the declaration;
(B) exercise any development right;
(C) make the condominium part of a larger condominium or a planned community;
(D) maintain sales, management, and leasing offices, signs advertising the condominium, and models;
(E) use easements through the common elements for the purpose of making improvements within the condominium or within real property that may be added to the condominium; or
(F) appoint or remove any officer or board member of the association during any period of declarant control. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- sworn: includes affirm or affirmed. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Take: except as otherwise provided by this code, means collect, hook, hunt, net, shoot, or snare, by any means or device, and includes an attempt to take or to pursue in order to take. See Texas Parks and Wildlife Code 1.101
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Unit: means a physical portion of the condominium designated for separate ownership or occupancy, the boundaries of which are described by the declaration. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Unit owner: means a declarant or other person who owns a unit, or a lessee of a unit in a leasehold condominium whose lease expires simultaneously with any lease the expiration or termination of which will remove the unit from the condominium, but does not include a person having an interest in a unit solely as security for an obligation. See Texas Property Code 82.003
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Week: means seven consecutive days. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Wild: when used in reference to an animal, means a species, including each individual of a species, that normally lives in a state of nature and is not ordinarily domesticated. See Texas Parks and Wildlife Code 1.101
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.