§ 33.2-1200 Policy; definitions
§ 33.2-1201 Enforcement of provisions by Commissioner of Highways
§ 33.2-1202 Territory to which article applies
§ 33.2-1203 Entry upon lands; hindering Commissioner of Highways or agent
§ 33.2-1204 Excepted signs, advertisements, and advertising structures
§ 33.2-1205 License required of outdoor advertisers
§ 33.2-1206 Revocation of license and judicial review
§ 33.2-1207 Bond required from out-of-state licensee
§ 33.2-1208 Permits required
§ 33.2-1209 Applications for permits; fees
§ 33.2-1210 Duration and renewal of permit
§ 33.2-1211 Revocation of permit
§ 33.2-1212 Temporary permit
§ 33.2-1213 Appeal from refusal or revocation of permit
§ 33.2-1214 Transfer of licenses and permits to successor concerns
§ 33.2-1215 Identification of advertising structure or advertisement
§ 33.2-1216 Certain advertisements or structures prohibited
§ 33.2-1217 Special provisions pertaining to Interstate System, National Highway System, and federal-aid primary highways
§ 33.2-1218 Removal of billboard signs under this chapter prohibited without just compensation
§ 33.2-1219 Maintenance and repair of nonconforming billboard signs
§ 33.2-1220 Regulations and agreements with United States implementing § 33.2-1217
§ 33.2-1221 Selective pruning permits; fees; penalty
§ 33.2-1222 Tree-trimming policies
§ 33.2-1223 Pasting advertisements prohibited in certain instances
§ 33.2-1224 Signs or advertising on rocks, poles, etc., within limits of highway; civil penalty
§ 33.2-1225 Commissioner of Highways may enter into certain agreements; civil penalties
§ 33.2-1226 Harmony of regulations
§ 33.2-1227 Violation a nuisance; abatement
§ 33.2-1228 Disposition of fees
§ 33.2-1229 Penalties for violation
§ 33.2-1230 Adjustment or relocation of certain billboard signs
§ 33.2-1231 Construction of article

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 33.2 > Subtitle II > Chapter 12 > Article 1 - General Policies and Regulations

  • Abstract of judgment: In a federal criminal proceeding, A certification from a U.S. District Court clerk that a judgment of restitution was entered against the defendant owing to the victim. If the defendant inherits, owns, or sells real property or holdings, these assets can then be attached at the state and local levels as well.
  • Advertisement: includes any part of an advertisement recognizable as such. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Advertising structure: means any rigid or semirigid material, with or without any advertisement displayed thereon, situated upon or attached to real property outdoors, primarily or principally for the purpose of furnishing a background or base or support upon which an advertisement may be posted or displayed. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Billboard sign: means any sign, advertisement, or advertising structure as defined in this section owned by a person, firm, or corporation in the business of outdoor advertising. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Board: means the Commonwealth Transportation Board. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Bond with surety: includes the payment in cash of the full amount of the required bond and, in such case, no surety shall be required. See Virginia Code 1-205
  • Business of outdoor advertising: means the erection, use, or maintenance of advertising structures or the posting or display of outdoor advertisements by any person who receives profit gained from rentals or any other compensation from any other person for the use or maintenance of such advertising structures or the posting or display of such advertisements, except reasonable compensation for materials and labor used or furnished in the actual erection of advertising structures or the actual posting of advertisements. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Centerline of the highway: means a line equidistant from the edges of the median separating the main traveled ways of a divided highway or the centerline of the main traveled way of a nondivided highway. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • certificate: means the part of, or attachment to, a notarized document that is completed by the notary public, bears the notary public's signature, title, commission expiration date, notary registration number, and other required information concerning the date and place of the notarization and states the facts attested to or certified by the notary public in a particular notarization. See Virginia Code 47.1-2
  • City: means an independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on July 1, 1971, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-208
  • City: has the meaning assigned to it in § 1-208. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Commissioner of Highways: means the individual who serves as the chief executive officer of the Department of Transportation. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Courts of record: means the Supreme Court of Virginia, the Court of Appeals of Virginia, and the circuit courts. See Virginia Code 1-212
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Transportation. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Document: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form, including a record as defined in the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59. See Virginia Code 47.1-2
  • Electronic: means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities. See Virginia Code 47.1-2
  • Electronic signature: means an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with an electronic document and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the document. See Virginia Code 47.1-2
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • farm: means any person that obtains at least 51 percent of its annual gross income from agricultural operations and produces the agricultural waste used as feedstock for the waste-to-energy technology, (ii) "agricultural waste" means biomass waste materials capable of decomposition that are produced from the raising of plants and animals during agricultural operations, including animal manures, bedding, plant stalks, hulls, and vegetable matter, and (iii) "waste-to-energy technology" means any technology, including but not limited to a methane digester, that converts agricultural waste into gas, steam, or heat that is used to generate electricity on-site. See Virginia Code 1-222.1
  • Federal-aid primary highway: means any highway within that portion of the primary state highway system as established and maintained under Article 2 (§ 33. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Highway: means every way or place of whatever nature open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • in writing: include any representation of words, letters, symbols, numbers, or figures, whether (i) printed or inscribed on a tangible medium or (ii) stored in an electronic or other medium and retrievable in a perceivable form and whether an electronic signature authorized by Chapter 42. See Virginia Code 1-257
  • Includes: means includes, but not limited to. See Virginia Code 1-218
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interchange: means a grade separated intersection with one or more turning roadways for travel between intersection legs, or an intersection at grade, where two or more highways join or cross. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Interstate System: means the same as that term is defined in 23 U. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lawfully erected: means any sign that was erected pursuant to the issuance of a permit from the Commissioner of Highways under § 33. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Locality: means a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 1-221
  • Locality: has the meaning assigned to it in § 1-221. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Main traveled way: means the traveled way of a highway on which through traffic is carried. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Maintain: means to allow to exist. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Maintenance: means (i) ordinary maintenance; (ii) maintenance replacement; (iii) operations that include traffic signal synchronization, incident management, and other intelligent transportation system functions; and (iv) any other categories of maintenance that may be designated by the Commissioner of Highways. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Month: means a calendar month and "year" means a calendar year. See Virginia Code 1-223
  • Municipality: has the meaning assigned to it in § 1-224. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • National Highway System: means the federal-aid highway system referenced in 23 U. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • notary: means any person commissioned to perform official acts under the title, and includes an electronic notary except where expressly provided otherwise. See Virginia Code 47.1-2
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Official misconduct: means any violation of this title by a notary, whether committed knowingly, willfully, recklessly or negligently. See Virginia Code 47.1-2
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Person: includes an individual, partnership, association, or corporation. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Personal representative: includes the executor of a will or the administrator of the estate of a decedent, the administrator of such estate with the will annexed, the administrator of such estate unadministered by a former representative, whether there is a will or not, any person who is under the order of a circuit court to take into his possession the estate of a decedent for administration, and every other curator of a decedent's estate, for or against whom suits may be brought for causes of action that accrued to or against the decedent. See Virginia Code 1-234
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Post: means post, display, print, paint, burn, nail, paste, or otherwise attach. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Primary highway: means any highway in or component of the primary state highway system. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Primary state highway system: consists of all highways and bridges under the jurisdiction and control of the Commonwealth Transportation Board and the Commissioner of Highways and not in the secondary state highway system. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Process: includes subpoenas, the summons and complaint in a civil action, and process in statutory actions. See Virginia Code 1-237
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • real estate: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments, and all rights and appurtenances thereto and interests therein, other than a chattel interest. See Virginia Code 1-219
  • Real property: includes any property physically attached or annexed to real property in any manner whatsoever. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Roadway: means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Scenic area: means any public park or area of particular scenic beauty or historical significance designated as a scenic area by the Board. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • scenic highway: means those highways designated by the Board pursuant to § 33. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Seal: means a device for affixing on a paper document an image containing the notary's name and other information related to the notary's commission. See Virginia Code 47.1-2
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Transportation. See Virginia Code 33.2-100
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sign: means any outdoor sign, display, device, figure, painting, drawing, message, placard, poster, billboard, or other thing that is designed, intended, or used to advertise or inform, any part of the advertising or informative contents of which is visible from any highway. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • State: includes District of Columbia;

    (f) "Transit facilities" means all real and personal property located in the Zone, necessary or useful in rendering transit service between points within the Zone, by means of rail, bus, water or air and any other mode of travel, including, without limitation, tracks, rights-of-way, bridges, tunnels, subways, rolling stock for rail, motor vehicle, marine and air transportation, stations, terminals and ports, areas for parking and all equipment, fixtures, buildings and structures and services incidental to or required in connection with the performance of transit service;

    (g) "Transit services" means the transportation of persons and their packages and baggage by means of transit facilities between points within the Zone including the transportation of newspapers, express and mail between such points, and charter service which originates within the Zone but does not include taxicab service or individual-ticket-sales sightseeing operations;

    (h) "Transit Zone" or "Zone" means the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Zone created and described in Section 3 as well as any additional area that may be added pursuant to Section 83(a) of this Compact; and

    (i) "WMATC" means Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Commission. See Virginia Code 33.2-3100

  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supreme Court: means the Supreme Court of Virginia. See Virginia Code 1-249
  • sworn: means "affirm" or "affirmed. See Virginia Code 1-250
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July 1, 1971, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-254
  • Trade name: includes a brand name, trademark, distinctive symbol, or other similar device or thing used to identify particular products or services. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Traveled way: means the portion of a roadway for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of shoulders. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-255
  • Urban area: means an urbanized area or, in the case of an urbanized area encompassing more than one state, that part of the urbanized area within the Commonwealth, or an urban place. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Urban place: means an area so designated by the U. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Urbanized area: means an area so designated by the U. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Visible: means capable of being seen (whether or not legible) without visual aid by a person of normal visual acuity. See Virginia Code 33.2-1200
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.