(a) Purposes

The purposes of this subpart are–

Terms Used In 20 USC 6641

  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1

(1) to improve student academic achievement in reading and writing by providing Federal support to States to develop, revise, or update comprehensive literacy instruction plans that, when implemented, ensure high-quality instruction and effective strategies in reading and writing from early education through grade 12; and

(2) for States to provide targeted subgrants to early childhood education programs and local educational agencies and their public or private partners to implement evidence-based programs that ensure high-quality comprehensive literacy instruction for students most in need.

(b) Definitions

In this subpart:

(1) Comprehensive literacy instruction

The term “comprehensive literacy instruction” means instruction that–

(A) includes developmentally appropriate, contextually explicit, and systematic instruction, and frequent practice, in reading and writing across content areas;

(B) includes age-appropriate, explicit, systematic, and intentional instruction in phonological awareness, phonic decoding, vocabulary, language structure, reading fluency, and reading comprehension;

(C) includes age-appropriate, explicit instruction in writing, including opportunities for children to write with clear purposes, with critical reasoning appropriate to the topic and purpose, and with specific instruction and feedback from instructional staff;

(D) makes available and uses diverse, high-quality print materials that reflect the reading and development levels, and interests, of children;

(E) uses differentiated instructional approaches, including individual and small group instruction and discussion;

(F) provides opportunities for children to use language with peers and adults in order to develop language skills, including developing vocabulary;

(G) includes frequent practice of reading and writing strategies;

(H) uses age-appropriate, valid, and reliable screening assessments, diagnostic assessments, formative assessment processes, and summative assessments to identify a child’s learning needs, to inform instruction, and to monitor the child’s progress and the effects of instruction;

(I) uses strategies to enhance children’s motivation to read and write and children’s engagement in self-directed learning;

(J) incorporates the principles of universal design for learning;

(K) depends on teachers’ collaboration in planning, instruction, and assessing a child’s progress and on continuous professional learning; and

(L) links literacy instruction to the challenging State academic standards, including the ability to navigate, understand, and write about, complex print and digital subject matter.

(2) Eligible entity

The term “eligible entity” means an entity that consists of–

(A) one or more local educational agencies that serve a high percentage of high-need schools and–

(i) have the highest number or proportion of children who are counted under section 6333(c) of this title, in comparison to other local educational agencies in the State;

(ii) are among the local educational agencies in the State with the highest number or percentages of children reading or writing below grade level, based on the most currently available State academic assessment data under section 6311(b)(2) of this title; or

(iii) serve a significant number or percentage of schools that are implementing comprehensive support and improvement activities and targeted support and improvement activities under section 6311(d) of this title;

(B) one or more early childhood education programs serving low-income or otherwise disadvantaged children, which may include home-based literacy programs for preschool-aged children, that have a demonstrated record of providing comprehensive literacy instruction for the age group such program proposes to serve; or

(C) a local educational agency, described in subparagraph (A), or consortium of such local educational agencies, or an early childhood education program, which may include home-based literacy programs for preschool-aged children, acting in partnership with 1 or more public or private nonprofit organizations or agencies (which may include early childhood education programs) that have a demonstrated record of effectiveness in–

(i) improving literacy achievement of children, consistent with the purposes of participation under this subpart, from birth through grade 12; and

(ii) providing professional development in comprehensive literacy instruction.

(3) High-need school

(A) In general

The term “high-need school” means–

(i) an elementary school or middle school in which not less than 50 percent of the enrolled students are children from low-income families; or

(ii) a high school in which not less than 40 percent of the enrolled students are children from low-income families, which may be calculated using comparable data from the schools that feed into the high school.

(B) Low-income family

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “low-income family” means a family–

(i) in which the children are eligible for a free or reduced-price lunch under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.);

(ii) receiving assistance under the program of block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families established under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.); or

(iii) in which the children are eligible to receive medical assistance under the Medicaid program under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.).