(a) Exception for identical State standards
Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), whenever a standard established by the Commission under this Act applicable to a household substance is in effect, no State or political subdivision thereof shall have any authority either to establish or continue in effect, with respect to such household substance, any standard for special packaging (and any exemption therefrom and requirement related thereto) which is not identical to the standard established under section 1472 of this title (and any exemption therefrom and requirement related thereto) of this Act.
(b) Federal or State standards which afford a higher degree of protection
The Federal Government and the government of any State or political subdivision of a State may establish and continue in effect, with respect to a household substance for its own use, a standard for special packaging or related requirement which is designed to protect against a risk of illness or injury with respect to which a standard for special packaging or related requirement is in effect under this Act and which is not identical to such standard or requirement if the Federal, State, or political subdivision standard or requirement provides a higher degree of protection from such risk of illness or injury than the standard or requirement in effect under this Act.
(c) Exemption for State standards; requirements; determination of burden on interstate commerce; notice and hearing
(1) Upon application of a State or political subdivision of a State, the Commission may, by regulation promulgated in accordance with paragraph (2), exempt from subsection (a), under such conditions as may be prescribed in such regulation, any standard for special packaging or related requirement of such State or political subdivision applicable to a household substance subject to a standard or requirement in effect under this Act if–
(A) compliance with the State or political subdivision standard or requirement would not cause the household substance to be in violation of the standard or requirement in effect under this Act, and
(B) the State or political subdivision standard or requirement (i) provides a significantly higher degree of protection from the risk of illness or injury with respect to which the Federal standard or requirement is in effect, and (ii) does not unduly burden interstate commerce.
In determining the burden, if any, of a State or political subdivision standard or requirement on interstate commerce the Commission shall consider and make appropriate (as determined by the Commission in its discretion) findings on the technological and economic feasibility of complying with such standard or requirement, the cost of complying with such standard or requirement, the geographic distribution of the household substance to which the standard or requirement would apply, the probability of other States or political subdivisions applying for an exemption under this subsection for a similar standard or requirement, and the need for a national, uniform standard or requirement under this Act for such household substance.
(2) A regulation under paragraph (1) granting an exemption for a standard or requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State may be promulgated by the Commission only after it has provided, in accordance with section 553(b) of title 5 notice with respect to the promulgation of the regulation and has provided opportunity for the oral presentation of views respecting its promulgation.