Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 54.1 > Subtitle VI - Professions Regulated by Other Entities
Agency: means any authority, instrumentality, officer, board, or other unit of the government of the Commonwealth with express or implied authority to issue regulations other than the General Assembly, courts, municipal corporations, counties, other local or regional governmental authorities including sanitary or other districts and joint state-federal, interstate or intermunicipal authorities, the Virginia Resources Authority, the Virginia Code Commission with respect to minor changes made under the provisions of § 30-150, and educational institutions operated by the Commonwealth with respect to regulations that pertain to (i) their academic affairs; (ii) the selection, tenure, promotion and disciplining of faculty and employees; (iii) the selection of students; and (iv) rules of conduct and disciplining of students. See Virginia Code 2.2-4101
Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
Assurance: means any form of expressed or implied opinion or conclusion about the conformity of a financial statement with any recognition, measurement, presentation, or disclosure principles for financial statements. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
Attest services: means audit, review, or other attest services for which standards have been established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, by the Auditing Standards Board or the Accounting and Review Services Committee of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, or by any successor standard-setting authorities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Authority: means the respective political subdivisions of the Commonwealth created in this subpart. See Virginia Code 2.2-2200
Bonds: means any bonds, refunding bonds, notes, debentures, interim certificates, or any bond, grant, revenue anticipation notes or any other evidences of indebtedness or obligation of an authority, whether in temporary or definitive form and whether the interest thereon is exempt from federal income taxation. See Virginia Code 2.2-2200
City: means an independent incorporated community which became a city as provided by law before noon on July 1, 1971, or which has within defined boundaries a population of 5,000 or more and which has become a city as provided by law. See Virginia Code 1-208
Compilation services: means compiling financial statements in accordance with standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or by any successor standard-setting authorities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
Continuing professional education: means the education that a person obtains after passing the CPA examination and that relates to services provided to or on behalf of an employer in academia, government, or industry or to services provided to the public. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
CPA examination: means the national uniform CPA examination approved and administered by the board of accountancy of a state or by the board's designee. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
CPA wall certificate: means the symbolic document suitable for wall display that is issued by the board of accountancy of a state to a person meeting the requirements to use the CPA title in that state. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
Experience: means employment in academia, a firm, government, or industry in any capacity involving the substantial use of accounting, financial, tax, or other skills that are relevant, as determined by the Board, to provide services to or on behalf of an employer or to the public, as verified by an active, licensed CPA. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Financial statement: means a presentation of historical or prospective financial information about one or more persons or entities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Financial statement preparation services: means financial statement preparation services for which standards have been established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or by any successor standard-setting authorities. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Firm: means an entity formed by one or more licensees as a sole proprietorship, a partnership, a corporation, a limited liability company, or any other type of entity permitted by law. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
Governing body: means the board of supervisors of a county, council of a city, or council of a town, as the context may require. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
Guidance document: means any document developed by a state agency or staff that provides information or guidance of general applicability to the staff or public to interpret or implement statutes or the agency's rules or regulations, excluding agency minutes or documents that pertain only to the internal management of agencies. See Virginia Code 2.2-4101
in writing: include any representation of words, letters, symbols, numbers, or figures, whether (i) printed or inscribed on a tangible medium or (ii) stored in an electronic or other medium and retrievable in a perceivable form and whether an electronic signature authorized by Chapter 42. See Virginia Code 1-257
Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
License of another state: means the license that is issued by the board of accountancy of a state other than Virginia that gives a person the privilege of using the CPA title in that state or that gives a firm the privilege of providing attest services, compilation services, and financial statement preparation services to persons and entities located in that state. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
Peer review: means a review of a firm's attest services, compilation services, and financial statements preparation services that is conducted in accordance with the applicable monitoring program of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or its successor, or with another monitoring program approved by the Board. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Person: includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See Virginia Code 1-230
Practice of public accounting: means the giving of an assurance other than (i) by the person or persons about whom the financial information is presented or (ii) by one or more owners, officers, employees, or members of the governing body of the entity or entities about whom the financial information is presented. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
Process: includes subpoenas, the summons and complaint in a civil action, and process in statutory actions. See Virginia Code 1-237
Providing services to the public: means providing services that are subject to the guidance of the standard-setting authorities listed in the standards of conduct and practice in subdivisions 5 and 6 of § 54. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
Sponsoring organization: means a Board-approved professional society or other organization responsible for the facilitation and administration of peer reviews through use of its peer review program and applicable peer review standards. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
State: means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any territory of the United States that is a recognized jurisdiction by the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy or its successor. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400
Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
United States: includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Virgin Islands. See Virginia Code 1-255
Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
Virginia license: means a license that is issued by the Board giving a person the privilege of using the CPA title in Virginia or a firm the privilege of providing attest services, compilation services, and financial statement preparation services to persons and entities located in Virginia. See Virginia Code 54.1-4400