For the purposes of this chapter:
Terms Used In Washington Code 13.40.020
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- person: may be construed to include the United States, this state, or any state or territory, or any public or private corporation or limited liability company, as well as an individual. See Washington Code 1.16.080
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
(1) “Assessment” means an individualized examination of a child to determine the child’s psychosocial needs and problems, including the type and extent of any mental health, substance abuse, or co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders, and recommendations for treatment. “Assessment” includes, but is not limited to, drug and alcohol evaluations, psychological and psychiatric evaluations, records review, clinical interview, and administration of a formal test or instrument;
(2) “Community-based rehabilitation” means one or more of the following: Employment; attendance of information classes; literacy classes; counseling, outpatient substance abuse treatment programs, outpatient mental health programs, anger management classes, education or outpatient treatment programs to prevent animal cruelty, or other services including, when appropriate, restorative justice programs; or attendance at school or other educational programs appropriate for the juvenile as determined by the school district. Placement in community-based rehabilitation programs is subject to available funds;
(3) “Community-based sanctions” may include one or more of the following:
(a) A fine, not to exceed five hundred dollars;
(b) Community restitution not to exceed one hundred fifty hours of community restitution;
(4) “Community restitution” means compulsory service, without compensation, performed for the benefit of the community by the offender as punishment for committing an offense. Community restitution may be performed through public or private organizations or through work crews;
(5) “Community supervision” means an order of disposition by the court of an adjudicated youth not committed to the department or an order granting a deferred disposition. A community supervision order for a single offense may be for a period of up to two years for a sex offense as defined by RCW 9.94A.030 and up to one year for other offenses. As a mandatory condition of any term of community supervision, the court shall order the juvenile to refrain from committing new offenses. As a mandatory condition of community supervision, the court shall order the juvenile to comply with the mandatory school attendance provisions of chapter 28A.225 RCW and to inform the school of the existence of this requirement. Community supervision is an individualized program comprised of one or more of the following:
(a) Community-based sanctions;
(b) Community-based rehabilitation;
(c) Monitoring and reporting requirements;
(d) Posting of a probation bond;
(e) Residential treatment, where substance abuse, mental health, and/or co-occurring disorders have been identified in an assessment by a qualified mental health professional, psychologist, psychiatrist, co-occurring disorder specialist, or substance use disorder professional and a funded bed is available. If a child agrees to voluntary placement in a state-funded long-term evaluation and treatment facility, the case must follow the existing placement procedure including consideration of less restrictive treatment options and medical necessity.
(i) A court may order residential treatment after consideration and findings regarding whether:
(A) The referral is necessary to rehabilitate the child;
(B) The referral is necessary to protect the public or the child;
(C) The referral is in the child’s best interest;
(D) The child has been given the opportunity to engage in less restrictive treatment and has been unable or unwilling to comply; and
(E) Inpatient treatment is the least restrictive action consistent with the child’s needs and circumstances.
(ii) In any case where a court orders a child to inpatient treatment under this section, the court must hold a review hearing no later than sixty days after the youth begins inpatient treatment, and every thirty days thereafter, as long as the youth is in inpatient treatment;
(6) “Confinement” means physical custody by the department of children, youth, and families in a facility operated by or pursuant to a contract with the state, or physical custody in a detention facility operated by or pursuant to a contract with any county. The county may operate or contract with vendors to operate county detention facilities. The department may operate or contract to operate detention facilities for juveniles committed to the department. Pretrial confinement or confinement of less than thirty-one days imposed as part of a disposition or modification order may be served consecutively or intermittently, in the discretion of the court;
(7) “Court,” when used without further qualification, means the juvenile court judge(s) or commissioner(s);
(8) “Criminal history” includes all criminal complaints against the respondent for which, prior to the commission of a current offense:
(a) The allegations were found correct by a court. If a respondent is convicted of two or more charges arising out of the same course of conduct, only the highest charge from among these shall count as an offense for the purposes of this chapter; or
(b) The criminal complaint was diverted by a prosecutor pursuant to the provisions of this chapter on agreement of the respondent and after an advisement to the respondent that the criminal complaint would be considered as part of the respondent’s criminal history. A successfully completed deferred adjudication that was entered before July 1, 1998, or a deferred disposition shall not be considered part of the respondent’s criminal history;
(9) “Department” means the department of children, youth, and families;
(10) “Detention facility” means a county facility, paid for by the county, for the physical confinement of a juvenile alleged to have committed an offense or an adjudicated offender subject to a disposition or modification order. “Detention facility” includes county group homes, inpatient substance abuse programs, juvenile basic training camps, and electronic monitoring;
(11) “Diversion unit” means any probation counselor who enters into a diversion agreement with an alleged youthful offender, or any other person, community accountability board, youth court under the supervision of the juvenile court, or other entity with whom the juvenile court administrator has contracted to arrange and supervise such agreements pursuant to RCW 13.40.080, or any person, community accountability board, or other entity specially funded by the legislature to arrange and supervise diversion agreements in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. For purposes of this subsection, “community accountability board” means a board comprised of members of the local community in which the juvenile offender resides. The superior court shall appoint the members. The boards shall consist of at least three and not more than seven members. If possible, the board should include a variety of representatives from the community, such as a law enforcement officer, teacher or school administrator, high school student, parent, and business owner, and should represent the cultural diversity of the local community;
(12) “Foster care” means temporary physical care in a foster family home or group care facility as defined in RCW 74.15.020 and licensed by the department, or other legally authorized care;
(13) “Institution” means a juvenile facility established pursuant to chapters 72.05 and 72.16 through 72.20 RCW;
(14) “Intensive supervision program” means a parole program that requires intensive supervision and monitoring, offers an array of individualized treatment and transitional services, and emphasizes community involvement and support in order to reduce the likelihood a juvenile offender will commit further offenses;
(15) “Juvenile,” “youth,” and “child” mean any individual who is under the chronological age of eighteen years and who has not been previously transferred to adult court pursuant to RCW 13.40.110, unless the individual was convicted of a lesser charge or acquitted of the charge for which he or she was previously transferred pursuant to RCW 13.40.110 or who is not otherwise under adult court jurisdiction;
(16) “Juvenile offender” means any juvenile who has been found by the juvenile court to have committed an offense, including a person eighteen years of age or older over whom jurisdiction has been extended under RCW 13.40.300;
(17) “Labor” means the period of time before a birth during which contractions are of sufficient frequency, intensity, and duration to bring about effacement and progressive dilation of the cervix;
(18) “Local sanctions” means one or more of the following: (a) 0-30 days of confinement; (b) 0-12 months of community supervision; (c) 0-150 hours of community restitution; or (d) $0-$500 fine;
(19) “Manifest injustice” means a disposition that would either impose an excessive penalty on the juvenile or would impose a serious, and clear danger to society in light of the purposes of this chapter;
(20) “Monitoring and reporting requirements” means one or more of the following: Curfews; requirements to remain at home, school, work, or court-ordered treatment programs during specified hours; restrictions from leaving or entering specified geographical areas; requirements to report to the probation officer as directed and to remain under the probation officer’s supervision; and other conditions or limitations as the court may require which may not include confinement;
(21) “Offense” means an act designated a violation or a crime if committed by an adult under the law of this state, under any ordinance of any city or county of this state, under any federal law, or under the law of another state if the act occurred in that state;
(22) “Physical restraint” means the use of any bodily force or physical intervention to control a juvenile offender or limit a juvenile offender’s freedom of movement in a way that does not involve a mechanical restraint. Physical restraint does not include momentary periods of minimal physical restriction by direct person-to-person contact, without the aid of mechanical restraint, accomplished with limited force and designed to:
(a) Prevent a juvenile offender from completing an act that would result in potential bodily harm to self or others or damage property;
(b) Remove a disruptive juvenile offender who is unwilling to leave the area voluntarily; or
(c) Guide a juvenile offender from one location to another;
(23) “Postpartum recovery” means (a) the entire period a woman or youth is in the hospital, birthing center, or clinic after giving birth and (b) an additional time period, if any, a treating physician determines is necessary for healing after the youth leaves the hospital, birthing center, or clinic;
(24) “Probation bond” means a bond, posted with sufficient security by a surety justified and approved by the court, to secure the offender’s appearance at required court proceedings and compliance with court-ordered community supervision or conditions of release ordered pursuant to RCW 13.40.040 or 13.40.050. It also means a deposit of cash or posting of other collateral in lieu of a bond if approved by the court;
(25) “Respondent” means a juvenile who is alleged or proven to have committed an offense;
(26) “Restitution” means financial reimbursement by the offender to the victim, and shall be limited to easily ascertainable damages for injury to or loss of property, actual expenses incurred for medical treatment for physical injury to persons, lost wages resulting from physical injury, and costs of the victim’s counseling reasonably related to the offense. Restitution shall not include reimbursement for damages for mental anguish, pain and suffering, or other intangible losses. Nothing in this chapter shall limit or replace civil remedies or defenses available to the victim or offender;
(27) “Restorative justice” means practices, policies, and programs informed by and sensitive to the needs of crime victims that are designed to encourage offenders to accept responsibility for repairing the harm caused by their offense by providing safe and supportive opportunities for voluntary participation and communication between the victim, the offender, their families, and relevant community members;
(28) “Restraints” means anything used to control the movement of a person’s body or limbs and includes:
(a) Physical restraint; or
(b) Mechanical device including but not limited to: Metal handcuffs, plastic ties, ankle restraints, leather cuffs, other hospital-type restraints, tasers, or batons;
(29) “Screening” means a process that is designed to identify a child who is at risk of having mental health, substance abuse, or co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders that warrant immediate attention, intervention, or more comprehensive assessment. A screening may be undertaken with or without the administration of a formal instrument;
(30) “Secretary” means the secretary of the department;
(31) “Services” means services which provide alternatives to incarceration for those juveniles who have pleaded or been adjudicated guilty of an offense or have signed a diversion agreement pursuant to this chapter;
(32) “Sex offense” means an offense defined as a sex offense in RCW 9.94A.030;
(33) “Sexual motivation” means that one of the purposes for which the respondent committed the offense was for the purpose of his or her sexual gratification;
(34) “Surety” means an entity licensed under state insurance laws or by the state department of licensing, to write corporate, property, or probation bonds within the state, and justified and approved by the superior court of the county having jurisdiction of the case;
(35) “Transportation” means the conveying, by any means, of an incarcerated pregnant youth from the institution or detention facility to another location from the moment she leaves the institution or detention facility to the time of arrival at the other location, and includes the escorting of the pregnant incarcerated youth from the institution or detention facility to a transport vehicle and from the vehicle to the other location;
(36) “Violation” means an act or omission, which if committed by an adult, must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt, and is punishable by sanctions which do not include incarceration;
(37) “Violent offense” means a violent offense as defined in RCW 9.94A.030;
(38) “Youth court” means a diversion unit under the supervision of the juvenile court.
[ 2019 c 444 § 9; 2018 c 82 § 3; (2018 c 82 § 2 expired July 1, 2019); 2017 3rd sp.s. c 6 § 605. Prior: 2016 c 136 § 2; 2016 c 106 § 1; 2014 c 110 § 1; 2012 c 201 § 1; 2010 c 181 § 10; 2009 c 454 § 2; 2004 c 120 § 2; prior: 2002 c 237 § 7; 2002 c 175 § 19; 1997 c 338 § 10; (1997 c 338 § 9 expired July 1, 1998); prior: 1995 c 395 § 2; 1995 c 134 § 1; prior: 1994 sp.s. c 7 § 520; 1994 c 271 § 803; 1994 c 261 § 18; 1993 c 373 § 1; 1990 1st ex.s. c 12 § 1; 1990 c 3 § 301; 1989 c 407 § 1; 1988 c 145 § 17; 1983 c 191 § 7; 1981 c 299 § 2; 1979 c 155 § 54; 1977 ex.s. c 291 § 56.]
Effective date—2018 c 82 § 3: “Section 3 of this act takes effect July 1, 2019.” [ 2018 c 82 § 7.]
Expiration date—2018 c 82 § 2: “Section 2 of this act expires July 1, 2019.” [ 2018 c 82 § 6.]
Effective date—2017 3rd sp.s. c 6 §§ 601-631, 701-728, and 804: See note following RCW 13.04.011.
Conflict with federal requirements—2017 3rd sp.s. c 6: See RCW 43.216.908.
Effective date—2004 c 120: See note following RCW 13.40.010.
Effective date—2002 c 175: See note following RCW 7.80.130.
Finding—Evaluation—Report—1997 c 338: See note following RCW 13.40.0357.
Severability—Effective dates—1997 c 338: See notes following RCW 5.60.060.
Finding—Intent—Severability—1994 sp.s. c 7: See notes following RCW 43.70.540.
Purpose—Severability—1994 c 271: See notes following RCW 9A.28.020.
Finding—Intent—1994 c 261: See note following RCW 16.52.011.
Severability—1993 c 373: “If any provision of this act or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the act or the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances is not affected.” [ 1993 c 373 § 3.]
Effective date—1990 1st ex.s. c 12: “This act shall take effect July 1, 1990.” [ 1990 1st ex.s. c 12 § 5.]
Effective date—Savings—Application—1988 c 145: See notes following RCW 9A.44.010.
Effective date—Severability—1979 c 155: See notes following RCW 13.04.011.
Effective dates—Severability—1977 ex.s. c 291: See notes following RCW 13.04.005.