Sections
Chapter 40 Pawnbrokers 54.1-4000 – 54.1-4014
Chapter 41 Precious Metals Dealers 54.1-4100 – 54.1-4111
Chapter 42 Dealers in Firearms 54.1-4200 – 54.1-4202
Chapter 43 Itinerant Merchants 54.1-4300 – 54.1-4306

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 54.1 > Subtitle V - Occupations Regulated by Local Governing Bodies

  • Adult: means a person 18 years of age or more. See Virginia Code 1-203
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annual percentage rate: The cost of credit at a yearly rate. It is calculated in a standard way, taking the average compound interest rate over the term of the loan so borrowers can compare loans. Lenders are required by law to disclose a card account's APR. Source: FDIC
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Articles of incorporation: means all documents constituting, at any particular time, the charter of a corporation. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • associate: shall mean (i) any other person who directly or indirectly controls, or is controlled by or under common control with, any such person or who is acting or intends to act jointly or in concert with any such person in connection with the acquisition of or exercise of beneficial ownership over shares; (ii) any corporation or organization of which any such person is an officer, director, manager or partner or as to which any such person performs a similar function; (iii) any other person having direct or indirect beneficial ownership of 10 percent or more of any class of equity securities of any such person; (iv) any trust or estate in which any such person has a beneficial interest or as to which any such person serves as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity; and (v) any relative or spouse of any such person, or any relative of such spouse, any one of whom has the same residence as any such person. See Virginia Code 13.1-728.1
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Authority: means the respective political subdivisions of the Commonwealth created in this subpart. See Virginia Code 2.2-2200
  • Authorized shares: means the shares of all classes a domestic or foreign corporation is authorized to issue. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • baby formula: means any food manufactured, packaged and labeled specifically for sale for consumption by a child under the age of two years. See Virginia Code 54.1-4300
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Bee: means the honeybee, Apis mellifera and genetic variations thereof, at any living stage; and may include other hymenopterous insects that depend on pollen and nectar for food. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Bee diseases: means departures from a sound state of health of bees characterized by visible symptoms including American foulbrood and any other diseases, insects, mites, or bee pests. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Bee equipment: means hives and hive parts including frames, supers, covers, bottom boards, and beekeeping apparel. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Beneficial ownership: means the sole or shared power to dispose or direct the disposition of shares, or the sole or shared power to vote or direct the voting of shares, or the sole or shared power to acquire shares, including any such power that is not immediately exercisable, whether such power is direct or indirect or through any contract, arrangement, understanding, relationship or otherwise. See Virginia Code 13.1-728.1
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the respective boards of directors for the authorities created in this subpart. See Virginia Code 2.2-2200
  • Board of supervisors: means the governing body of a county. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Bond with surety: includes the payment in cash of the full amount of the required bond and, in such case, no surety shall be required. See Virginia Code 1-205
  • Campground: means any area, place, parcel, or tract of land, by whatever name called, on which three or more campsites are occupied or intended for occupancy, or facilities are established or maintained, wholly or in part, for the accommodation of camping units for periods of overnight or longer, whether the use of the campsites and facilities is granted gratuitously, or by rental fee, lease, or conditional sale, or by covenants, restrictions, and easements, including any travel trailer camp, recreation camp, family campground, camping resort, or camping community. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Camping unit: means any device or vehicular type structure for use as temporary living quarters or shelter during periods of recreation, vacation, leisure time, or travel, including any tent, tent trailer, travel trailer, camping trailer, pickup camper, or motor home. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • City: means an independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on July 1, 1971, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-208
  • Commission: means the State Corporation Commission of Virginia. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Commissioner: means the State Health Commissioner. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • control: shall mean the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or to cause the direction of the management or policies of a person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, arrangement or understanding, or otherwise. See Virginia Code 13.1-728.1
  • Control share acquisition: means the direct or indirect acquisition, other than in an excepted acquisition, by any person of beneficial ownership of shares of a public corporation that, except for this article, would have voting rights and would, when added to all other shares of such public corporation which then have voting rights and are beneficially owned by such person, would cause such person to become entitled, immediately upon acquisition of such shares, to vote or direct the vote of, shares having voting power within any of the following ranges of the votes entitled to be cast in an election of directors: (i) one-fifth or more but less than one-third of such votes; (ii) one-third or more but less than a majority of such votes; or (iii) a majority or more of such votes. See Virginia Code 13.1-728.1
  • Converting entity: means the domestic corporation that adopts a plan of entity conversion pursuant to this article. See Virginia Code 13.1-722.8
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Council: means the governing body of a city or town. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • County: means any existing county or such unit hereafter created. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Creditor process: means all methods used by creditors to collect unsecured debts. See Virginia Code 34-1
  • Debt: means a legally enforceable monetary obligation or liability of any individual whether arising out of a contract or otherwise, but not an obligation resulting from an intentional tort. See Virginia Code 34-1
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the State Department of Health. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. See Virginia Code 3.2-100
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Distribution: means a direct or indirect transfer of cash or other property, except the corporation's own shares, or incurrence of indebtedness by a corporation to or for the benefit of its shareholders in respect of any of its shares. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Document: means (i) any tangible medium on which information is inscribed, and includes handwritten, typed, printed, or similar instruments and copies of such instruments, or (ii) an electronic record. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • domestic corporation: means a corporation authorized by law to issue shares, irrespective of the nature of the business to be transacted, organized under this chapter or existing pursuant to the laws of the Commonwealth on January 1, 1986, or which, by virtue of articles of incorporation, amendment, or merger, has become a domestic corporation of the Commonwealth, even though also being a corporation organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth, or that has become a domestic corporation of the Commonwealth pursuant to Article 12. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Domesticated corporation: means the domesticating corporation as it continues in existence after a domestication. See Virginia Code 13.1-722.1:1
  • Domesticating corporation: means the domestic corporation that approves a plan of domestication pursuant to § Source: Federal Reserve
  • Hive: means a box, skep, barrel, log gum, or other container used as a domicile for bees. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Homestead exemption: means that exemption created by § 34-4. See Virginia Code 34-1
  • Hotel: means any place offering to the public for compensation transitory lodging or sleeping accommodations, overnight or otherwise, including facilities known by varying nomenclatures or designations as hotels, motels, travel lodges, tourist homes, or hostels. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Householder: means any resident of Virginia. See Virginia Code 34-1
  • in writing: include any representation of words, letters, symbols, numbers, or figures, whether (i) printed or inscribed on a tangible medium or (ii) stored in an electronic or other medium and retrievable in a perceivable form and whether an electronic signature authorized by Chapter 42. See Virginia Code 1-257
  • Includes: means includes, but not limited to. See Virginia Code 1-218
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Industrial hemp: means any part of the plant Cannabis sativa, including seeds thereof and any derivative, extract, cannabinoid, isomer, acid, salt, or salt of an isomer, whether growing or not, with a concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol that is no greater than that allowed by federal law. See Virginia Code 3.2-4112
  • inhabitants: means with reference to any county, city, town, political subdivision of the Commonwealth or any combination thereof, the natural persons in such county, city, town, political subdivision or combination as shown by the unadjusted United States decennial census last preceding the time at which any provision dependent upon population is being applied or the time as of which it is being construed. See Virginia Code 1-235
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest: means either or both of the following rights under the organic law governing an unincorporated entity:

    1. See Virginia Code 13.1-603

  • Interest holder: means a person who holds of record an interest. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Interest holder liability: means :

    1. See Virginia Code 13.1-603

  • Interested shares: means the shares of a public corporation the voting of which in an election of directors may be exercised or directed by any of the following persons: (i) an acquiring person with respect to a control share acquisition; (ii) any officer of such public corporation; or (iii) any employee of such public corporation who is also a director of the corporation. See Virginia Code 13.1-728.1
  • Itinerant merchant: means a merchant who transports an inventory of new merchandise to a building, vacant lot, or other location and who, at that location, displays, sells or offers to sell the new merchandise to the public. See Virginia Code 54.1-4300
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Laboring person: means any person who receives wages for his services. See Virginia Code 34-1
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • like unit: means the consolidation of (i) two or more counties into a consolidated county, (ii) two or more cities into a consolidated city or (iii) two or more towns into a consolidated town. See Virginia Code 15.2-3500
  • local government: shall be construed to mean a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Locality: means a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 1-221
  • Merger: means a business combination pursuant to § Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Month: means a calendar month and "year" means a calendar year. See Virginia Code 1-223
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • New merchandise: means goods or products which are not used but are in a similar condition as the goods or products wholesaled by manufacturers or suppliers to established retail stores for first-time purchase by consumers. See Virginia Code 54.1-4300
  • Notary: means notary public. See Virginia Code 1-226
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Organic law: means the statute governing the internal affairs of a domestic or foreign corporation or eligible entity. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Organic rules: means the public organic record and private organic rules of a domestic or foreign corporation or eligible entity. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Party to a merger: means any domestic or foreign corporation or eligible entity that will merge under a plan of merger. See Virginia Code 13.1-715.1
  • Person: includes an associate of any person. See Virginia Code 13.1-728.1
  • Person: includes an individual and an entity. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, or any other legal entity. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Person: means the term as defined in § 1-230. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Personal estate: includes chattels real and such other estate as, upon the death of the owner intestate, would devolve upon his personal representative. See Virginia Code 1-233
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Principal office: means the office, in or out of the Commonwealth, where the principal executive offices of a domestic or foreign corporation are located, or, if there are no such offices, the office, in or out of the Commonwealth, so designated by the board of directors. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Proceeding: includes civil suit and criminal, administrative, and investigatory action. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Process: includes subpoenas, the summons and complaint in a civil action, and process in statutory actions. See Virginia Code 1-237
  • Public corporation: means a corporation that has shares listed on a national securities exchange or regularly traded in a market maintained by one or more members of a national or affiliated securities association. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • real estate: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments, and all rights and appurtenances thereto and interests therein, other than a chattel interest. See Virginia Code 1-219
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Record date: means the date fixed for determining the identity of the corporation's shareholders and their shareholdings for purposes of this chapter. See Virginia Code 13.1-603
  • Restaurant: means :

    1. See Virginia Code 35.1-1

  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Resulting entity: means the limited liability company that is in existence upon consummation of an entity conversion pursuant to this article. See Virginia Code 13.1-722.8
  • Secretary: means the corporate officer or other individual to whom the board of directors has delegated responsibility under subsection C of §
  • Share exchange: means a transaction pursuant to §