Sections
Chapter 44 Public Accountants 54.1-4400 – 54.1-4425

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 54.1 > Subtitle VI

  • Apiary: means any place where one or more colonies of bees are kept. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Assurance: means any form of expressed or implied opinion or conclusion about the conformity of a financial statement with any recognition, measurement, presentation, or disclosure principles for financial statements. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Attest services: means audit, review, or other attest services for which standards have been established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, by the Auditing Standards Board or the Accounting and Review Services Committee of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or by any successor standard-setting authorities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Authority: means the respective political subdivisions of the Commonwealth created in this subpart. See Virginia Code 2.2-2200
  • Bee: means the honeybee, Apis mellifera and genetic variations thereof, at any living stage; and may include other hymenopterous insects that depend on pollen and nectar for food. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Board: means the Virginia Board of Accountancy. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Board: means the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services. See Virginia Code 3.2-100
  • Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
  • City: means an independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on July 1, 1971, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-208
  • City: means any independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on the first day of July, nineteen hundred seventy-one, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Colony: means a queenright assemblage of social bees capable of reproducing. See Virginia Code 3.2-4400
  • Commissioner: means the State Health Commissioner. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Compilation services: means compiling financial statements in accordance with standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or by any successor standard-setting authorities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Continuing professional education: means the education that a person obtains after passing the CPA examination and that relates to services provided to or on behalf of an employer in academia, government, or industry or to services provided to the public. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • County: means any existing county or such unit hereafter created. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Courts of record: means the Supreme Court of Virginia, the Court of Appeals of Virginia, and the circuit courts. See Virginia Code 1-212
  • CPA: means certified public accountant. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • CPA examination: means the national uniform CPA examination approved and administered by the board of accountancy of a state or by the board's designee. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • CPA wall certificate: means the symbolic document suitable for wall display that is issued by the board of accountancy of a state to a person meeting the requirements to use the CPA title in that state. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Default or insolvency: includes , but shall not be limited to, the failure or refusal of any qualified public depository to return any public deposit upon demand or at maturity and the issuance of an order of supervisory authority restraining such depository from making payments of deposit liabilities or the appointment of a receiver for such depository. See Virginia Code 2.2-4401
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the State Department of Health. See Virginia Code 35.1-1
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Eligible collateral: means securities or instruments authorized as legal investments under the laws of the Commonwealth for public sinking funds or other public funds as well as Federal Home Loan Bank letters of credit issued in accordance with guidelines promulgated by the Treasury Board. See Virginia Code 2.2-4401
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executive Director: means the Executive Director of the Board. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Experience: means employment in academia, a firm, government, or industry in any capacity involving the substantial use of accounting, financial, tax, or other skills that are relevant, as determined by the Board, to provide services to or on behalf of an employer or to the public, as verified by an active, licensed CPA. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • farm: means any person that obtains at least 51 percent of its annual gross income from agricultural operations and produces the agricultural waste used as feedstock for the waste-to-energy technology, (ii) "agricultural waste" means biomass waste materials capable of decomposition that are produced from the raising of plants and animals during agricultural operations, including animal manures, bedding, plant stalks, hulls, and vegetable matter, and (iii) "waste-to-energy technology" means any technology, including but not limited to a methane digester, that converts agricultural waste into gas, steam, or heat that is used to generate electricity on-site. See Virginia Code 1-222.1
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Financial statement: means a presentation of historical or prospective financial information about one or more persons or entities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Financial statement preparation services: means financial statement preparation services for which standards have been established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or by any successor standard-setting authorities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Firm: means an entity formed by one or more licensees as a sole proprietorship, a partnership, a corporation, a limited liability company, or any other type of entity permitted by law. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • in writing: include any representation of words, letters, symbols, numbers, or figures, whether (i) printed or inscribed on a tangible medium or (ii) stored in an electronic or other medium and retrievable in a perceivable form and whether an electronic signature authorized by Chapter 42. See Virginia Code 1-257
  • Includes: means includes, but not limited to. See Virginia Code 1-218
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License of another state: means the license that is issued by the board of accountancy of a state other than Virginia that gives a person the privilege of using the CPA title in that state or that gives a firm the privilege of providing attest services, compilation services, and financial statement preparation services to persons and entities located in that state. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Licensed: means holding a Virginia license or the license of another state. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Licensee: means a person or firm holding a Virginia license or the license of another state. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Locality: means a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 1-221
  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Peer review: means a review of a firm's attest services, compilation services, and financial statements preparation services that is conducted in accordance with the applicable monitoring program of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or its successor, or with another monitoring program approved by the Board. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
  • Personal representative: includes the executor of a will or the administrator of the estate of a decedent, the administrator of such estate with the will annexed, the administrator of such estate unadministered by a former representative, whether there is a will or not, any person who is under the order of a circuit court to take into his possession the estate of a decedent for administration, and every other curator of a decedent's estate, for or against whom suits may be brought for causes of action that accrued to or against the decedent. See Virginia Code 1-234
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Practice of public accounting: means the giving of an assurance other than (i) by the person or persons about whom the financial information is presented or (ii) by one or more owners, officers, employees, or members of the governing body of the entity or entities about whom the financial information is presented. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Process: includes subpoenas, the summons and complaint in a civil action, and process in statutory actions. See Virginia Code 1-237
  • Providing services to the public: means providing services that are subject to the guidance of the standard-setting authorities listed in the standards of conduct and practice in subdivisions 5 and 6 of § 54. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Qualified public depository: means any national banking association, federal savings and loan association or federal savings bank located in Virginia, any bank, trust company or savings institution organized under Virginia law, or any state bank or savings institution organized under the laws of another state located in Virginia authorized by the Treasury Board to hold public deposits according to this chapter. See Virginia Code 2.2-4401
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • real estate: includes lands, tenements and hereditaments, and all rights and appurtenances thereto and interests therein, other than a chattel interest. See Virginia Code 1-219
  • Restaurant: means :

    1. See Virginia Code 35.1-1

  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Sponsoring organization: means a Board-approved professional society or other organization responsible for the facilitation and administration of peer reviews through use of its peer review program and applicable peer review standards. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • State: means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any territory of the United States that is a recognized jurisdiction by the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy or its successor. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • State: when applied to a part of the United States, includes any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-245
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • sworn: means "affirm" or "affirmed. See Virginia Code 1-250
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July one, nineteen hundred seventy-one, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Treasury Board: means the Treasury Board of the Commonwealth created by § 2. See Virginia Code 2.2-4401
  • Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-255
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Virginia license: means a license that is issued by the Board giving a person the privilege of using the CPA title in Virginia or a firm the privilege of providing attest services, compilation services, and financial statement preparation services to persons and entities located in Virginia. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
  • Voter: means a qualified voter as defined in § 24. See Virginia Code 15.2-102