§ 41 Federal Trade Commission established; membership; vacancies; seal
§ 42 Employees; expenses
§ 43 Office and place of meeting
§ 44 Definitions
§ 45 Unfair methods of competition unlawful; prevention by Commission
§ 45a Labels on products
§ 45b Consumer review protection
§ 45c Unfair and deceptive acts and practices relating to circumvention of ticket access control measures
§ 45d Unfair or deceptive acts or practices with respect to substance use disorder treatment service and products
§ 46 Additional powers of Commission
§ 46a Concurrent resolution essential to authorize investigations
§ 47 Reference of suits under antitrust statutes to Commission
§ 48 Information and assistance from departments
§ 49 Documentary evidence; depositions; witnesses
§ 50 Offenses and penalties
§ 51 Effect on other statutory provisions
§ 52 Dissemination of false advertisements
§ 53 False advertisements; injunctions and restraining orders
§ 54 False advertisements; penalties
§ 55 Additional definitions
§ 56 Commencement, defense, intervention and supervision of litigation and appeal by Commission or Attorney General
§ 57 Separability clause
§ 57a Unfair or deceptive acts or practices rulemaking proceedings
§ 57b Civil actions for violations of rules and cease and desist orders respecting unfair or deceptive acts or practices
§ 57b-1 Civil investigative demands
§ 57b-2 Confidentiality
§ 57b-2a Confidentiality and delayed notice of compulsory process for certain third parties
§ 57b-2b Protection for voluntary provision of information
§ 57b-3 Rulemaking process
§ 57b-4 Good faith reliance on actions of Board of Governors
§ 57b-5 Agricultural cooperatives
§ 57c Authorization of appropriations
§ 57c-1 Staff exchanges
§ 57c-2 Reimbursement of expenses
§ 58 Short title

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 15 > Chapter 2 > Subchapter I

  • Administrator: means , except as otherwise provided, the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration, within the Federal Emergency Management Agency. See 10 USC 7723
  • advanced electric or hybrid vehicle: means a vehicle which--

    (A) minimizes the total amount of energy to be consumed with respect to its fabrication, operation, and disposal, and represents a substantial improvement over existing electric and hybrid vehicles with respect to the total amount of energy so consumed. See 10 USC 8045

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • commerce: means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. See 10 USC 7016
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 7016
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • hybrid vehicle: means a vehicle propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power source and components thereof. See 10 USC 8045
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local: means of or pertaining to any city, town, county, special purpose district, unincorporated territory, or other political subdivision of a State. See 10 USC 7723
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • project: means the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Project established under section 2503(a) of this title. See 10 USC 8045
  • promotion: means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to this chapter, to present a favorable image of pecans to the public with the express intent of improving the competitive position of pecans in the marketplace and stimulating sales of pecans, including paid advertising. See 10 USC 7016
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means any type of test, study, or analysis designed to advance the image, desirability, usage, marketability, production, product development, or quality of pecans. See 10 USC 7016
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 7016
  • Service: means the Foreign Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 8137
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • State: has the meaning given the term in section 101 of title 6. See 10 USC 7723
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 7016
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • United States: includes each of the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. See 10 USC 8137
  • United States: means collectively the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 7016
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.