Sections
Article 1 In General 8.01-228 – 8.01-235
Article 2 Limitations on Recovery of Realty and Enforcement of Certain Liens Relating to Realty 8.01-236 – 8.01-242
Article 3 Personal Actions Generally 8.01-243 – 8.01-250.1
Article 4 Limitations on Enforcement of Judgments and Decrees 8.01-251 – 8.01-252
Article 5 Miscellaneous Limitations Provisions 8.01-253 – 8.01-256

Terms Used In Virginia Code > Title 8.01 > Chapter 4 - Limitations of Actions

  • Abused or neglected child: means any child:

    1. See Virginia Code 16.1-228

  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Adult: means a person 18 years of age or older. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Board: means the Virginia Growth and Opportunity Board. See Virginia Code 2.2-2484
  • Chief: means the Chief of the Division of Mines of the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. See Virginia Code 45.1-161.1
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • Child welfare agency: means a child-placing agency, child-caring institution or independent foster home as defined in § Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Department: means the Department of Juvenile Justice and "Director" means the administrative head in charge thereof or such of his assistants and subordinates as are designated by him to discharge the duties imposed upon him under this law. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Department: means the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. See Virginia Code 45.1-161.1
  • Department: means the Department of Motor Vehicles of the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • detention home: means a local, regional or state public or private locked residential facility that has construction fixtures designed to prevent escape and to restrict the movement and activities of children held in lawful custody. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Director: means the Director of the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. See Virginia Code 45.1-161.1
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • driver: means every person who either (i) drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle on a highway or (ii) is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Electronic credential: means an electronic method by which a person may display or transmit to another person information that verifies a person's identity, identifies personal property, or serves as evidence of the right of a person to do, or to use personal property to do, an act. See Virginia Code 46.2-225
  • Electronic credential system: means a computer system accessed by a person using a computer, cellular telephone, or other electronic device and used to display or transmit electronic credentials to other persons or to a verification system. See Virginia Code 46.2-225
  • En banc: In the bench or "full bench." Refers to court sessions with the entire membership of a court participating rather than the usual quorum. U.S. courts of appeals usually sit in panels of three judges, but may expand to a larger number in certain cases. They are then said to be sitting en banc.
  • Entity: means any corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or other legal or commercial entity. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Ex officio: means service by virtue of one's office and includes voting privileges for ex officio members unless otherwise provided. See Virginia Code 1-215
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Family abuse: means any act involving violence, force, or threat that results in bodily injury or places one in reasonable apprehension of death, sexual assault, or bodily injury and that is committed by a person against such person's family or household member. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Family or household member: means (i) the person's spouse, whether or not he or she resides in the same home with the person, (ii) the person's former spouse, whether or not he or she resides in the same home with the person, (iii) the person's parents, stepparents, children, stepchildren, brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, grandparents and grandchildren, regardless of whether such persons reside in the same home with the person, (iv) the person's mother-in-law, father-in-law, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law who reside in the same home with the person, (v) any individual who has a child in common with the person, whether or not the person and that individual have been married or have resided together at any time, or (vi) any individual who cohabits or who, within the previous 12 months, cohabited with the person, and any children of either of them then residing in the same home with the person. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Fiduciary: shall include any one or more of the following:

    a. See Virginia Code 8.01-2

  • Financial institution: means any bank, trust company, savings institution, industrial loan association, consumer finance company, or credit union. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Financial responsibility: means the ability to respond in damages for liability thereafter incurred arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or operation of a motor vehicle, in the amounts provided for in § Source: OCC
  • Fund: means the Virginia Growth and Opportunity Fund. See Virginia Code 2.2-2484
  • Governing body: means the board of supervisors of a county, council of a city, or council of a town, as the context may require. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Highway: means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth, including the streets and alleys, and, for law-enforcement purposes, (i) the entire width between the boundary lines of all private roads or private streets that have been specifically designated "highways" by an ordinance adopted by the governing body of the county, city, or town in which such private roads or streets are located and (ii) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place used for purposes of vehicular travel on any property owned, leased, or controlled by the United States government and located in the Commonwealth. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Household: means those individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or other recognized family relationship and who live in the same house or other place of residence. See Virginia Code 6.2-1300
  • Immediate family: means the individuals in a household who are related by blood, marriage, or other recognized family relationship. See Virginia Code 6.2-1300
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Infested: means actually infested or infected with a pest or so exposed to infestation that it would be reasonable to believe that an infestation exists. See Virginia Code 3.2-700
  • insolvency: means that (i) a credit union is incapable of meeting the current demands of creditors or (ii) the current value of a credit union's assets is less than the current value of the sum of its share accounts and liabilities. See Virginia Code 6.2-1313
  • Insuring organization: means an organization that provides aid and financial assistance to credit unions that are in the process of liquidation or are incurring financial difficulty in order that the share accounts in the credit unions shall be protected or guaranteed against loss up to a specified limit for each account, such as the National Credit Union Administration Share Insurance Fund, a corporation organized under Article 5 (§ 6. See Virginia Code 6.2-1300
  • Intake officer: means a juvenile probation officer appointed as such pursuant to the authority of this chapter. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • James River seed area: means that area in the James River and its tributaries above a line drawn from Cooper's Creek in Isle of Wight County on the south side of the James River to a line in a northeasterly direction across the James River to the Newport News municipal water tank located on Warwick Boulevard between 59th Street and 60th Street in the City of Newport News. See Virginia Code 28.2-200
  • judge: means the judge or the substitute judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court of each county or city. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • law: means the Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court Law embraced in this chapter. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Law-enforcement officer: means any officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of this title or local ordinances authorized by law. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local government: shall be construed to mean a county, city, or town as the context may require. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Member credit union: means a credit union which is a member of the corporation. See Virginia Code 6.2-1331
  • Motor vehicle: means every vehicle as defined in this section that is self-propelled or designed for self-propulsion except as otherwise provided in this title. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Move: means to ship, offer for shipment, receive for transportation, carry, or otherwise transport, move or allow to be moved. See Virginia Code 3.2-700
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • Nonlegislative citizen member: means any natural person who is not a member of the General Assembly of Virginia. See Virginia Code 1-225
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See Virginia Code 1-228
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Officer: means a member of the Virginia Marine Police. See Virginia Code 28.2-100
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Owner: means a person who holds the legal title to a vehicle; however, if a vehicle is the subject of an agreement for its conditional sale or lease with the right of purchase on performance of the conditions stated in the agreement and with an immediate right of possession vested in the conditional vendee or lessee or if a mortgagor of a vehicle is entitled to possession, then the conditional vendee or lessee or mortgagor shall be the owner for the purpose of this title. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Permit: means a document issued or authorized by the Commissioner to provide for the movement of regulated articles to restricted destinations for limited handling, utilization, or processing. See Virginia Code 3.2-700
  • Person: means any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or other legal or commercial entity. See Virginia Code 6.2-100
  • Person: means the term as defined in § 1-230. See Virginia Code 3.2-700
  • Person: shall include individuals, a trust, an estate, a partnership, an association, an order, a corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity;

    6. See Virginia Code 8.01-2

  • personal action: shall include an action wherein a judgment for money is sought, whether for damages to person or property. See Virginia Code 8.01-228
  • Personal representative: includes the executor of a will or the administrator of the estate of a decedent, the administrator of such estate with the will annexed, the administrator of such estate unadministered by a former representative, whether there is a will or not, any person who is under the order of a circuit court to take into his possession the estate of a decedent for administration, and every other curator of a decedent's estate, for or against whom suits may be brought for causes of action that accrued to or against the decedent. See Virginia Code 1-234
  • Pest: means an insect, disease, parasitic plant, or other organism of any character whatever, in any living stage, vertebrate or invertebrate, causing or capable of causing injury or damage to any plant or part thereof or any processed, manufactured, or other product of plants, or otherwise creating a public nuisance. See Virginia Code 3.2-700
  • Physical credential: means a document issued by an agency of the Commonwealth, another state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the United States, a foreign country, or a political subdivision of a foreign country that is issued in a physical format, such as paper or plastic, and that identifies the holder, identifies a piece of personal property, or grants the holder the permission to do, or to use property to do, an act. See Virginia Code 46.2-225
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Region: means one or more planning districts or otherwise defined areas designated as a region by the Board for the purpose of administering grants provided pursuant to this article. See Virginia Code 2.2-2484
  • Regional activity: means an economic or workforce development-focused collaborative project or program that is (i) endorsed by a regional council, (ii) consistent with the economic growth and diversification plan developed by the regional council, and (iii) carried out, performed on behalf of, or contracted for by two or more localities, political subdivisions, or public bodies corporate and politic within a region. See Virginia Code 2.2-2484
  • Regional council: means a public body certified by the Board as eligible to receive grants pursuant to this article and that is supported by or affiliated with an existing or newly established organization that engages in collaborative planning or execution of economic or workforce development activities within a region. See Virginia Code 2.2-2484
  • Regulated article: means any article of any character carrying or capable of carrying the pest against which the quarantine is directed. See Virginia Code 3.2-700
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • Share account: means a balance held by a credit union and established by a member in accordance with standards specified by the credit union, including balances designated as shares, share certificates, share draft accounts, or other names. See Virginia Code 6.2-1300
  • Shares: means the interest of a member having a savings account in a member credit union. See Virginia Code 6.2-1331
  • Shares: means the interest of a member having an account in a credit union. See Virginia Code 6.2-1300
  • Shelter care: means the temporary care of children in physically unrestricting facilities. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Shoals: means subaqueous elevations covered by water less than four feet deep at mean low water. See Virginia Code 28.2-200
  • State Board: means the State Board of Juvenile Justice. See Virginia Code 16.1-228
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • sworn: means "affirm" or "affirmed. See Virginia Code 1-250
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Third-party electronic credential system: means an electronic credential system that is not maintained by the Department or by an agent of the Department on its behalf. See Virginia Code 46.2-225
  • Town: means any existing town or an incorporated community within one or more counties which became a town before noon, July one, nineteen hundred seventy-one, as provided by law or which has within defined boundaries a population of 1,000 or more and which has become a town as provided by law. See Virginia Code 15.2-102
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Vehicle: means every device in, on or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn on a highway, except personal delivery devices and devices moved by human power or used exclusively on stationary rails or tracks. See Virginia Code 46.2-100
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.