(a) In General.–This chapter does not prohibit or create a private right of action for–

Terms Used In 18 USC 1833

  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • trade secret: means all forms and types of financial, business, scientific, technical, economic, or engineering information, including patterns, plans, compilations, program devices, formulas, designs, prototypes, methods, techniques, processes, procedures, programs, or codes, whether tangible or intangible, and whether or how stored, compiled, or memorialized physically, electronically, graphically, photographically, or in writing if--

    (A) the owner thereof has taken reasonable measures to keep such information secret. See 18 USC 1839

  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5

(1) any otherwise lawful activity conducted by a governmental entity of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State; or

(2) the disclosure of a trade secret in accordance with subsection (b).


(b) Immunity From Liability for Confidential Disclosure of a Trade Secret to the Government or in a Court Filing.–

(1) Immunity.–An individual shall not be held criminally or civilly liable under any Federal or State trade secret law for the disclosure of a trade secret that–

(A) is made–

(i) in confidence to a Federal, State, or local government official, either directly or indirectly, or to an attorney; and

(ii) solely for the purpose of reporting or investigating a suspected violation of law; or


(B) is made in a complaint or other document filed in a lawsuit or other proceeding, if such filing is made under seal.


(2) Use of trade secret information in anti-retaliation lawsuit.–An individual who files a lawsuit for retaliation by an employer for reporting a suspected violation of law may disclose the trade secret to the attorney of the individual and use the trade secret information in the court proceeding, if the individual–

(A) files any document containing the trade secret under seal; and

(B) does not disclose the trade secret, except pursuant to court order.


(3) Notice.–

(A) In general.–An employer shall provide notice of the immunity set forth in this subsection in any contract or agreement with an employee that governs the use of a trade secret or other confidential information.

(B) Policy document.–An employer shall be considered to be in compliance with the notice requirement in subparagraph (A) if the employer provides a cross-reference to a policy document provided to the employee that sets forth the employer’s reporting policy for a suspected violation of law.

(C) Non-compliance.–If an employer does not comply with the notice requirement in subparagraph (A), the employer may not be awarded exemplary damages or attorney fees under subparagraph (C) or (D) of section 1836(b)(3) in an action against an employee to whom notice was not provided.

(D) Applicability.–This paragraph shall apply to contracts and agreements that are entered into or updated after the date of enactment of this subsection.


(4) Employee defined.–For purposes of this subsection, the term “employee” includes any individual performing work as a contractor or consultant for an employer.

(5) Rule of construction.–Except as expressly provided for under this subsection, nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize, or limit liability for, an act that is otherwise prohibited by law, such as the unlawful access of material by unauthorized means.