In a civil suit tried in a general district court or appealed to the circuit court to recover damages for personal injuries or to resolve any dispute with an insurance company or health care provider, either party may present evidence as to the extent, nature, and treatment of the injury, the examination of the person so injured, and the costs of such treatment and examination by the following:
Terms Used In Virginia Code 16.1-88.2
- damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
- plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- sworn: means "affirm" or "affirmed. See Virginia Code 1-250
- testify: Answer questions in court.
- testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
1. A report from the treating or examining health care provider as defined in § 8.01-581.1 or a health care provider licensed outside of the Commonwealth for his treatment of the in a civil lawsuitplaintiff outside of the Commonwealth. Such medical report shall be admitted if the party intending to present evidence by the use of a report gives the opposing party or parties a copy of the report and written notice of such intention 10 days in advance of trial and if attached to such report is a sworn statement of (i) the treating or examining health care provider that (a) the person named therein was treated or examined by such health care provider, (b) the information contained in the report is true and accurate and fully descriptive as to the nature and extent of the injury, and (c) any statement of costs contained in the report is true and accurate or (ii) the custodian of such report that the same is a true and accurate copy of the report; or
2. The records or bills of a hospital or similar medical facility at which the treatment or examination was performed. Such hospital or other medical facility records or bills shall be admitted if (i) the party intending to present evidence by the use of records or bills gives the opposing party or parties a copy of the records or bills and written notice of such intention 10 days in advance of trial and (ii) attached to the records or bills is a sworn statement of the custodian thereof that the same is a true and accurate copy of the records or bills of such hospital or other medical facility.
If, thereafter, the plaintiff or defendant summons the health care provider or custodian making such statement to testify in proper person or by deposition, the court shall determine which party shall pay the fee and costs for such appearance or depositions, or may apportion the same among the parties in such proportions as the ends of justice may require. If such health care provider or custodian is not subject to subpoena for cross-examination in court or by a deposition, then the court shall allow a reasonable opportunity for the party seeking the subpoena for such health care provider or custodian to obtain his testimony as the ends of justice may require. The plaintiff may only present evidence pursuant to this section in circuit court if he has not requested an amount in excess of the ad damnum in the motion for judgment filed in the general district court.