Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 18 > Part I
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- act of war: means any act occurring in the course of--
(A) declared war. See 18 USC 2331
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- administrator: means the official designated by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 1104(b) of this title. See 19 USC 2291
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- affiliate: shall include any corporation, business trust, association, or other similar organization--
(1) Of which a member bank, directly or indirectly, owns or controls either a majority of the voting shares or more than 50 per centum of the number of shares voted for the election of its directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions at the preceding election, or controls in any manner the election of a majority of its directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions. See 12 USC 4582
- agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 18 USC 6
- aggrieved person: means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication or a person against whom the interception was directed. See 18 USC 2510
- Agreement: means the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade referred to in section 3511(d)(5) of this title. See 19 USC 2571
- Aircraft: means any contrivance now known or hereafter invented, used, or designed for navigation of or for flight in the air. See 18 USC 2311
- Alien: means any person who is not a citizen or national of the United States. See 18 USC 841
- alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See 19 USC 2291
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- American vessel: means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States. See 18 USC 1081
- ammunition: means ammunition or cartridge cases, primers, bullets, or propellent powder designed for use in any firearm. See 18 USC 921
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- armor piercing ammunition: means --
(i) a projectile or projectile core which may be used in a handgun and which is constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other substances) from one or a combination of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or depleted uranium. See 18 USC 921
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 18 USC 841
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 19 USC 2291
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States 1
(19) The term "published ordinance" means a published law of any political subdivision of a State which the Attorney General determines to be relevant to the enforcement of this chapter and which is contained on a list compiled by the Attorney General, which list shall be published in the Federal Register, revised annually, and furnished to each licensee under this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- Attorney General: includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 18 USC 2341
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- biological agent: means any microorganism (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substance, or any naturally occurring, bioengineered or synthesized component of any such microorganism or infectious substance, capable of causing--
(A) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism. See 18 USC 178
- body armor: means any product sold or offered for sale, in interstate or foreign commerce, as personal protective body covering intended to protect against gunfire, regardless of whether the product is to be worn alone or is sold as a complement to another product or garment. See 18 USC 921
- Bureau: means the Bureau of the Census. See 10 USC 7252
- Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
- child: means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is--
(A) a child born in wedlock. See 19 USC 2291
- children: means the plural and means individuals who have not attained the age of eighteen years. See 18 USC 1093
- cigarette: means --
(A) any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or in any substance not containing tobacco. See 18 USC 2341
- Circumstantial evidence: All evidence except eyewitness testimony.
- Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
- collector: means any person who acquires, holds, or disposes of firearms as curios or relics, as the Attorney General shall by regulation define, and the term "licensed collector" means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- common carrier: means a locomotive, a rail carrier, a sleeping car carrier, a bus transporting passengers in interstate commerce, a water common carrier, and an air common carrier. See 18 USC 341
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
- Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
- conformity assessment procedure: means any procedure used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled. See 19 USC 2571
- Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
- consular officer: means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality. See 19 USC 2291
- contents: when used with respect to any wire, oral, or electronic communication, includes any information concerning the substance, purport, or meaning of that communication. See 18 USC 2510
- continental United States: means the States of the United States and the District of Columbia. See 12 USC 4581
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- contraband cigarettes: means a quantity in excess of 10,000 cigarettes, which bear no evidence of the payment of applicable State or local cigarette taxes in the State or locality where such cigarettes are found, if the State or local government requires a stamp, impression, or other indication to be placed on packages or other containers of cigarettes to evidence payment of cigarette taxes, and which are in the possession of any person other than--
(A) a person holding a permit issued pursuant to chapter 52 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as a manufacturer of tobacco products or as an export warehouse proprietor, or a person operating a customs bonded warehouse pursuant to section 311 or 555 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U. See 18 USC 2341
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives: means the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, Done at Montreal on 1 March 1991. See 18 USC 841
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- conviction: means , with respect to an alien, a formal judgment of guilt of the alien entered by a court or, if adjudication of guilt has been withheld, where--
(i) a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or the alien has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt, and
(ii) the judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint on the alien's liberty to be imposed. See 19 USC 2291
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
- court of competent jurisdiction: includes --
(A) any district court of the United States (including a magistrate judge of such a court) or any United States court of appeals that--
(i) has jurisdiction over the offense being investigated. See 18 USC 2711
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Dealer: means any person engaged in the business of distributing explosive materials at wholesale or retail. See 18 USC 841
- dealer: means (A) any person engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail, (B) any person engaged in the business of repairing firearms or of making or fitting special barrels, stocks, or trigger mechanisms to firearms, or (C) any person who is a pawnbroker. See 18 USC 921
- debtor: means a debtor concerning whom a petition has been filed under title 11. See 18 USC 151
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- delivery system: means --
(A) any apparatus, equipment, device, or means of delivery specifically designed to deliver or disseminate a biological agent, toxin, or vector. See 18 USC 178
- department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 18 USC 6
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- destructive device: means --
(A) any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas--
(iii) rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces,
(iv) missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce,
(v) mine, or
(vi) device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses. See 18 USC 921
- Detection agent: means any one of the substances specified in this subsection when introduced into a plastic explosive or formulated in such explosive as a part of the manufacturing process in such a manner as to achieve homogeneous distribution in the finished explosive, including--
(1) Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), C2H4(NO3)2, molecular weight 152, when the minimum concentration in the finished explosive is 0. See 18 USC 841
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Distribute: means sell, issue, give, transfer, or otherwise dispose of. See 18 USC 841
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- documentary material: includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material. See 18 USC 1961
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- electronic communication: means any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce, but does not include--
(A) any wire or oral communication. See 18 USC 2510
- electronic communication service: means any service which provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or electronic communications. See 18 USC 2510
- electronic communications system: means any wire, radio, electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the transmission of wire or electronic communications, and any computer facilities or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of such communications. See 18 USC 2510
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
- enterprise: includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity. See 18 USC 1961
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- executive branch: includes each executive agency as defined in title 5, and any other entity or administrative unit in the executive branch. See 18 USC 202
- Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Explosive materials: means explosives, blasting agents, and detonators. See 18 USC 841
- explosives: means any chemical compound mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. See 18 USC 841
- Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
- extraordinary ability: means , for purposes of subsection (a)(15)(O)(i), in the case of the arts, distinction. See 19 USC 2291
- facility: means a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1886(d)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U. See 20 USC 1070a-13
- Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Federal agency: means any of the following within the meaning of chapter 2 of part I of title 5:
(A) Any executive department. See 19 USC 2571
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal health care offense: means a violation of, or a criminal conspiracy to violate--
(1) section 669, 1035, 1347, or 1518 of this title or section 1128B of the Social Security Act (42 U. See 18 USC 24
- Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- financial institution: means --
(1) an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act). See 18 USC 20
- firearm: means (A) any weapon (including a starter gun) which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive. See 18 USC 921
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- foreign agent: means any officer, employee, proxy, servant, delegate, or representative of a foreign government. See 18 USC 1839
- foreign commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce with a foreign country. See 18 USC 10
- foreign government: as used in this title except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201, includes any government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, irrespective of recognition by the United States. See 18 USC 11
- foreign instrumentality: means any agency, bureau, ministry, component, institution, association, or any legal, commercial, or business organization, corporation, firm, or entity that is substantially owned, controlled, sponsored, commanded, managed, or dominated by a foreign government. See 18 USC 1839
- foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See 19 USC 2291
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- fugitive from justice: means any person who has fled from any State to avoid prosecution for a crime or to avoid giving testimony in any criminal proceeding. See 18 USC 921
- gambling establishment: means any common gaming or gambling establishment operated for the purpose of gaming or gambling, including accepting, recording, or registering bets, or carrying on a policy game or any other lottery, or playing any game of chance, for money or other thing of value. See 18 USC 1081
- gambling ship: means a vessel used principally for the operation of one or more gambling establishments. See 18 USC 1081
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- governmental entity: means a department or agency of the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof. See 18 USC 2711
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- handgun: means --
(A) a firearm which has a short stock and is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand. See 18 USC 921
- health care benefit program: means any public or private plan or contract, affecting commerce, under which any medical benefit, item, or service is provided to any individual, and includes any individual or entity who is providing a medical benefit, item, or service for which payment may be made under the plan or contract. See 18 USC 24
- immigrant: means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens--
(A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family. See 19 USC 2291
- immigrant visa: means an immigrant visa required by this chapter and properly issued by a consular officer at his office outside of the United States to an eligible immigrant under the provisions of this chapter. See 19 USC 2291
- immigration judge: means an attorney whom the Attorney General appoints as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review, qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title. See 19 USC 2291
- immigration laws: includes this chapter and all laws, conventions, and treaties of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, deportation, expulsion, or removal of aliens. See 19 USC 2291
- immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See 19 USC 2291
- Importer: means any person engaged in the business of importing or bringing explosive materials into the United States for purposes of sale or distribution. See 18 USC 841
- importer: means any person engaged in the business of importing or bringing firearms or ammunition into the United States for purposes of sale or distribution. See 18 USC 921
- incites: means urges another to engage imminently in conduct in circumstances under which there is a substantial likelihood of imminently causing such conduct. See 18 USC 1093
- Indian country: as used in this chapter , means (a) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States Government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and, including rights-of-way running through the reservation, (b) all dependent Indian communities within the borders of the United States whether within the original or subsequently acquired territory thereof, and whether within or without the limits of a state, and (c) all Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same. See 18 USC 1151
- Indian tribe: has the meaning given the term in section 102 of the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994 (25 U. See 18 USC 841
- indictment: includes an indictment or information in any court under which a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year may be prosecuted. See 18 USC 921
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
- intended spouse: means any alien who meets the criteria set forth in section 1154(a)(1)(A)(iii)(II)(aa)(BB), 1154(a)(1)(B)(ii)(II)(aa)(BB), or 1229b(b)(2)(A)(i)(III) of this title. See 19 USC 2291
- intercept: means the aural or other acquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device. See 18 USC 2510
- international standard: means any standard that is promulgated by an international standards organization. See 19 USC 2571
- international standards organization: means any organization--
(A) the membership of which is open to representatives, whether public or private, of the United States and at least all Members. See 19 USC 2571
- international terrorism: means activities that--
(A) involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or of any State. See 18 USC 2331
- Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
- interstate commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce between one State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and another State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia. See 18 USC 10
- interstate or foreign commerce: includes commerce between any place in a State and any place outside of that State, or within any possession of the United States (not including the Canal Zone) or the District of Columbia, but such term does not include commerce between places within the same State but through any place outside of that State. See 18 USC 921
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- intimate partner: means , with respect to a person, the spouse of the person, a former spouse of the person, an individual who is a parent of a child of the person, and an individual who cohabitates or has cohabited with the person. See 18 USC 921
- Investigative or law enforcement officer: means any officer of the United States or of a State or political subdivision thereof, who is empowered by law to conduct investigations of or to make arrests for offenses enumerated in this chapter, and any attorney authorized by law to prosecute or participate in the prosecution of such offenses. See 18 USC 2510
- Irrevocable trust: A trust arrangement that cannot be revoked, rescinded, or repealed by the grantor.
- Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
- Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
- Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
- Judge of competent jurisdiction: means --
(a) a judge of a United States district court or a United States court of appeals. See 18 USC 2510
- judicial branch: means the Supreme Court of the United States. See 18 USC 202
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See 19 USC 2291
- Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
- legislative branch: means --
(A) the Congress. See 18 USC 202
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- licensed dealer: means any dealer who is licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- licensed importer: means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- licensed manufacturer: means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- Licensee: means any importer, manufacturer, or dealer licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 841
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Livestock: means any domestic animals raised for home use, consumption, or profit, such as horses, pigs, llamas, goats, fowl, sheep, buffalo, and cattle, or the carcasses thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- machinegun: has the meaning given such term in section 5845(b) of the National Firearms Act (26 U. See 18 USC 921
- Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
- Majority whip: See Whips.
- Manufacturer: means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing explosive materials for purposes of sale or distribution or for his own use. See 18 USC 841
- manufacturer: means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing firearms or ammunition for purposes of sale or distribution. See 18 USC 921
- marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
- Member: means a WTO member as defined in section 3501(10) of this title. See 19 USC 2571
- members: means the plural. See 18 USC 1093
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Minority whip: See Whips.
- misappropriation: means --
(A) acquisition of a trade secret of another by a person who knows or has reason to know that the trade secret was acquired by improper means. See 18 USC 1839
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- misdemeanor crime of domestic violence: means an offense that--
- Money: means the legal tender of the United States or of any foreign country, or any counterfeit thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- mother: include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother. See 19 USC 2291
- Motor vehicle: includes an automobile, automobile truck, automobile wagon, motorcycle, or any other self-propelled vehicle designed for running on land but not on rails. See 18 USC 2311
- national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See 19 USC 2291
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National Bank Examiner: An employee of the Comptroller of the Currency whose function is to examine national banks periodically to determine the financial position of a bank and the security of its deposits. The examiner also verifies that the bank maintains procedures consistent with federal banking laws and regulations. Source: OCC
- National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
- national of the United States: has the meaning prescribed in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U. See 18 USC 178
- national of the United States: has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. See 18 USC 2331
- national-defense material: include arms, armament, ammunition, livestock, forage, forest products and standing timber, stores of clothing, air, water, food, foodstuffs, fuel, supplies, munitions, and all other articles of whatever description and any part or ingredient thereof, intended for, adapted to, or suitable for the use of the United States in connection with the national defense or for use in or in connection with the producing, manufacturing, repairing, storing, mining, extracting, distributing, loading, unloading, or transporting of any of the materials or other articles hereinbefore mentioned or any part or ingredient thereof. See 18 USC 2151
- national-defense premises: include all buildings, grounds, mines, or other places wherein such national-defense material is being produced, manufactured, repaired, stored, mined, extracted, distributed, loaded, unloaded, or transported, together with all machinery and appliances therein contained. See 18 USC 2151
- national-defense utilities: include all railroads, railways, electric lines, roads of whatever description, railroad or railway fixture, canal, lock, dam, wharf, pier, dock, bridge, building, structure, engine, machine, mechanical contrivance, car, vehicle, boat, aircraft, airfields, air lanes, and fixtures or appurtenances thereof, or any other means of transportation whatsoever, whereon or whereby such national-defense material, or any troops of the United States, are being or may be transported either within the limits of the United States or upon the high seas or elsewhere. See 18 USC 2151
- naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See 19 USC 2291
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
- official detention: means --
(A) detention by a Federal officer or employee, or under the direction of a Federal officer or employee, following arrest for an offense. See 18 USC 2246
- official responsibility: means the direct administrative or operating authority, whether intermediate or final, and either exercisable alone or with others, and either personally or through subordinates, to approve, disapprove, or otherwise direct Government action. See 18 USC 202
- oral communication: means any oral communication uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not subject to interception under circumstances justifying such expectation, but such term does not include any electronic communication. See 18 USC 2510
- organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- passport: means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country. See 19 USC 2291
- permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See 19 USC 2291
- Permittee: means any user of explosives for a lawful purpose, who has obtained either a user permit or a limited permit under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 841
- Person: means any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company. See 18 USC 841
- person: includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property. See 18 USC 1961
- person: means an individual or an organization. See 19 USC 2291
- person: means any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property. See 18 USC 2331
- person: means any employee, or agent of the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof, and any individual, partnership, association, joint stock company, trust, or corporation. See 18 USC 2510
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plastic explosive: means an explosive material in flexible or elastic sheet form formulated with one or more high explosives which in their pure form has a vapor pressure less than 10?4 Pa at a temperature of 25°C. See 18 USC 841
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Postal Service: means the United States Postal Service established under title 39, and every officer and employee of that Service, whether or not such officer or employee has taken the oath of office. See 18 USC 12
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
- President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- prison: means a correctional, detention, or penal facility. See 18 USC 2246
- Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
- private person: means --
(A) any individual who is a citizen or national of the United States. See 19 USC 2571
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probate: Proving a will
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- product: means any natural or manufactured item. See 19 USC 2571
- profession: shall include but not be limited to architects, engineers, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, and teachers in elementary or secondary schools, colleges, academies, or seminaries. See 19 USC 2291
- professional athlete: means an individual who is employed as an athlete by--
(aa) a team that is a member of an association of 6 or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage. See 20 USC 1070a-13
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- protected computer: has the meaning set forth in section 1030. See 18 USC 2510
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- racketeering activity: means (A) any act or threat involving murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year. See 18 USC 1961
- racketeering investigation: means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
- racketeering investigator: means any attorney or investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
- Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
- readily accessible to the general public: means , with respect to a radio communication, that such communication is not--
(A) scrambled or encrypted. See 18 USC 2510
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- refugee: means (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such special circumstances as the President after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 1157(e) of this title) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. See 19 USC 2291
- religious group: means a set of individuals whose identity as such is distinctive in terms of common religious creed, beliefs, doctrines, practices, or rituals. See 18 USC 1093
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- remote computing service: means the provision to the public of computer storage or processing services by means of an electronic communications system. See 18 USC 2711
- representative: includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity. See 20 USC 1070a-13
- residence: means the place of general abode. See 19 USC 2291
- Responsible person: means an individual who has the power to direct the management and policies of the applicant pertaining to explosive materials. See 18 USC 841
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- rifle: means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of an explosive to fire only a single projectile through a rifled bore for each single pull of the trigger. See 18 USC 921
- riot: means a public disturbance involving (1) an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons, which act or acts shall constitute a clear and present danger of, or shall result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual or (2) a threat or threats of the commission of an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons having, individually or collectively, the ability of immediate execution of such threat or threats, where the performance of the threatened act or acts of violence would constitute a clear and present danger of, or would result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual. See 18 USC 2102
- school: means a school which provides elementary or secondary education, as determined under State law. See 18 USC 921
- school zone: means --
(A) in, or on the grounds of, a public, parochial or private school. See 18 USC 921
- seaport: means all piers, wharves, docks, and similar structures, adjacent to any waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to which a vessel may be secured, including areas of land, water, or land and water under and in immediate proximity to such structures, buildings on or contiguous to such structures, and the equipment and materials on such structures or in such buildings. See 18 USC 26
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 10 USC 7252
- Secretary concerned: means the Secretary of Commerce with respect to functions under this subchapter relating to nonagricultural products, and the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to functions under this subchapter relating to agricultural products. See 19 USC 2571
- secure gun storage or safety device: means --
(A) a device that, when installed on a firearm, is designed to prevent the firearm from being operated without first deactivating the device. See 18 USC 921
- Securities: includes any note, stock certificate, bond, debenture, check, draft, warrant, traveler's check, letter of credit, warehouse receipt, negotiable bill of lading, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate, preorganization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate. See 18 USC 2311
- semiautomatic rifle: means any repeating rifle which utilizes a portion of the energy of a firing cartridge to extract the fired cartridge case and chamber the next round, and which requires a separate pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge. See 18 USC 921
- serious bodily injury: means bodily injury that involves a substantial risk of death, unconsciousness, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty. See 18 USC 2246
- Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See 19 USC 2291
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- sexual act: means --
(A) contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the anus, and for purposes of this subparagraph contact involving the penis occurs upon penetration, however slight. See 18 USC 2246
- sexual contact: means the intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person. See 18 USC 2246
- short-barreled rifle: means a rifle having one or more barrels less than sixteen inches in length and any weapon made from a rifle (whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise) if such weapon, as modified, has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches. See 18 USC 921
- short-barreled shotgun: means a shotgun having one or more barrels less than eighteen inches in length and any weapon made from a shotgun (whether by alteration, modification or otherwise) if such a weapon as modified has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches. See 18 USC 921
- shotgun: means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of an explosive to fire through a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger. See 18 USC 921
- smokeless tobacco: means any finely cut, ground, powdered, or leaf tobacco that is intended to be placed in the oral or nasal cavity or otherwise consumed without being combusted. See 18 USC 2341
- special Government employee: shall mean an officer or employee of the executive or legislative branch of the United States Government, of any independent agency of the United States or of the District of Columbia, who is retained, designated, appointed, or employed to perform, with or without compensation, for not to exceed one hundred and thirty days during any period of three hundred and sixty-five consecutive days, temporary duties either on a full-time or intermittent basis, a part-time United States commissioner, a part-time United States magistrate judge, or, regardless of the number of days of appointment, an independent counsel appointed under chapter 40 of title 28 and any person appointed by that independent counsel under section 594(c) of title 28. See 18 USC 202
- special immigrant: means --
(A) an immigrant, lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is returning from a temporary visit abroad. See 19 USC 2291
- special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States: as used in this title , includes:
(1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State. See 18 USC 7
- standard: means a document approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for products or related processes and production methods, with which compliance is not mandatory. See 19 USC 2571
- standards-related activity: means the development, adoption, or application of any standard, technical regulation, or conformity assessment procedure. See 19 USC 2571
- State: includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States (not including the Canal Zone). See 18 USC 841
- State: includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States (not including the Canal Zone). See 18 USC 921
- State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 19 USC 2291
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See 18 USC 1961
- State: means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, possession, or territory of the United States. See 18 USC 2246
- State: means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands. See 18 USC 2341
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States. See 18 USC 2510
- State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See 19 USC 2571
- State agency: means any department, agency, or other instrumentality of the government of any State or of any political subdivision of any State. See 19 USC 2571
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 19 USC 2291
- substantial part: means a part of a group of such numerical significance that the destruction or loss of that part would cause the destruction of the group as a viable entity within the nation of which such group is a part. See 18 USC 1093
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Tax stamp: includes any tax stamp, tax token, tax meter imprint, or any other form of evidence of an obligation running to a State, or evidence of the discharge thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Tenancy by the entirety: A type of joint tenancy between husband and wife that is recognized in some States. Neither party can sever the joint tenancy relationship; when a spouse dies, the survivor acquires full title to the property.
- terrorist organization: means an organization--
(I) designated under section 1189 of this title. See 20 USC 1070a-13
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- torture: means an act committed by a person acting under the color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control. See 18 USC 2340
- toxin: means the toxic material or product of plants, animals, microorganisms (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substances, or a recombinant or synthesized molecule, whatever their origin and method of production, and includes--
(A) any poisonous substance or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology produced by a living organism. See 18 USC 178
- Trade Representative: means the United States Trade Representative. See 19 USC 2571
- trade secret: means all forms and types of financial, business, scientific, technical, economic, or engineering information, including patterns, plans, compilations, program devices, formulas, designs, prototypes, methods, techniques, processes, procedures, programs, or codes, whether tangible or intangible, and whether or how stored, compiled, or memorialized physically, electronically, graphically, photographically, or in writing if--
(A) the owner thereof has taken reasonable measures to keep such information secret. See 18 USC 1839
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
- United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 19 USC 2291
- United States: means the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the commonwealths, territories, and possessions of the United States. See 18 USC 2340
- United States: when used in a geographical context, means all States. See 19 USC 2571
- unlawful debt: means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate. See 18 USC 1961
- unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See 19 USC 2291
- user: means any person or entity who--
(A) uses an electronic communication service. See 18 USC 2510
- User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
- Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
- Value: means the face, par, or market value, whichever is the greatest, and the aggregate value of all goods, wares, and merchandise, securities, and money referred to in a single indictment shall constitute the value thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- VAWA self-petitioner: means an alien, or a child of the alien, who qualifies for relief under--
(A) clause (iii), (iv), or (vii) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title. See 19 USC 2291
- vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- vessel: includes every kind of water and air craft or other contrivance used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water, or on water and in the air, as well as any ship, boat, barge, or other water craft or any structure capable of floating on the water. See 18 USC 1081
- Vessel: means any watercraft or other contrivance used or designed for transportation or navigation on, under, or immediately above, water. See 18 USC 2311
- vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
- vessel of the United States: as used in this title , means a vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States, or any citizen thereof, or any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof. See 18 USC 9
- Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
- Victim Impact Statement: A written or spoken statement by the victim or his or her representative about the physical, emotional, and financial impact of a crime on the victim. The statement is given to the court before sentencing.
- war material: include arms, armament, ammunition, livestock, forage, forest products and standing timber, stores of clothing, air, water, food, foodstuffs, fuel, supplies, munitions, and all articles, parts or ingredients, intended for, adapted to, or suitable for the use of the United States or any associate nation, in connection with the conduct of war or defense activities. See 18 USC 2151
- war premises: include all buildings, grounds, mines, or other places wherein such war material is being produced, manufactured, repaired, stored, mined, extracted, distributed, loaded, unloaded, or transported, together with all machinery and appliances therein contained. See 18 USC 2151
- war utilities: include all railroads, railways, electric lines, roads of whatever description, any railroad or railway fixture, canal, lock, dam, wharf, pier, dock, bridge, building, structure, engine, machine, mechanical contrivance, car, vehicle, boat, aircraft, airfields, air lanes, and fixtures or appurtenances thereof, or any other means of transportation whatsoever, whereon or whereby such war material or any troops of the United States, or of any associate nation, are being or may be transported either within the limits of the United States or upon the high seas or elsewhere. See 18 USC 2151
- whoever: include any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company. See 18 USC 921
- whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
- wire communication: means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception (including the use of such connection in a switching station) furnished or operated by any person engaged in providing or operating such facilities for the transmission of interstate or foreign communications or communications affecting interstate or foreign commerce. See 18 USC 2510
- wire communication facility: means any and all instrumentalities, personnel, and services (among other things, the receipt, forwarding, or delivery of communications) used or useful in the transmission of writings, signs, pictures, and sounds of all kinds by aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the points of origin and reception of such transmission. See 18 USC 1081
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291