Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 18 > Part I - Crimes
- Academy: means the National Academy for Fire Prevention and Control. See 15 USC 2203
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- act of war: means any act occurring in the course of--
(A) declared war. See 18 USC 2331
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Adjournment sine die: The end of a legislative session "without day." These adjournments are used to indicate the final adjournment of an annual or the two-year session of legislature.
- Administration: means the National Credit Union Administration. See 12 USC 1752
- Administration: means the National Archives and Records Administration established under section 2102 of this title. See 44 USC 2101
- Administration: means the United States Fire Administration established pursuant to section 2204 of this title. See 15 USC 2203
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See 42 USC 7602
- Administrator: means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. See 42 USC 4121
- Administrator: means , except as otherwise provided, the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration, within the Federal Emergency Management Agency. See 15 USC 2203
- Administrator of FEMA: means the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. See 15 USC 2203
- advanced automobile propulsion system: means an energy conversion system, including engine and drive train, which utilizes advanced technology and is suitable for use in an advanced automobile. See 15 USC 2702
- advanced electric or hybrid vehicle: means a vehicle which--
(A) minimizes the total amount of energy to be consumed with respect to its fabrication, operation, and disposal, and represents a substantial improvement over existing electric and hybrid vehicles with respect to the total amount of energy so consumed. See 15 USC 2502
- Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- affiliate: shall mean an entity effectively controlled or owned by the Corporation, except that such term shall not include an originator (as defined in section 2279aa of this title). See 12 USC 2279aa-11
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- agency: means the President of the United States, or an executive department, independent board, establishment, bureau, agency, institution, commission, or separate office of the administrative branch of the Government of the United States but not the legislative or judicial branches of the Government. See 44 USC 1501
- agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 18 USC 6
- aggrieved person: means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication or a person against whom the interception was directed. See 18 USC 2510
- air pollutant: means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. See 42 USC 7602
- air pollution control agency: means any of the following:
(1) A single State agency designated by the Governor of that State as the official State air pollution control agency for purposes of this chapter. See 42 USC 7602
- Aircraft: means any contrivance now known or hereafter invented, used, or designed for navigation of or for flight in the air. See 18 USC 2311
- Alaska Railroad: means the agency of the United States Government that is operated by the Department of Transportation as a rail carrier in Alaska under authority of the Act of March 12, 1914 (43 U. See 45 USC 1202
- Alaska Railroad Revolving Fund: means the public enterprise fund maintained by the Department of the Treasury into which revenues of the Alaska Railroad and appropriations for the Alaska Railroad are deposited, and from which funds are expended for Alaska Railroad operation, maintenance and construction work authorized by law. See 45 USC 1202
- Alien: means any person who is not a citizen or national of the United States. See 18 USC 841
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- alternative trading system: means an organization, association, or group of persons that--
- Amendment in the nature of a substitute: An amendment that would strike out the entire text of a bill or other measure and insert a different full text.
- American vessel: means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States. See 18 USC 1081
- ammunition: means ammunition or cartridge cases, primers, bullets, or propellent powder designed for use in any firearm. See 18 USC 921
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- antique firearm: means --
(A) any firearm (including any firearm with a matchlock, flintlock, percussion cap, or similar type of ignition system) manufactured in or before 1898. See 18 USC 921
- antitrust law: means the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U. See 15 USC 1802
- antitrust laws: includes --
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- appliance: means any article, such as a room air-conditioner, refrigerator-freezer, or dishwasher, which the Secretary classifies as an appliance for purposes of this part. See 42 USC 6326
- applicable implementation plan: means the portion (or portions) of the implementation plan, or most recent revision thereof, which has been approved under section 7410 of this title, or promulgated under section 7410(c) of this title, or promulgated or approved pursuant to regulations promulgated under section 7601(d) of this title and which implements the relevant requirements of this chapter. See 42 USC 7602
- applicable program: means any program for which the Secretary or the Department has administrative responsibility as provided by law or by delegation of authority pursuant to law. See 20 USC 1221
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Archivist: means the Archivist of the United States appointed under section 2103 of this title. See 44 USC 2101
- Archivist: means the Archivist of the United States. See 44 USC 2201
- Archivist: means the Archivist of the United States. See 44 USC 2901
- armor piercing ammunition: means --
(i) a projectile or projectile core which may be used in a handgun and which is constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other substances) from one or a combination of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or depleted uranium. See 18 USC 921
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States or his designee. See 34 USC 10251
- Attorney General: includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 18 USC 2341
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 18 USC 841
- Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States 1
(19) The term "published ordinance" means a published law of any political subdivision of a State which the Attorney General determines to be relevant to the enforcement of this chapter and which is contained on a list compiled by the Attorney General, which list shall be published in the Federal Register, revised annually, and furnished to each licensee under this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- aural transfer: means a transfer containing the human voice at any point between and including the point of origin and the point of reception. See 18 USC 2510
- auxiliary aids and services: includes --
(A) qualified interpreters or other effective methods of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals with hearing impairments. See 42 USC 12103
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- bankruptcy court: means the court having jurisdiction over the reorganization of the Milwaukee Railroad. See 45 USC 902
- Bequest: Property gifted by will.
- biological agent: means any microorganism (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substance, or any naturally occurring, bioengineered or synthesized component of any such microorganism or infectious substance, capable of causing--
(A) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism. See 18 USC 178
- blind: means an individual who has central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with the use of a correcting lens or whose eye is accompanied by a limitation in the fields of vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees. See 34 USC 10284
- Board: means the Climate Program Policy Board. See 15 USC 2903
- Board: means the National Credit Union Administration Board. See 12 USC 1752
- Board: means the Railroad Retirement Board. See 45 USC 902
- Board: means the Railroad Retirement Board. See 45 USC 1002
- Board: means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. See 7 USC 1a
- board of trade: means any organized exchange or other trading facility. See 7 USC 1a
- body armor: means any product sold or offered for sale, in interstate or foreign commerce, as personal protective body covering intended to protect against gunfire, regardless of whether the product is to be worn alone or is sold as a complement to another product or garment. See 18 USC 921
- boot camp prison: includes a correctional facility in which inmates are required to participate in a highly regimented program that provides strict discipline, physical training, and hard labor, together with extensive rehabilitative activities and with educational, job training, and drug treatment support. See 34 USC 10251
- branch: includes any branch credit union, branch office, branch agency, additional office, or any branch place of business located in any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the several territories, including the trust territories, and possessions of the United States, the Panama Canal Zone, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, at which member accounts are established or money lent. See 12 USC 1752
- building: means any structure which includes provision for a heating or cooling system, or both, or for a hot water system. See 42 USC 6326
- Bureau: means the Bureau of Indian Affairs. See 25 USC 3802
- candidate officer: means an individual who is enrolled or admitted, as a cadet or trainee, in a formal and officially established program of instruction or of training (such as a police or fire academy) that is specifically intended to result upon completion, in the--
(A) commissioning of such individual as a law enforcement officer. See 34 USC 10284
- catastrophic injury: means an injury, the direct and proximate result of which is to permanently render an individual functionally incapable (including through a directly and proximately resulting neurocognitive disorder), based on the state of medicine on the date on which the claim is determined by the Bureau, of performing work, including sedentary work: Provided, That, if it appears that a claimant may be functionally capable of performing work--
(A) the Bureau shall disregard work where any compensation provided is de minimis, nominal, honorary, or mere reimbursement of incidental expenses, such as--
(i) work that involves ordinary or simple tasks, that because of the claimed disability, the claimant cannot perform without significantly more supervision, accommodation, or assistance than is typically provided to an individual without the claimed disability doing similar work. See 34 USC 10284
- Cattle: means one or more bulls, steers, oxen, cows, heifers, or calves, or the carcass or carcasses thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
- Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Credit Union Administration Board. See 12 USC 1752
- Chambers: A judge's office.
- chaplain: includes any individual serving as an officially recognized or designated member of a legally organized volunteer fire department or legally organized police department, or an officially recognized or designated public employee of a legally organized fire or police department who was responding to a fire, rescue, or police emergency. See 34 USC 10284
- Charity: An agency, institution, or organization in existence and operating for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons and conducted for educational, religious, scientific, medical, or other beneficent purposes.
- chief executive: means the highest official of a State or local jurisdiction. See 34 USC 10251
- Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
- child: means any natural, illegitimate, adopted, or posthumous child or stepchild of a deceased or permanently and totally disabled public safety officer who, at the time of the public safety officer's death or fatal injury (in connection with any claim predicated upon such death or injury) or the date of the public safety officer's catastrophic injury or of the final determination by the Bureau of any claim predicated upon such catastrophic injury, is--
(A) 18 years of age or under. See 34 USC 10284
- children: means the plural and means individuals who have not attained the age of eighteen years. See 18 USC 1093
- cigarette: means --
(A) any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or in any substance not containing tobacco. See 18 USC 2341
- Circumstantial evidence: All evidence except eyewitness testimony.
- Civil forfeiture: The loss of ownership of property used to conduct illegal activity.
- claim of valid existing rights: means any claim to the rail properties of the Alaska Railroad on record in the Department of the Interior as of January 13, 1983. See 45 USC 1202
- cleared swap: means any swap that is, directly or indirectly, submitted to and cleared by a derivatives clearing organization registered with the Commission. See 7 USC 1a
- collector: means any person who acquires, holds, or disposes of firearms as curios or relics, as the Attorney General shall by regulation define, and the term "licensed collector" means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- commerce: means (A) commerce between any place in any State and any place outside thereof. See 42 USC 7550
- Commission: means the Commodity Futures Trading Commission established under section 2(a)(2) of this title. See 7 USC 1a
- Commission: means the Interstate Commerce Commission. See 45 USC 902
- Commission: means the Interstate Commerce Commission. See 45 USC 1002
- Commissioner: means the Commissioner of the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, as established under section 12311 of this title. See 42 USC 12302
- Committee: means the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences established under section 2932 of this title. See 15 USC 2921
- commodity: means wheat, cotton, rice, corn, oats, barley, rye, flaxseed, grain sorghums, mill feeds, butter, eggs, Solanum tuberosum (Irish potatoes), wool, wool tops, fats and oils (including lard, tallow, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and all other fats and oils), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice, and all other goods and articles, except onions (as provided by section 13-1 of this title) and motion picture box office receipts (or any index, measure, value, or data related to such receipts), and all services, rights, and interests (except motion picture box office receipts, or any index, measure, value or data related to such receipts) in which contracts for future delivery are presently or in the future dealt in. See 7 USC 1a
- commodity pool: means any investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise operated for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--
(i) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- commodity pool operator: means any person--
(i) engaged in a business that is of the nature of a commodity pool, investment trust, syndicate, or similar form of enterprise, and who, in connection therewith, solicits, accepts, or receives from others, funds, securities, or property, either directly or through capital contributions, the sale of stock or other forms of securities, or otherwise, for the purpose of trading in commodity interests, including any--
(I) commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- commodity trading advisor: means any person who--
(i) for compensation or profit, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications, writings, or electronic media, as to the value of or the advisability of trading in--
(I) any contract of sale of a commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- common carrier: as used in this chapter shall include the receiver or receivers or other persons or corporations charged with the duty of the management and operation of the business of a common carrier. See 45 USC 57
- common carrier: means a locomotive, a rail carrier, a sleeping car carrier, a bus transporting passengers in interstate commerce, a water common carrier, and an air common carrier. See 18 USC 341
- Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
- community development corporation: means a private, nonprofit corporation whose board of directors is comprised of business, civic and community leaders, and whose principal purpose includes the provision of low-income housing or community economic development projects that primarily benefit low-income individuals and communities. See 34 USC 12211
- community referral services: means services to assist families in obtaining community resources, including health care, mental health care, employability development and job training, and other social services. See 42 USC 12332
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- Comptroller General: means the Comptroller General of the United States. See 42 USC 6881
- Comptroller General: means the Comptroller General of the United States. See 42 USC 6892
- Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
- construction: means the erection, acquisition, renovation, repairs, remodeling, or expansion of new or existing buildings or other physical facilities, and the acquisition or installation of initial equipment therefor. See 34 USC 10251
- construction project agreement: means a negotiated agreement between the Secretary and an Indian tribe, that at a minimum--
(A) establishes project phase start and completion dates. See 25 USC 5381
- contents: when used with respect to any wire, oral, or electronic communication, includes any information concerning the substance, purport, or meaning of that communication. See 18 USC 2510
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- contraband cigarettes: means a quantity in excess of 10,000 cigarettes, which bear no evidence of the payment of applicable State or local cigarette taxes in the State or locality where such cigarettes are found, if the State or local government requires a stamp, impression, or other indication to be placed on packages or other containers of cigarettes to evidence payment of cigarette taxes, and which are in the possession of any person other than--
(A) a person holding a permit issued pursuant to chapter 52 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as a manufacturer of tobacco products or as an export warehouse proprietor, or a person operating a customs bonded warehouse pursuant to section 311 or 555 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U. See 18 USC 2341
- contract of sale: includes sales, agreements of sale, and agreements to sell. See 7 USC 1a
- Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives: means the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, Done at Montreal on 1 March 1991. See 18 USC 841
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- cooperative association of producers: means any cooperative association, corporate, or otherwise, not less than 75 percent in good faith owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by producers of agricultural products and otherwise complying with sections 291 and 292 of this title, including any organization acting for a group of such associations and owned or controlled by such associations, except that business done for or with the United States, or any agency thereof, shall not be considered either member or nonmember business in determining the compliance of any such association with this chapter. See 7 USC 1a
- correctional facility: means any place for the confinement or rehabilitation of offenders or individuals charged with or convicted of criminal offenses. See 34 USC 10251
- correctional option: includes community-based incarceration, weekend incarceration, boot camp prison, electronic monitoring of offenders, intensive probation, and any other innovative punishment designed to have the greatest impact on offenders who can be punished more effectively in an environment other than a traditional correctional facility. See 34 USC 10251
- Council: means the Federal Council on Children, Youth, and Families, as established under section 12314(a) of this title. See 42 USC 12302
- Council: means the Federal Coordinating Council on Science, Engineering, and Technology. See 15 USC 2921
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
- court: means a tribunal recognized as a part of the judicial branch of a State or of its local government units. See 34 USC 10251
- court of competent jurisdiction: includes --
(A) any district court of the United States (including a magistrate judge of such a court) or any United States court of appeals that--
(i) has jurisdiction over the offense being investigated. See 18 USC 2711
- court of last resort: means that State court having the highest and final appellate authority of the State. See 34 USC 10251
- court order: includes a court order (as described in section 922(g)(8) of title 18). See 34 USC 40903
- criminal history information: includes records and related data, contained in an automated or manual criminal justice informational system, compiled by law enforcement agencies for the purpose of identifying criminal offenders and alleged offenders and maintaining as to such persons records of arrests, the nature and disposition of criminal charges, sentencing, confinement, rehabilitation, and release. See 34 USC 10251
- criminal justice: means activities pertaining to crime prevention, control, or reduction, or the enforcement of the criminal law, including, but not limited to, police efforts to prevent, control, or reduce crime or to apprehend criminals, including juveniles, activities of courts having criminal jurisdiction, and related agencies (including but not limited to prosecutorial and defender services, juvenile delinquency agencies and pretrial service or release agencies), activities of corrections, probation, or parole authorities and related agencies assisting in the rehabilitation, supervision, and care of criminal offenders, and programs relating to the prevention, control, or reduction of narcotic addiction and juvenile delinquency. See 34 USC 10251
- crude oil transportation system: means a crude oil delivery system (including the location of such system) for transporting Alaskan and other crude oil to northern tier States and inland States, but such term does not include the Long Beach-Midland project. See 43 USC 2003
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- date of transfer: means the date on which the Secretary delivers to the State the four documents referred to in section 1203(b)(1) of this title. See 45 USC 1202
- Dealer: means any person engaged in the business of distributing explosive materials at wholesale or retail. See 18 USC 841
- dealer: means (A) any person engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail, (B) any person engaged in the business of repairing firearms or of making or fitting special barrels, stocks, or trigger mechanisms to firearms, or (C) any person who is a pawnbroker. See 18 USC 921
- debtor: means a debtor concerning whom a petition has been filed under title 11. See 18 USC 151
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Defense attorney: Represent defendants in criminal matters.
- delivery system: means --
(A) any apparatus, equipment, device, or means of delivery specifically designed to deliver or disseminate a biological agent, toxin, or vector. See 18 USC 178
- Department: means the Department of Education. See 20 USC 1221
- department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 18 USC 6
- Department: means the Department of Energy or any component thereof, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. See 42 USC 7101
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- derivatives clearing organization: means a clearinghouse, clearing association, clearing corporation, or similar entity, facility, system, or organization that, with respect to an agreement, contract, or transaction--
(i) enables each party to the agreement, contract, or transaction to substitute, through novation or otherwise, the credit of the derivatives clearing organization for the credit of the parties. See 7 USC 1a
- Descendent: One who is directly descended from another such as a child, grandchild, or great grandchild.
- destructive device: means --
(A) any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas--
(iii) rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces,
(iv) missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce,
(v) mine, or
(vi) device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses. See 18 USC 921
- Detection agent: means any one of the substances specified in this subsection when introduced into a plastic explosive or formulated in such explosive as a part of the manufacturing process in such a manner as to achieve homogeneous distribution in the finished explosive, including--
(1) Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), C2H4(NO3)2, molecular weight 152, when the minimum concentration in the finished explosive is 0. See 18 USC 841
- Devise: To gift property by will.
- Director: means the Director of the Community Services Administration. See 42 USC 6862
- disability: means , with respect to an individual--
(A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual. See 42 USC 12102
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Distribute: means sell, issue, give, transfer, or otherwise dispose of. See 18 USC 841
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- document: means a Presidential proclamation or Executive order and an order, regulation, rule, certificate, code of fair competition, license, notice, or similar instrument, issued, prescribed, or promulgated by a Federal agency. See 44 USC 1501
- documentary material: includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material. See 18 USC 1961
- domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 26 USC 7701
- elderly: means any individual who is 60 years of age or older. See 42 USC 6862
- electronic communication: means any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce, but does not include--
(A) any wire or oral communication. See 18 USC 2510
- electronic communication service: means any service which provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or electronic communications. See 18 USC 2510
- electronic communications system: means any wire, radio, electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the transmission of wire or electronic communications, and any computer facilities or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of such communications. See 18 USC 2510
- Electronic funds transfer: The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) Source: OCC
- electronic messages: means electronic mail and other electronic messaging systems that are used for purposes of communicating between individuals. See 44 USC 2901
- electronic storage: means --
(A) any temporary, intermediate storage of a wire or electronic communication incidental to the electronic transmission thereof. See 18 USC 2510
- electronic trading facility: means a trading facility that--
(A) operates by means of an electronic or telecommunications network. See 7 USC 1a
- eligible contract participant: means --
(A) acting for its own account--
(i) a financial institution. See 7 USC 1a
- eligible Indian tribe or tribal organization: means any Indian tribe or tribal organization that qualifies to administer federally funded higher education assistance under a contract pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act [25 U. See 25 USC 3322
- Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
- Emergency: means any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, Federal assistance is needed to supplement State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States. See 42 USC 5122
- employee: includes any employee of the Rock Island Railroad as of August 1, 1979, but does not include any individual serving as president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, comptroller, counsel, member of the board of directors, or any other person performing such functions. See 45 USC 1002
- employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
- employees: means all permanent personnel employed by the Alaska Railroad on the date of transfer, including the officers of the Alaska Railroad, unless otherwise indicated in this chapter. See 45 USC 1202
- En banc: In the bench or "full bench." Refers to court sessions with the entire membership of a court participating rather than the usual quorum. U.S. courts of appeals usually sit in panels of three judges, but may expand to a larger number in certain cases. They are then said to be sitting en banc.
- energy audit: means any process which identifies and specifies the energy and cost savings which are likely to be realized through the purchase and installation of particular energy conservation measures or renewable-resource energy measures and which--
(A) is carried out in accordance with rules of the Secretary. See 42 USC 6326
- engaged in the business: means --
(A) as applied to a manufacturer of firearms, a person who devotes time, attention, and labor to manufacturing firearms as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit through the sale or distribution of the firearms manufactured. See 18 USC 921
- enterprise: includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity. See 18 USC 1961
- Equal Credit Opportunity Act: Prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or because an applicant receives income from a public assistance program. Source: OCC
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- evaluation: means the administration and conduct of studies and analyses to determine the impact and value of a project or program in accomplishing the statutory objectives of this chapter. See 34 USC 10251
- Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
- exclusive-use easement: means an easement which affords to the easement holder the following:
(A) the exclusive right to use, possess, and enjoy the surface estate of the land subject to this easement for transportation, communication, and transmission purposes and for support functions associated with such purposes. See 45 USC 1202
- executive branch: includes each executive agency as defined in title 5, and any other entity or administrative unit in the executive branch. See 18 USC 202
- Explosive materials: means explosives, blasting agents, and detonators. See 18 USC 841
- explosives: means any chemical compound mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. See 18 USC 841
- Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
- Facility: means the National Credit Union Central Liquidity Facility. See 12 USC 1795a
- failing newspaper: means a newspaper publication which, regardless of its ownership or affiliations, is in probable danger of financial failure. See 15 USC 1802
- Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
- Fair Debt Collection Practices Act: The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a set of United States statutes added as Title VIII of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Its purpose is to ensure ethical practices in the collection of consumer debts and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. It is often used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Source: OCC
- family resource and support programs: means community-based services that offer sustained assistance to families at various stages in their development. See 42 USC 12352
- Federal agency: means an Executive agency, as defined in section 105 of title 5. See 43 USC 2003
- Federal agency: means any executive agency or any establishment in the legislative or judicial branch of the Government (except the Supreme Court, the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Architect of the Capitol and any activities under the direction of the Architect of the Capitol). See 44 USC 2901
- Federal agency: means any department, independent establishment, Government corporation, or other agency of the executive branch of the Federal Government, including the United States Postal Service, but shall not include the American National Red Cross. See 42 USC 5122
- Federal credit union: means a cooperative association organized in accordance with the provisions of this chapter for the purpose of promoting thrift among its members and creating a source of credit for provident or productive purposes. See 12 USC 1752
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
- Federal electronic information: means Federal public information stored electronically. See 44 USC 4104
- Federal health care offense: means a violation of, or a criminal conspiracy to violate--
- Federal implementation plan: means a plan (or portion thereof) promulgated by the Administrator to fill all or a portion of a gap or otherwise correct all or a portion of an inadequacy in a State implementation plan, and which includes enforceable emission limitations or other control measures, means or techniques (including economic incentives, such as marketable permits or auctions of emissions allowances), and provides for attainment of the relevant national ambient air quality standard. See 42 USC 7602
- Federal land manager: means , with respect to any lands in the United States, the Secretary of the department with authority over such lands. See 42 USC 7602
- Federal prosecutor: A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government.
- Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
- federally funded higher education assistance: means any grant assistance provided to an Indian student from funds made available for such purpose by contract or grant to an Indian tribe from amounts appropriated under the authority of section 13 of this title. See 25 USC 3322
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- financial institution: means --
- financial institution: means --
- fire service: means any organization in any State consisting of personnel, apparatus, and equipment which has as its purpose protecting property and maintaining the safety and welfare of the public from the dangers of fire, including a private firefighting brigade. See 15 USC 2203
- firearm: means (A) any weapon (including a starter gun) which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive. See 18 USC 921
- firefighter: includes an individual serving as an officially recognized or designated member of a legally organized volunteer fire department, including an individual who, as such a member, engages in scene security or traffic management as the primary or only duty of the individual during emergency response. See 34 USC 10284
- Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
- You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
- The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
- The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
- floor broker: means any person--
(i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, shall purchase or sell for any other person--
(I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- floor trader: means any person--
(i) who, in or surrounding any pit, ring, post, or other place provided by a contract market for the meeting of persons similarly engaged, purchases, or sells solely for such person's own account--
(I) any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- follow up services: means services provided to ensure that necessary services are received by families and are effective in meeting their needs. See 42 USC 12332
- Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
- Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
- foreign agent: means any officer, employee, proxy, servant, delegate, or representative of a foreign government. See 18 USC 1839
- foreign futures authority: means any foreign government, or any department, agency, governmental body, or regulatory organization empowered by a foreign government to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter, or any department or agency of a political subdivision of a foreign government empowered to administer or enforce a law, rule, or regulation as it relates to a futures or options matter. See 7 USC 1a
- foreign government: as used in this title except in sections 112, 878, 970, 1116, and 1201, includes any government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, irrespective of recognition by the United States. See
- foreign instrumentality: means any agency, bureau, ministry, component, institution, association, or any legal, commercial, or business organization, corporation, firm, or entity that is substantially owned, controlled, sponsored, commanded, managed, or dominated by a foreign government. See 18 USC 1839
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- former President: when used with respect to Presidential records, means the former President during whose term or terms of office such Presidential records were created. See 44 USC 2201
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
- fuel: means any energy source capable of propelling an automobile. See 15 USC 2702
- fuel economy: refers to the average distance traveled in representative driving conditions by an automobile per unit of fuel consumed, as determined by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with test procedures which shall be established by rule and shall require that fuel economy tests be conducted in conjunction with the exhaust emissions tests mandated by section 7525 of title 42. See 15 USC 2702
- fugitive from justice: means any person who has fled from any State to avoid prosecution for a crime or to avoid giving testimony in any criminal proceeding. See 18 USC 921
- function: includes reference to any duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, and activity, or the plural thereof, as the case may be. See 42 USC 7101
- Fund: means the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund. See 12 USC 1752
- futures commission merchant: means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--
(aa) engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--
(AA) the purchase or sale of a commodity for future delivery. See 7 USC 1a
- gambling establishment: means any common gaming or gambling establishment operated for the purpose of gaming or gambling, including accepting, recording, or registering bets, or carrying on a policy game or any other lottery, or playing any game of chance, for money or other thing of value. See 18 USC 1081
- gambling ship: means a vessel used principally for the operation of one or more gambling establishments. See 18 USC 1081
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
- global change: means changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. See 15 USC 2921
- global change research: means study, monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information management activities to describe and understand--
(A) the interactive physical, chemical, and biological processes that regulate the total Earth system. See 15 USC 2921
- governmental entity: means a department or agency of the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof. See 18 USC 2711
- Grace period: The number of days you'll have to pay your bill for purchases in full without triggering a finance charge. Source: Federal Reserve
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
- gross mismanagement: means a significant, clear, and convincing violation of a compact, funding agreement, or regulatory, or statutory requirements applicable to Federal funds transferred to an Indian tribe by a compact or funding agreement that results in a significant reduction of funds available for the programs, services, functions, or activities (or portions thereof) assumed by an Indian tribe. See 25 USC 5381
- Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- handgun: means --
(A) a firearm which has a short stock and is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand. See 18 USC 921
- health care benefit program: means any public or private plan or contract, affecting commerce, under which any medical benefit, item, or service is provided to any individual, and includes any individual or entity who is providing a medical benefit, item, or service for which payment may be made under the plan or contract. See
- hearing examiner: includes any medical or claims examiner. See 34 USC 10251
- high probability of improving the criminal justice system: means that a prudent assessment of the concepts and implementation plans included in a proposed program, project, approach, or practice, together with an assessment of the problem to which it is addressed and of data and information bearing on the problem, concept, and implementation plan, provides strong evidence that the proposed activities would result in identifiable improvements in the criminal justice system if implemented as proposed. See 34 USC 10251
- historical park: means the Weir Farm National Historical Park established in section 410ffff-2 of this title. See 16 USC 410ffff
- hybrid vehicle: means a vehicle propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power source and components thereof. See 15 USC 2502
- importer: means any person who owns, at the first place of storage, any petroleum product imported into the United States. See 42 USC 6232
- Importer: means any person engaged in the business of importing or bringing explosive materials into the United States for purposes of sale or distribution. See 18 USC 841
- importer: means any person engaged in the business of importing or bringing firearms or ammunition into the United States for purposes of sale or distribution. See 18 USC 921
- incites: means urges another to engage imminently in conduct in circumstances under which there is a substantial likelihood of imminently causing such conduct. See 18 USC 1093
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- independent State body: means the entity established under section 12336 of this title. See 42 USC 12332
- Indian: has the meaning given such term in section 4(d) of the Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act [25 U. See 25 USC 3322
- Indian country: as used in this chapter , means (a) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States Government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and, including rights-of-way running through the reservation, (b) all dependent Indian communities within the borders of the United States whether within the original or subsequently acquired territory thereof, and whether within or without the limits of a state, and (c) all Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same. See 18 USC 1151
- Indian tribe: means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village, which is Federally recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians. See 42 USC 7602
- Indian tribe: as used in this subchapter shall include such other authorized Indian tribe, inter-tribal consortium, or tribal organization. See 25 USC 5381
- Indian tribe: has the meaning given the term in section 102 of the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994 (25 U. See 18 USC 841
- Indian tribe: means any Indian tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U. See 25 USC 3802
- Indian tribe: has the meaning given that term in section 5304 of title 25 and "tribal" means of or pertaining to an Indian tribe. See 15 USC 2203
- indictment: includes an indictment or information in any court under which a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year may be prosecuted. See 18 USC 921
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- individual retirement plan: means --
(A) an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), and
(B) an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b). See 26 USC 7701
- industrial plant: means any fixed equipment or facility which is used in connection with, or as part of, any process or system for industrial production or output. See 42 USC 6326
- inherent Federal functions: means those Federal functions which cannot legally be delegated to Indian tribes. See 25 USC 5381
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- inland States: means those States in the United States other than northern tier States and the States of California, Alaska, and Hawaii. See 43 USC 2003
- inspection: means reviewing any Federal agency's records or records management practices or programs with respect to effectiveness and compliance with records management laws and making necessary recommendations for correction or improvement of records management. See 44 USC 2901
- institution of higher education: means any such institution as defined by section 1001 of title 20, subject, however, to such modifications and extensions as the Office may determine to be appropriate. See 34 USC 10251
- insurance adjustment organization: includes any organizations and persons engaged in the business of adjusting loss claims arising under insurance policies issued by any insurance company or other insurer. See 42 USC 4121
- insurance agent or broker: include any organization or person that is authorized to engage in the business of insurance under the laws of any State, subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U. See 42 USC 4121
- insured credit union: means any credit union the member accounts of which are insured in accordance with the provisions of subchapter II of this chapter, and the term "noninsured credit union" means any credit union the member accounts of which are not so insured. See 12 USC 1752
- Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
- Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
- inter-tribal consortium: means a coalition of two 1 more separate Indian tribes that join together for the purpose of participating in self-governance, including tribal organizations. See 25 USC 5381
- intercept: means the aural or other acquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device. See 18 USC 2510
- international energy program: means the Agreement on an International Energy Program, signed by the United States on November 18, 1974, including (A) the annex entitled "Emergency Reserves" (B) any amendment to such Agreement which includes another nation as a party to such Agreement, and (C) any technical or clerical amendment to such Agreement. See 42 USC 6202
- international organization: means a public international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U. See 26 USC 7701
- international terrorism: means activities that--
(A) involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or of any State. See 18 USC 2331
- Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
- interstate air pollution control agency: means --
(1) an air pollution control agency established by two or more States, or
(2) an air pollution control agency of two or more municipalities located in different States. See 42 USC 7602
- interstate commerce: means commerce--
(A) between any State, territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 1a
- interstate commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce between one State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and another State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia. See
- interstate or foreign commerce: includes commerce between any place in a State and any place outside of that State, or within any possession of the United States (not including the Canal Zone) or the District of Columbia, but such term does not include commerce between places within the same State but through any place outside of that State. See 18 USC 921
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- intimate partner: means , with respect to a person, the spouse of the person, a former spouse of the person, an individual who is a parent of a child of the person, and an individual who cohabitates or has cohabited with the person. See 18 USC 921
- introducing broker: means any person (except an individual who elects to be and is registered as an associated person of a futures commission merchant)--
(I) is engaged in soliciting or in accepting orders for--
(aa) the purchase or sale of any commodity for future delivery, security futures product, or swap. See 7 USC 1a
- Investigative or law enforcement officer: means any officer of the United States or of a State or political subdivision thereof, who is empowered by law to conduct investigations of or to make arrests for offenses enumerated in this chapter, and any attorney authorized by law to prosecute or participate in the prosecution of such offenses. See 18 USC 2510
- joint newspaper operating arrangement: means any contract, agreement, joint venture (whether or not incorporated), or other arrangement entered into by two or more newspaper owners for the publication of two or more newspaper publications, pursuant to which joint or common production facilities are established or operated and joint or unified action is taken or agreed to be taken with respect to any one or more of the following: printing. See 15 USC 1802
- joint return: means a single return made jointly under section 6013 by a husband and wife. See 26 USC 7701
- Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
- Judge of competent jurisdiction: means --
(a) a judge of a United States district court or a United States court of appeals. See 18 USC 2510
- Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
- judicial branch: means the Supreme Court of the United States. See 18 USC 202
- Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
- Juror: A person who is on the jury.
- Law clerk: Assist judges with research and drafting of opinions.
- law enforcement officer: means an individual involved in crime and juvenile delinquency control or reduction, or enforcement of the criminal laws (including juvenile delinquency), including, but not limited to, police, corrections, probation, parole, and judicial officers. See 34 USC 10284
- Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
- Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
- Legal tender: coins, dollar bills, or other currency issued by a government as official money. Source: U.S. Mint
- legislative branch: means --
(A) the Congress. See 18 USC 202
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- licensed dealer: means any dealer who is licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- licensed importer: means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- licensed manufacturer: means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 921
- Licensee: means any importer, manufacturer, or dealer licensed under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 841
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Life estate: A property interest limited in duration to the life of the individual holding the interest (life tenant).
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- liquidity needs: means the needs of credit unions for--
(A) short-term adjustment credit available to assist in meeting temporary requirements for funds or to cushion more persistent outflows of funds pending an orderly adjustment of credit union assets and liabilities. See 12 USC 1795a
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Livestock: means any domestic animals raised for home use, consumption, or profit, such as horses, pigs, llamas, goats, fowl, sheep, buffalo, and cattle, or the carcasses thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- local: means of or pertaining to any city, town, county, special purpose district, unincorporated territory, or other political subdivision of a State. See 15 USC 2203
- local government: means --
(A) a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority, school district, special district, intrastate district, council of governments (regardless of whether the council of governments is incorporated as a nonprofit corporation under State law), regional or interstate government entity, or agency or instrumentality of a local government. See 42 USC 5122
- Long Beach-Midland project: means the crude oil delivery system which was the subject of, and is generally described in, the "Final Environmental Impact Statement, Crude Oil Transportation System: Valdez, Alaska, to Midland, Texas (as proposed by Sohio Transportation Company)" the availability of which was announced by the Department of the Interior in the Federal Register on June 1, 1977 (42 Fed. See 43 USC 2003
- low-income: means that income in relation to family size which (A) is at or below 200 percent of the poverty level determined in accordance with criteria established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, except that the Secretary may establish a higher level if the Secretary, after consulting with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Director of the Community Services Administration, determines that such a higher level is necessary to carry out the purposes of this part and is consistent with the eligibility criteria established for the weatherization program under section 2809(a)(12) of this title, (B) is the basis on which cash assistance payments have been paid during the preceding 12-month period under titles IV and XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 42 USC 6862
- machinegun: has the meaning given such term in section 5845(b) of the National Firearms Act (26 U. See 18 USC 921
- Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
- Major disaster: means any natural catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, winddriven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion, in any part of the United States, which in the determination of the President causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under this chapter to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby. See 42 USC 5122
- major security-based swap participant: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- major swap participant: means any person who is not a swap dealer, and--
(i) maintains a substantial position in swaps for any of the major swap categories as determined by the Commission, excluding--
(I) positions held for hedging or mitigating commercial risk. See 7 USC 1a
- Majority whip: See Whips.
- management: means any person who organizes, exercises control over, or administers or who is responsible for organizing, directing, or administering. See 15 USC 1821
- Manufacturer: means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing explosive materials for purposes of sale or distribution or for his own use. See 18 USC 841
- manufacturer: means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing firearms or ammunition for purposes of sale or distribution. See 18 USC 921
- Markup: The process by which congressional committees and subcommittees debate, amend, and rewrite proposed legislation.
- marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
- means of emission limitation: means a system of continuous emission reduction (including the use of specific technology or fuels with specified pollution characteristics). See 42 USC 7602
- member: means , with respect to a registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility, an individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust--
(A) owning or holding membership in, or admitted to membership representation on, the registered entity or derivatives transaction execution facility. See 7 USC 1a
- member: means a Regular or an Agent member of the Facility. See 12 USC 1795a
- member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew: means an officially recognized or designated employee or volunteer member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew (including a ground or air ambulance service) that--
(A) is a public agency. See 34 USC 10284
- members: means the plural. See 18 USC 1093
- Milwaukee Railroad: means the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. See 45 USC 902
- Minority whip: See Whips.
- misappropriation: means --
(A) acquisition of a trade secret of another by a person who knows or has reason to know that the trade secret was acquired by improper means. See 18 USC 1839
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- misdemeanor crime of domestic violence: has the meaning given the term in section 921(a)(33) of title 18. See 34 USC 40903
- misdemeanor crime of domestic violence: means an offense that--
- Money: means the legal tender of the United States or of any foreign country, or any counterfeit thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
- Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
- Motor vehicle: includes an automobile, automobile truck, automobile wagon, motorcycle, or any other self-propelled vehicle designed for running on land but not on rails. See 18 USC 2311
- motor vehicle: means any self-propelled vehicle designed for transporting persons or property on a street or highway. See 42 USC 7550
- motor vehicle: has the meaning given such term in section 13102 of title 49, United States Code. See 18 USC 921
- municipality: means a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public body created by or pursuant to State law. See 42 USC 7602
- National Archives of the United States: means those official records which have been determined by the Archivist of the United States to have sufficient historical or other value to warrant their continued preservation by the Federal Government, and which have been accepted by the Archivist for deposit in the Archivist's custody. See 44 USC 2901
- National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
- National Bank Examiner: An employee of the Comptroller of the Currency whose function is to examine national banks periodically to determine the financial position of a bank and the security of its deposits. The examiner also verifies that the bank maintains procedures consistent with federal banking laws and regulations. Source: OCC
- National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
- national crime information databases: refers to the National Crime Information Center and its incorporated criminal history databases, including the Interstate Identification Index. See 34 USC 12410
- national of the United States: has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. See 18 USC 2331
- national of the United States: has the meaning prescribed in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U. See 18 USC 178
- national-defense material: include arms, armament, ammunition, livestock, forage, forest products and standing timber, stores of clothing, air, water, food, foodstuffs, fuel, supplies, munitions, and all other articles of whatever description and any part or ingredient thereof, intended for, adapted to, or suitable for the use of the United States in connection with the national defense or for use in or in connection with the producing, manufacturing, repairing, storing, mining, extracting, distributing, loading, unloading, or transporting of any of the materials or other articles hereinbefore mentioned or any part or ingredient thereof. See 18 USC 2151
- national-defense premises: include all buildings, grounds, mines, or other places wherein such national-defense material is being produced, manufactured, repaired, stored, mined, extracted, distributed, loaded, unloaded, or transported, together with all machinery and appliances therein contained. See 18 USC 2151
- national-defense utilities: include all railroads, railways, electric lines, roads of whatever description, railroad or railway fixture, canal, lock, dam, wharf, pier, dock, bridge, building, structure, engine, machine, mechanical contrivance, car, vehicle, boat, aircraft, airfields, air lanes, and fixtures or appurtenances thereof, or any other means of transportation whatsoever, whereon or whereby such national-defense material, or any troops of the United States, are being or may be transported either within the limits of the United States or upon the high seas or elsewhere. See 18 USC 2151
- neighborhood or community-based organizations: means organizations, including faith-based, that are representative of communities or significant segments of communities. See 34 USC 10251
- new motor vehicle: means a motor vehicle the equitable or legal title to which has never been transferred to an ultimate purchaser. See 42 USC 7550
- new motor vehicle engine: means an engine in a new motor vehicle or a motor vehicle engine the equitable or legal title to which has never been transferred to the ultimate purchaser. See 42 USC 7550
- newspaper publication: means a publication produced on newsprint paper which is published in one or more issues weekly (including as one publication any daily newspaper and any Sunday newspaper published by the same owner in the same city, community, or metropolitan area), and in which a substantial portion of the content is devoted to the dissemination of news and editorial opinion. See 15 USC 1802
- Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
- nonroad engine: means an internal combustion engine (including the fuel system) that is not used in a motor vehicle or a vehicle used solely for competition, or that is not subject to standards promulgated under section 7411 of this title or section 7521 of this title. See 42 USC 7550
- nonroad vehicle: means a vehicle that is powered by a nonroad engine and that is not a motor vehicle or a vehicle used solely for competition. See 42 USC 7550
- northern tier States: means the States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. See 43 USC 2003
- oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Office: means the National Climate Program Office. See 15 USC 2903
- officers of the Alaska Railroad: means the employees occupying the following positions at the Alaska Railroad as of the day before the date of transfer: General Manager. See 45 USC 1202
- official detention: means --
(A) detention by a Federal officer or employee, or under the direction of a Federal officer or employee, following arrest for an offense. See 18 USC 2246
- official responsibility: means the direct administrative or operating authority, whether intermediate or final, and either exercisable alone or with others, and either personally or through subordinates, to approve, disapprove, or otherwise direct Government action. See 18 USC 202
- option: means an agreement, contract, or transaction that is of the character of, or is commonly known to the trade as, an "option" "privilege" "indemnity" "bid" "offer" "put" "call" "advance guaranty" or "decline guaranty". See 7 USC 1a
- Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
- oral communication: means any oral communication uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not subject to interception under circumstances justifying such expectation, but such term does not include any electronic communication. See 18 USC 2510
- organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
- outreach services: means services provided to ensure (through home visits or other methods) that parents are aware of and able to participate in family resource and support program activities. See 42 USC 12332
- paid-in and unimpaired capital and surplus: means the balance of the paid-in share accounts and deposits as of a given date, less any loss that may have been incurred for which there is no reserve or which has not been charged against undivided earnings, plus the credit balance (or less the debit balance) of the undivided earnings account as of a given date, after all losses have been provided for and net earnings or net losses have been added thereto or deducted therefrom. See 12 USC 1795a
- Parliamentarian: The Parliamentarian is an advisor on the interpretation of legislative rules and procedures.
- partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 26 USC 7701
- partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 26 USC 7701
- pawnbroker: means any person whose business or occupation includes the taking or receiving, by way of pledge or pawn, of any firearm as security for the payment or repayment of money. See 18 USC 921
- Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
- perform: when used in relation to functions, includes the undertaking, fulfillment, or execution of any duty or obligation. See 42 USC 7101
- Permittee: means any user of explosives for a lawful purpose, who has obtained either a user permit or a limited permit under the provisions of this chapter. See 18 USC 841
- person: includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, State, municipality, political subdivision of a State, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee thereof. See 42 USC 7602
- person: includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property. See 18 USC 1961
- person: means any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property. See 18 USC 2331
- person: means an individual, partnership, association, or corporation. See 44 USC 1501
- person: means any employee, or agent of the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof, and any individual, partnership, association, joint stock company, trust, or corporation. See 18 USC 2510
- person: includes (A) any individual, (B) any corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, trust, joint venture, or joint stock company, and (C) the government and any agency of the United States or any State or political subdivision thereof. See 42 USC 6202
- Person: means any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company. See 18 USC 841
- person: means any individual, and any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity existing under or authorized by the law of the United States, any State or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any foreign country. See 15 USC 1802
- person: import s the plural or singular, and includes individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts. See 7 USC 1a
- personal records: means all documentary materials, or any reasonably segregable portion therof,2 of a purely private or nonpublic character which do not relate to or have an effect upon the carrying out of the constitutional, statutory, or other official or ceremonial duties of the President. See 44 USC 2201
- Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
- petroleum product: means crude oil, residual fuel oil, or any refined petroleum product (including any natural liquid and any natural gas liquid product). See 42 USC 6202
- place of public accommodation affecting commerce: means any inn, hotel, or other establishment not owned by the Federal Government that provides lodging to transient guests, except that such term does not include an establishment treated as an apartment building for purposes of any State or local law or regulation or an establishment located within a building that contains not more than 5 rooms for rent or hire and that is actually occupied as a residence by the proprietor of such establishment. See 15 USC 2203
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plan: means the National Global Change Research Plan developed under section 2934 of this title, or any revision thereof. See 15 USC 2921
- Plastic explosive: means an explosive material in flexible or elastic sheet form formulated with one or more high explosives which in their pure form has a vapor pressure less than 10?4 Pa at a temperature of 25°C. See 18 USC 841
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- population: means total resident population based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time. See 34 USC 10251
- Postal Service: means the United States Postal Service established under title 39, and every officer and employee of that Service, whether or not such officer or employee has taken the oath of office. See
- Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
- Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
- President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
- Presidential archival depository: means an institution operated by the United States to house and preserve the papers and books of a President or former President of the United States, together with other historical materials belonging to a President or former President of the United States, or related to his papers or to the events of his official or personal life, and may include research facilities and museum facilities in accordance with this chapter. See 44 USC 2101
- Presidential records: means documentary materials, or any reasonably segregable portion thereof, created or received by the President, the President's immediate staff, or a unit or individual of the Executive Office of the President whose function is to advise or assist the President, in the course of conducting activities which relate to or have an effect upon the carrying out of the constitutional, statutory, or other official or ceremonial duties of the President. See 44 USC 2201
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Pretrial services officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
- primary standard attainment date: means the date specified in the applicable implementation plan for the attainment of a national primary ambient air quality standard for any air pollutant. See 42 USC 7602
- prison: means a correctional, detention, or penal facility. See 18 USC 2246
- private person: means any individual (including an individual acting in his official capacity) and any private partnership, corporation, association, organization, or entity (or any combination thereof). See 34 USC 10251
- Pro se: A Latin term meaning "on one's own behalf"; in courts, it refers to persons who present their own cases without lawyers.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probate: Proving a will
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
- Program: means the National Climate Program. See 15 USC 2903
- Program: means the United States Global Change Research Program established under section 2933 of this title. See 15 USC 2921
- project: means the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Project established under section 2503(a) of this title. See 15 USC 2502
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- protected computer: has the meaning set forth in section 1030. See 18 USC 2510
- proven effectiveness: means that a program, project, approach, or practice has been shown by analysis of performance and results to make a significant contribution to the accomplishment of the objectives for which it was undertaken or to have a significant effect in improving the condition or problem it was undertaken to address. See 34 USC 10251
- prudential regulator: means --
(A) the Board in the case of a swap dealer, major swap participant, security-based swap dealer, or major security-based swap participant that is--
(i) a State-chartered bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. See 7 USC 1a
- public agency: means any State, unit of local government, combination of such States or units, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of any of the foregoing. See 34 USC 10251
- public agency: means the United States, any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any territory or possession of the United States, or any unit of local government, department, agency, or instrumentality of any of the foregoing, and includes (as may be prescribed by regulation hereunder) a legally organized volunteer fire department that is a nonprofit entity and provides services without regard to any particular relationship (such as a subscription) a member of the public may have with such a department. See 34 USC 10284
- Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
- Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
- public entity: means --
(A) any State or local government. See 42 USC 12131
- Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
- public rangelands: means lands administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management or the Secretary of Agriculture through the Forest Service in the sixteen contiguous Western States on which there is domestic livestock grazing or which the Secretary concerned determines may be suitable for domestic livestock grazing. See 43 USC 1902
- public safety officer: means --
(A) an individual serving a public agency in an official capacity, with or without compensation, as a law enforcement officer, as a firefighter, or as a chaplain: Provided, That (notwithstanding section 10285(b)(2) or (3) of this title) the Bureau shall, absent clear and convincing evidence to the contrary as determined by the Bureau, deem the actions outside of jurisdiction taken by any such law enforcement officer or firefighter, to have been taken while serving such public agency in such capacity, in any case in which the principal legal officer of such public agency, and the head of such agency, together, certify that such actions--
(i) were not unreasonable. See 34 USC 10284
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- racketeering activity: means (A) any act or threat involving murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year. See 18 USC 1961
- racketeering investigation: means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
- racketeering investigator: means any attorney or investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter. See 18 USC 1961
- rail properties of the Alaska Railroad: means all right, title, and interest of the United States to lands, buildings, facilities, machinery, equipment, supplies, records, rolling stock, trade names, accounts receivable, goodwill, and other real and personal property, both tangible and intangible, in which there is an interest reserved, withdrawn, appropriated, owned, administered or otherwise held or validly claimed for the Alaska Railroad by the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof as of January 14, 1983, but excluding any such properties disposed of, and including any such properties acquired, in the ordinary course of business after that date but before the date of transfer, and also including the exclusive-use easement within the Denali National Park and Preserve conveyed to the State pursuant to this chapter and also excluding the following:
(A) the unexercised reservation to the United States for future rights-of-way required in all patents for land taken up, entered, or located in Alaska, as provided by the Act of March 12, 1914 (43 U. See 45 USC 1202
- range condition: means the quality of the land reflected in its ability in specific vegetative areas to support various levels of productivity in accordance with range management objectives and the land use planning process, and relates to soil quality, forage values (whether seasonal or year round), wildlife habitat, watershed and plant communities, the present state of vegetation of a range site in relation to the potential plant community for that site, and the relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of vegetation in a plant community resemble that of the desired community for that site. See 43 USC 1902
- range improvement: means any activity or program on or relating to rangelands which is designed to improve production of forage. See 43 USC 1902
- Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
- readily accessible to the general public: means , with respect to a radio communication, that such communication is not--
(A) scrambled or encrypted. See 18 USC 2510
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
- record of proven success: means that a program, project, approach, or practice has been demonstrated by evaluation or by analysis of performance data and information to be successful in a number of jurisdictions or over a period of time in contributing to the accomplishment of objectives or to improving conditions identified with the problem, to which it is addressed. See 34 USC 10251
- recorded information: includes all traditional forms of records, regardless of physical form or characteristics, including information created, manipulated, communicated, or stored in digital or electronic form. See 44 USC 3301
- records: has the meaning given it by section 3301 of this title. See 44 USC 2901
- records creation: means the production or reproduction of any record. See 44 USC 2901
- records disposition: means any activity with respect to--
(A) disposal of temporary records no longer necessary for the conduct of business by destruction or donation. See 44 USC 2901
- records maintenance and use: means any activity involving--
(A) location of records of a Federal agency. See 44 USC 2901
- records management: means the planning, controlling, directing, organizing, training, promoting, and other managerial activities involved with respect to records creation, records maintenance and use, and records disposition in order to achieve adequate and proper documentation of the policies and transactions of the Federal Government and effective and economical management of agency operations. See 44 USC 2901
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- refiner: means any person who owns, operates, or controls the operation of any refinery. See 42 USC 6232
- registered entity: means --
(A) a board of trade designated as a contract market under section 7 of this title. See 7 USC 1a
- related facility: means any necessary appurtenance to a storage facility, including pipelines, roadways, reservoirs, and salt brine lines. See 42 USC 6232
- religious group: means a set of individuals whose identity as such is distinctive in terms of common religious creed, beliefs, doctrines, practices, or rituals. See 18 USC 1093
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- remote computing service: means the provision to the public of computer storage or processing services by means of an electronic communications system. See 18 USC 2711
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Reserve: means the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. See 42 USC 6232
- residential building: means any building used as a residence which is not a new building to which final standards under sections 6833(a) and 6834 1 of this title apply and which has a system for heating, cooling, or both. See 42 USC 8235
- residential substance abuse treatment program: means a course of individual and group activities, lasting between 6 and 12 months, in residential treatment facilities set apart from the general prison population--
(A) directed at the substance abuse problems of the prisoner. See 34 USC 10251
- Responsible person: means an individual who has the power to direct the management and policies of the applicant pertaining to explosive materials. See 18 USC 841
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Revolving credit: A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) Source: OCC
- rifle: means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of an explosive to fire only a single projectile through a rifled bore for each single pull of the trigger. See 18 USC 921
- Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
- right-of-way: means , except as used in section 1208 of this title--
(A) an area extending not less than one hundred feet on both sides of the center line of any main line or branch line of the Alaska Railroad. See 45 USC 1202
- riot: means a public disturbance involving (1) an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons, which act or acts shall constitute a clear and present danger of, or shall result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual or (2) a threat or threats of the commission of an act or acts of violence by one or more persons part of an assemblage of three or more persons having, individually or collectively, the ability of immediate execution of such threat or threats, where the performance of the threatened act or acts of violence would constitute a clear and present danger of, or would result in, damage or injury to the property of any other person or to the person of any other individual. See 18 USC 2102
- Rock Island Railroad: means the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company, the estate of such Company in its reorganization proceeding, or the trustee appointed in such proceeding. See 45 USC 1002
- school: means a school which provides elementary or secondary education, as determined under State law. See 18 USC 921
- school zone: means --
(A) in, or on the grounds of, a public, parochial or private school. See 18 USC 921
- seaport: means all piers, wharves, docks, and similar structures, adjacent to any waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to which a vessel may be secured, including areas of land, water, or land and water under and in immediate proximity to such structures, buildings on or contiguous to such structures, and the equipment and materials on such structures or in such buildings. See
- Secretary: means , except as otherwise provided, the Secretary of Homeland Security. See 15 USC 2203
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 42 USC 12302
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 15 USC 2903
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury. See 7 USC 1a
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 43 USC 2201
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 42 USC 6862
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Transportation. See 45 USC 1002
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 42 USC 6881
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. See 42 USC 6892
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Transportation. See 45 USC 1202
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Education. See 20 USC 1221
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 25 USC 5381
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 42 USC 6202
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 16 USC 410ffff
- Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 25 USC 3802
- Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 15 USC 1821
- Secretary of the Treasury: means the Secretary of the Treasury, personally, and shall not include any delegate of his. See 26 USC 7701
- secure gun storage or safety device: means --
(A) a device that, when installed on a firearm, is designed to prevent the firearm from being operated without first deactivating the device. See 18 USC 921
- Securities: includes any note, stock certificate, bond, debenture, check, draft, warrant, traveler's check, letter of credit, warehouse receipt, negotiable bill of lading, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, collateral-trust certificate, preorganization certificate or subscription, transferable share, investment contract, voting-trust certificate. See 18 USC 2311
- security: means a security as defined in section 2(a)(1) of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- security futures product: means a security future or any put, call, straddle, option, or privilege on any security future. See 7 USC 1a
- security-based swap: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- security-based swap dealer: has the meaning given the term in section 3(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See 7 USC 1a
- sedentary work: means work that--
(A) involves lifting articles weighing no more than 10 pounds at a time or occasionally lifting or carrying articles such as docket files, ledgers, or small tools. See 34 USC 10284
- self-governance: means the program of self-governance established under section 5382 of this title. See 25 USC 5381
- semiautomatic rifle: means any repeating rifle which utilizes a portion of the energy of a firing cartridge to extract the fired cartridge case and chamber the next round, and which requires a separate pull of the trigger to fire each cartridge. See 18 USC 921
- Senate Manual: A document that contains the Senate's standing rules and orders and other laws and regulations that apply to the Senate. It is usually published once each new Congress.
- Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
- serious bodily injury: means bodily injury that involves a substantial risk of death, unconsciousness, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty. See 18 USC 2246
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- servicing: means making available for use information in records and other materials in the custody of the Archivist, or in a records center--
(A) by furnishing the records or other materials, or information from them, or copies or reproductions thereof, to any Federal agency for official use, or to the public. See 44 USC 2901
- severe energy supply interruption: means a national energy supply shortage which the President determines--
(A) is, or is likely to be, of significant scope and duration, and of an emergency nature. See 42 USC 6202
- sexual act: means --
(A) contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the anus, and for purposes of this subparagraph contact involving the penis occurs upon penetration, however slight. See 18 USC 2246
- sexual contact: means the intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person. See 18 USC 2246
- short-barreled rifle: means a rifle having one or more barrels less than sixteen inches in length and any weapon made from a rifle (whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise) if such weapon, as modified, has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches. See 18 USC 921
- short-barreled shotgun: means a shotgun having one or more barrels less than eighteen inches in length and any weapon made from a shotgun (whether by alteration, modification or otherwise) if such a weapon as modified has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches. See 18 USC 921
- shotgun: means a weapon designed or redesigned, made or remade, and intended to be fired from the shoulder and designed or redesigned and made or remade to use the energy of an explosive to fire through a smooth bore either a number of ball shot or a single projectile for each single pull of the trigger. See 18 USC 921
- significant price discovery contract: means an agreement, contract, or transaction subject to section 2(h)(5) of this title. See 7 USC 1a
- Simple resolution: Designated "S. Res.," simple resolutions are used to express nonbinding positions of the Senate or to deal with the Senate's internal affairs, such as the creation of a special committee. They do not require action by the House of Representatives.
- sixteen contiguous Western States: means the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. See 43 USC 1902
- smokeless tobacco: means any finely cut, ground, powdered, or leaf tobacco that is intended to be placed in the oral or nasal cavity or otherwise consumed without being combusted. See 18 USC 2341
- sore: when used to describe a horse means that--
(A) an irritating or blistering agent has been applied, internally or externally, by a person to any limb of a horse,
(B) any burn, cut, or laceration has been inflicted by a person on any limb of a horse,
(C) any tack, nail, screw, or chemical agent has been injected by a person into or used by a person on any limb of a horse, or
(D) any other substance or device has been used by a person on any limb of a horse or a person has engaged in a practice involving a horse,
and, as a result of such application, infliction, injection, use, or practice, such horse suffers, or can reasonably be expected to suffer, physical pain or distress, inflammation, or lameness when walking, trotting, or otherwise moving, except that such term does not include such an application, infliction, injection, use, or practice in connection with the therapeutic treatment of a horse by or under the supervision of a person licensed to practice veterinary medicine in the State in which such treatment was given. See 15 USC 1821
- special Government employee: shall mean an officer or employee of the executive or legislative branch of the United States Government, of any independent agency of the United States or of the District of Columbia, who is retained, designated, appointed, or employed to perform, with or without compensation, for not to exceed one hundred and thirty days during any period of three hundred and sixty-five consecutive days, temporary duties either on a full-time or intermittent basis, a part-time United States commissioner, a part-time United States magistrate judge, or, regardless of the number of days of appointment, an independent counsel appointed under chapter 40 of title 28 and any person appointed by that independent counsel under section 594(c) of title 28. See 18 USC 202
- special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States: as used in this title , includes:
(1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State. See 18 USC 7
- standard of performance: means a requirement of continuous emission reduction, including any requirement relating to the operation or maintenance of a source to assure continuous emission reduction. See 42 USC 7602
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands: Provided, That for the purposes of section 10156(a) of this title, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall be considered as one state 1 and that for these purposes 67 per centum of the amounts allocated shall be allocated to American Samoa, and 33 per centum to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 34 USC 10251
- State: means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 7602
- State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 12103
- State: includes the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 12302
- State: means any State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, or any other territory or possession of the United States. See 15 USC 2702
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof. See 18 USC 1961
- State: shall include the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See
- State: means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, possession, or territory of the United States. See 18 USC 2246
- State: means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands. See 18 USC 2341
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States. See 18 USC 2510
- State: means --
(A) a State. See 42 USC 6862
- State: means the State of Alaska or the State-owned railroad, as the context requires. See 45 USC 1202
- State: includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the territories and possessions, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 4121
- State: means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 42 USC 6202
- State: includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States (not including the Canal Zone). See 18 USC 841
- State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 5122
- State: includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States (not including the Canal Zone). See 18 USC 921
- State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 15 USC 1821
- State: has the meaning given the term in section 101 of title 6. See 15 USC 2203
- State-owned railroad: means the authority, agency, corporation or other entity which the State of Alaska designates or contracts with to own, operate or manage the rail properties of the Alaska Railroad or, as the context requires, the railroad owned, operated, or managed by such authority, agency, corporation, or other entity. See 45 USC 1202
- stationary source: means generally any source of an air pollutant except those emissions resulting directly from an internal combustion engine for transportation purposes or from a nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle as defined in section 7550 of this title. See 42 USC 7602
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- storage facility: means any facility or geological formation which is capable of storing significant quantities of petroleum products. See 42 USC 6232
- Strategic Petroleum Reserve: means petroleum products stored in storage facilities pursuant to this part. See 42 USC 6232
- student: means an individual who is enrolled in an institution of higher education on a full- or part-time basis. See 42 USC 12561
- student: means any individual--
(i) who is temporarily present in the United States--
(I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or
(II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and
(ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 26 USC 7701
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
- subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
- substantial part: means a part of a group of such numerical significance that the destruction or loss of that part would cause the destruction of the group as a viable entity within the nation of which such group is a part. See 18 USC 1093
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- swap: includes a master agreement that provides for an agreement, contract, or transaction that is a swap under subparagraph (A), together with each supplement to any master agreement, without regard to whether the master agreement contains an agreement, contract, or transaction that is not a swap pursuant to subparagraph (A). See 7 USC 1a
- swap data repository: means any person that collects and maintains information or records with respect to transactions or positions in, or the terms and conditions of, swaps entered into by third parties for the purpose of providing a centralized recordkeeping facility for swaps. See 7 USC 1a
- swap dealer: means any person who--
(i) holds itself out as a dealer in swaps. See 7 USC 1a
- swap execution facility: means a trading system or platform in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade swaps by accepting bids and offers made by multiple participants in the facility or system, through any means of interstate commerce, including any trading facility, that--
(A) facilitates the execution of swaps between persons. See 7 USC 1a
- target area: means any area defined in an application for assistance under this part that has a population whose income does not exceed the median for the area within which the target area is located. See 34 USC 12211
- Tax stamp: includes any tax stamp, tax token, tax meter imprint, or any other form of evidence of an obligation running to a State, or evidence of the discharge thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
- Tenancy by the entirety: A type of joint tenancy between husband and wife that is recognized in some States. Neither party can sever the joint tenancy relationship; when a spouse dies, the survivor acquires full title to the property.
- terrorism: means activity, directed against United States persons, which--
(A) is committed by an individual who is not a national or permanent resident alien of the United States. See 18 USC 921
- Testate: To die leaving a will.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- TIN: means the identifying number assigned to a person under section 6109. See 26 USC 7701
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- torture: means an act committed by a person acting under the color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control. See 18 USC 2340
- toxin: means the toxic material or product of plants, animals, microorganisms (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substances, or a recombinant or synthesized molecule, whatever their origin and method of production, and includes--
(A) any poisonous substance or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology produced by a living organism. See 18 USC 178
- trade secret: means all forms and types of financial, business, scientific, technical, economic, or engineering information, including patterns, plans, compilations, program devices, formulas, designs, prototypes, methods, techniques, processes, procedures, programs, or codes, whether tangible or intangible, and whether or how stored, compiled, or memorialized physically, electronically, graphically, photographically, or in writing if--
(A) the owner thereof has taken reasonable measures to keep such information secret. See 18 USC 1839
- trading facility: means a person or group of persons that constitutes, maintains, or provides a physical or electronic facility or system in which multiple participants have the ability to execute or trade agreements, contracts, or transactions--
(i) by accepting bids or offers made by other participants that are open to multiple participants in the facility or system. See 7 USC 1a
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- tribal: means of or pertaining to an Indian tribe. See 15 USC 2203
- tribal share: means an Indian tribe's portion of all funds and resources that support secretarial programs, services, functions, and activities (or portions thereof) that are not required by the Secretary for performance of inherent Federal functions. See 25 USC 5381
- Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
- Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
- ultimate purchaser: means , with respect to any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine, the first person who in good faith purchases such new motor vehicle or new engine for purposes other than resale. See 42 USC 7550
- unauthenticated copies: means exact copies or reproductions of records or other materials that are not certified as such under seal and that need not be legally accepted as evidence. See 44 USC 2901
- Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
- unit of local government: means --
(A) any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State. See 34 USC 10251
- United States: means the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the commonwealths, territories, and possessions of the United States. See 18 USC 2340
- United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
- United States: when used in the geographical sense means all of the States and the Outer Continental Shelf. See 42 USC 6202
- United States: means the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 5122
- unlawful debt: means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate. See 18 USC 1961
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- user: means any person or entity who--
(A) uses an electronic communication service. See 18 USC 2510
- User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
- Usury: Charging an illegally high interest rate on a loan. Source: OCC
- Value: means the face, par, or market value, whichever is the greatest, and the aggregate value of all goods, wares, and merchandise, securities, and money referred to in a single indictment shall constitute the value thereof. See 18 USC 2311
- Variable Rate: Having a "variable" rate means that the APR changes from time to time based on fluctuations in an external rate, normally the Prime Rate. This external rate is known as the "index." If the index changes, the variable rate normally changes. Also see Fixed Rate.
- vector: means a living organism, or molecule, including a recombinant or synthesized molecule, capable of carrying a biological agent or toxin to a host. See 18 USC 178
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
- Vessel: means any watercraft or other contrivance used or designed for transportation or navigation on, under, or immediately above, water. See 18 USC 2311
- vessel: includes every kind of water and air craft or other contrivance used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water, or on water and in the air, as well as any ship, boat, barge, or other water craft or any structure capable of floating on the water. See 18 USC 1081
- vessel of the United States: as used in this title , means a vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States, or any citizen thereof, or any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof. See 18 USC 9
- Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
- Victim Impact Statement: A written or spoken statement by the victim or his or her representative about the physical, emotional, and financial impact of a crime on the victim. The statement is given to the court before sentencing.
- VOC: means volatile organic compound, as defined by the Administrator. See 42 USC 7602
- war material: include arms, armament, ammunition, livestock, forage, forest products and standing timber, stores of clothing, air, water, food, foodstuffs, fuel, supplies, munitions, and all articles, parts or ingredients, intended for, adapted to, or suitable for the use of the United States or any associate nation, in connection with the conduct of war or defense activities. See 18 USC 2151
- war premises: include all buildings, grounds, mines, or other places wherein such war material is being produced, manufactured, repaired, stored, mined, extracted, distributed, loaded, unloaded, or transported, together with all machinery and appliances therein contained. See 18 USC 2151
- war utilities: include all railroads, railways, electric lines, roads of whatever description, any railroad or railway fixture, canal, lock, dam, wharf, pier, dock, bridge, building, structure, engine, machine, mechanical contrivance, car, vehicle, boat, aircraft, airfields, air lanes, and fixtures or appurtenances thereof, or any other means of transportation whatsoever, whereon or whereby such war material or any troops of the United States, or of any associate nation, are being or may be transported either within the limits of the United States or upon the high seas or elsewhere. See 18 USC 2151
- weatherization materials: means --
(A) caulking and weatherstripping of doors and windows. See 42 USC 6862
- white-collar crime: means an illegal act or series of illegal acts committed by nonphysical means and by concealment or guile, to obtain money or property, to avoid the payment or loss of money or property, or to obtain business or personal advantage. See 34 USC 10251
- White-collar crime: A nonviolent criminal act involving deceit, concealment, subterfuge, or other fraudulent activity.
- whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
- whoever: include any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company. See 18 USC 921
- wildland-urban interface: has the meaning given such term in section 6511 of title 16. See 15 USC 2203
- wire communication: means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception (including the use of such connection in a switching station) furnished or operated by any person engaged in providing or operating such facilities for the transmission of interstate or foreign communications or communications affecting interstate or foreign commerce. See 18 USC 2510
- wire communication facility: means any and all instrumentalities, personnel, and services (among other things, the receipt, forwarding, or delivery of communications) used or useful in the transmission of writings, signs, pictures, and sounds of all kinds by aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the points of origin and reception of such transmission. See 18 USC 1081
- with the principal objective of livelihood and profit: means that the intent underlying the sale or disposition of firearms is predominantly one of obtaining livelihood and pecuniary gain, as opposed to other intents, such as improving or liquidating a personal firearms collection: Provided, That proof of profit shall not be required as to a person who engages in the regular and repetitive purchase and disposition of firearms for criminal purposes or terrorism. See 18 USC 921
- withholding agent: means any person required to deduct and withhold any tax under the provisions of section 1441, 1442, 1443, or 1461. See 26 USC 7701
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.