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Virginia Code > Title 18.2 > Chapter 6 > Article 5 – False Representations to Obtain Property or Credit

§ 18.2-186 False statements to obtain property or credit
§ 18.2-186.1 Repealed
§ 18.2-186.2 False statements or failure to disclose material facts in order to obtain aid or benefits under any local, state or federal housing assistance program
§ 18.2-186.3 Identity theft; penalty; restitution; victim assistance
§ 18.2-186.3:1 Identity fraud; consumer reporting agencies; police reports
§ 18.2-186.4 Use of a person’s identity with the intent to coerce, intimidate, or harass; penalty
§ 18.2-186.4:1 Internet publication of personal information of certain public officials
§ 18.2-186.5 Expungement of false identity information from police and court records; Identity Theft Passport
§ 18.2-186.6 Breach of personal information notification
§ 18.2-187 Repealed
§ 18.2-187.1 Obtaining or attempting to obtain oil, electric, gas, water, telephone, telegraph, cable television or electronic communication service without payment; penalty; civil liability
§ 18.2-187.2 Audiovisual recording of motion pictures unlawful; penalty
§ 18.2-188 Defrauding hotels, motels, campgrounds, boardinghouses, etc.
§ 18.2-188.1 Defrauding person having a lien on an animal; penalty
§ 18.2-189 Defrauding keeper of motor vehicles or watercraft
§ 18.2-190 Fraudulent misrepresentation as to breed of bull or cattle

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 18.2 > Chapter 6 > Article 5 - False Representations to Obtain Property or Credit

  • Affiliate: means any person that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with an electric utility. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Bicycle: means a device propelled solely by human power, upon which a person may ride either on or astride a regular seat attached thereto, having two or more wheels in tandem, including children's bicycles, except a toy vehicle intended for use by young children. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Business park: means a land development containing a minimum of 100 contiguous acres classified as a Tier 4 site under the Virginia Economic Development Partnership's Business Ready Sites Program that is developed and constructed by an industrial development authority, or a similar political subdivision of the Commonwealth created pursuant to § Source: OCC
  • Crosswalk: means that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway; or any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Customer choice: means the opportunity for a retail customer in the Commonwealth to purchase electric energy from any supplier licensed and seeking to sell electric energy to that customer. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Demand response: means measures aimed at shifting time of use of electricity from peak-use periods to times of lower demand by inducing retail customers to curtail electricity usage during periods of congestion and higher prices in the electrical grid. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Department: means the Department of Motor Vehicles of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Distributor: means a person owning, controlling, or operating a retail distribution system to provide electric energy directly to retail customers. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • driver: means every person who either (i) drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle on a highway or (ii) is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electric personal assistive mobility device: means a self-balancing two-nontandem-wheeled device that is designed to transport only one person and powered by an electric propulsion system that limits the device's maximum speed to 15 miles per hour or less. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electric power-assisted bicycle: means a vehicle that travels on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and is equipped with (i) pedals that allow propulsion by human power, (ii) a seat for the use of the rider, and (iii) an electric motor with an input of no more than 750 watts. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electric utility: means any person that generates, transmits, or distributes electric energy for use by retail customers in the Commonwealth, including any investor-owned electric utility, cooperative electric utility, or electric utility owned or operated by a municipality. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Energy efficiency program: means a program that reduces the total amount of electricity that is required for the same process or activity implemented after the expiration of capped rates. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a set of United States statutes added as Title VIII of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Its purpose is to ensure ethical practices in the collection of consumer debts and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. It is often used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Source: OCC
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Governing body: means the board of supervisors of a county, council of a city, or council of a town, as context may require. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Highway: means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth, including the streets and alleys, and, for law-enforcement purposes, (i) the entire width between the boundary lines of all private roads or private streets that have been specifically designated "highways" by an ordinance adopted by the governing body of the county, city, or town in which such private roads or streets are located and (ii) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place used for purposes of vehicular travel on any property owned, leased, or controlled by the United States government and located in the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • in writing: include any representation of words, letters, symbols, numbers, or figures, whether (i) printed or inscribed on a tangible medium or (ii) stored in an electronic or other medium and retrievable in a perceivable form and whether an electronic signature authorized by Chapter 42. See Virginia Code 1-257
  • Includes: means includes, but not limited to. See Virginia Code 1-218
  • Incumbent electric utility: means each electric utility in the Commonwealth that, prior to July 1, 1999, supplied electric energy to retail customers located in an exclusive service territory established by the Commission. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Intersection: means (i) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways that join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling on different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict; (ii) where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection, in the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection; or (iii) for purposes only of authorizing installation of traffic-control devices, every crossing of a highway or street at grade by a pedestrian crosswalk. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • lane: means that portion of a roadway designed or designated to accommodate the forward movement of a single line of vehicles. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Lane-use control signal: means a signal face displaying indications to permit or prohibit the use of specific lanes of a roadway or to indicate the impending prohibition of such use. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Law-enforcement officer: means any officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of this title or local ordinances authorized by law. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Light: means a device for producing illumination or the illumination produced by the device. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Locality: means a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 1-221
  • Measured and verified: means a process determined pursuant to methods accepted for use by utilities and industries to measure, verify, and validate energy savings and peak demand savings. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Month: means a calendar month and "year" means a calendar year. See Virginia Code 1-223
  • Moped: means every vehicle that travels on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground that (i) has a seat that is no less than 24 inches in height, measured from the middle of the seat perpendicular to the ground; (ii) has a gasoline, electric, or hybrid motor that (a) displaces 50 cubic centimeters or less or (b) has an input of 1500 watts or less; (iii) is power-driven, with or without pedals that allow propulsion by human power; and (iv) is not operated at speeds in excess of 35 miles per hour. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Motor vehicle: means every vehicle as defined in this section that is self-propelled or designed for self-propulsion except as otherwise provided in this title. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Municipality: means a city, county, town, authority, or other political subdivision of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • New underground facilities: includes underground cables with voltages of 69 kilovolts or less, pad-mounted devices, connections at customer meters, and transition terminations from existing overhead distribution sources. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Peak-shaving: means measures aimed solely at shifting time of use of electricity from peak-use periods to times of lower demand by inducing retail customers to curtail electricity usage during periods of congestion and higher prices in the electrical grid. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
  • Person: means any individual, corporation, partnership, association, company, business, trust, joint venture, or other private legal entity, and the Commonwealth or any municipality. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Previously developed project site: includes a brownfield as defined in §
  • Shoulder: means that part of a highway between the portion regularly traveled by vehicular traffic and the lateral curbline or ditch. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • State: when applied to a part of the United States, includes any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-245
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Superintendent: means the Superintendent of the Department of State Police of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Supplier: means any generator, distributor, aggregator, broker, marketer, or other person who offers to sell or sells electric energy to retail customers and is licensed by the Commission to do so, but it does not mean a generator that produces electric energy exclusively for its own consumption or the consumption of an affiliate. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July 1, 1971, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-254
  • Traffic infraction: means a violation of law punishable as provided in §

Virginia Code > Title 18.2 > Chapter 6 > Article 5 – 1. Offenses Involving Electronic Communication Devices

§ 18.2-190.1 Definitions
§ 18.2-190.2 Possession of an unlawful electronic communication device or equipment etc., used to manufacture such device; penalty
§ 18.2-190.3 Sale of an unlawful electronic communication device; penalty
§ 18.2-190.4 Manufacture of an unlawful electronic communication device; penalty
§ 18.2-190.5 Separate offenses; penalty
§ 18.2-190.6 Restitution
§ 18.2-190.7 Repealed
§ 18.2-190.8 Civil relief; damages

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 18.2 > Chapter 6 > Article 5 - 1. Offenses Involving Electronic Communication Devices

  • Affiliate: means any person that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with an electric utility. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Business park: means a land development containing a minimum of 100 contiguous acres classified as a Tier 4 site under the Virginia Economic Development Partnership's Business Ready Sites Program that is developed and constructed by an industrial development authority, or a similar political subdivision of the Commonwealth created pursuant to §
  • Rate: means rate charged for any service rendered or to be rendered. See Virginia Code 56-1
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • regulation: include joint rates, joint charges and joint regulations, respectively. See Virginia Code 56-1
  • Renewable energy: means energy derived from sunlight, wind, falling water, biomass, sustainable or otherwise, (the definitions of which shall be liberally construed), energy from waste, landfill gas, municipal solid waste, wave motion, tides, and geothermal power, and does not include energy derived from coal, oil, natural gas, or nuclear power. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Sell: means to sell, exchange, lease, give or dispose of to another or to offer or agree to do the same. See Virginia Code 18.2-190.1
  • Semitrailer: means every vehicle of the trailer type so designed and used in conjunction with a motor vehicle that some part of its own weight and that of its own load rests on or is carried by another vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • State: when applied to a part of the United States, includes any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-245
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplier: means any generator, distributor, aggregator, broker, marketer, or other person who offers to sell or sells electric energy to retail customers and is licensed by the Commission to do so, but it does not mean a generator that produces electric energy exclusively for its own consumption or the consumption of an affiliate. See Virginia Code 56-576
  • Supreme Court: means the Supreme Court of Virginia. See Virginia Code 1-249
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July 1, 1971, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-254
  • Traffic infraction: means a violation of law punishable as provided in §