Subchapter I Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged
Subchapter II Preparing, Training, and Recruiting High-Quality Teachers, Principals, or Other School Leaders
Subchapter III Language Instruction for English Learners and Immigrant Students
Subchapter IV 21St Century Schools
Subchapter V Flexibility and Accountability
Subchapter VI Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native Education
Subchapter VII Impact Aid
Subchapter VIII General Provisions

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 20 > Chapter 70

  • action team: means a rural natural resources and economic diversification action team established by the Secretary pursuant to section 6613(b) of this title. See 20 USC 6454
  • adjacent islands: includes Saint Pierre, Miquelon, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Bermuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica, the Windward and Leeward Islands, Trinidad, Martinique, and other British, French, and Netherlands territory or possessions in or bordering on the Caribbean Sea. See 26 USC 110
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • aggravated felony: means --

    (A) murder, rape, or sexual abuse of a minor. See 26 USC 110

  • agricultural commodity: includes , in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producer of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine and gum rosin, as defined in section 92 of title 7. See 20 USC 7945
  • agricultural commodity: means --

    (A) agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products. See 20 USC 7907

  • alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See 26 USC 110
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • anonymous work: is a work on the copies or phonorecords of which no natural person is identified as author. See 20 USC 6082
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 26 USC 110
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the National Kiwifruit Board established under section 7464 of this title. See 20 USC 7934
  • board: means a board established under an order issued under section 7413 of this title. See 20 USC 7907
  • Board: means the National Canola and Rapeseed Board established under section 7444(b) of this title. See 20 USC 7922
  • border crossing identification card: means a document of identity bearing that designation issued to an alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or to an alien who is a resident in foreign contiguous territory, by a consular officer or an immigration officer for the purpose of crossing over the borders between the United States and foreign contiguous territory in accordance with such conditions for its issuance and use as may be prescribed by regulations. See 26 USC 110
  • Canal: means the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, including its towpath. See 20 USC 6396
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • child: means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is--

    (A) a child born in wedlock. See 26 USC 110

  • children: means individuals who have not attained the age of 18. See 20 USC 7972
  • collective work: is a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology, or encyclopedia, in which a number of contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole. See 20 USC 6082
  • commerce: means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. See 20 USC 7974
  • commerce: includes interstate, foreign, and intrastate commerce. See 20 USC 7922
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • compilation: includes collective works. See 20 USC 6082
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • computer program: is a set of statements or instructions to be used directly or indirectly in a computer in order to bring about a certain result. See 20 USC 6082
  • conflict of interest: means a situation in which a member or employee of a board has a direct or indirect financial interest in a person that performs a service for, or enters into a contract with, a board for anything of economic value. See 20 USC 7907
  • conflict of interest: means a situation in which a member of the Board has a direct or indirect financial interest in a corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, joint venture, or other business entity dealing directly or indirectly with the Board. See 20 USC 7922
  • Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
  • conservation: means the use of methods and procedures necessary or desirable to sustain healthy populations of wildlife, including all activities associated with scientific resources management such as research, census, monitoring of populations, acquisition, improvement and management of habitat, live trapping and transplantation, wildlife damage management, and periodic or total protection of a species or population, as well as the taking of individuals within wildlife stock or population if permitted by applicable State and Federal law. See 49 USC 31138
  • consular officer: means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality. See 26 USC 110
  • consumer information: means any action taken to provide information to, and broaden the understanding of, the general public regarding the consumption, use, nutritional attributes, and care of kiwifruit. See 20 USC 7934
  • consumer information: means information and programs that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and decisions regarding the purchase, preparation, and use of popcorn. See 20 USC 7974
  • consumer information: means information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and decisions regarding the purchase, preparation, and use of canola, rapeseed, or canola or rapeseed products. See 20 USC 7922
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • conviction: means , with respect to an alien, a formal judgment of guilt of the alien entered by a court or, if adjudication of guilt has been withheld, where--

    (i) a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or the alien has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt, and

    (ii) the judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint on the alien's liberty to be imposed. See 26 USC 110

  • cooperative association: means any association in which farmers act together in processing, preparing for market, handling, and/or marketing the farm products of persons so engaged, and also means any association in which farmers act together in purchasing, testing, grading, processing, distributing, and/or furnishing farm supplies and/or farm business services: Provided, however, That such associations are operated for the mutual benefit of the members thereof as such producers or purchasers and conform to one or both of the following requirements:

    First. See 20 USC 7945

  • copies: includes the material object, other than a phonorecord, in which the work is first fixed. See 20 USC 6082
  • Copyright Royalty Judge: is a Copyright Royalty Judge appointed under section 802 of this title, and includes any individual serving as an interim Copyright Royalty Judge under such section. See 20 USC 6082
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • county: as used in this subchapter may be the entire area, or any subdivision thereof as may be determined by the Secretary, and payments under section 1012 of this title shall be made to the Governor or to the fiscal agent of such subdivision. See 10 USC 1471
  • crewman: means a person serving in any capacity on board a vessel or aircraft. See 26 USC 110
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 20 USC 7907
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 20 USC 7922
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • derivative work: is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. See 20 USC 6082
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • digital transmission: is a transmission in whole or in part in a digital or other non-analog format. See 20 USC 6082
  • diplomatic visa: means a nonimmigrant visa bearing that title and issued to a nonimmigrant in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary of State may prescribe. See 26 USC 110
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Discretionary spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays)controlled in annual appropriations acts.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • distribute: means to sell, or to lease, bail, or otherwise transfer, or to offer to sell, lease, bail, or otherwise transfer. See 20 USC 7231c
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • economically disadvantaged: means economic hardship due to the loss of jobs or income (labor or proprietor) derived from forestry, the wood products industry, or related commercial enterprises such as recreation and tourism in the national forest. See 20 USC 6454
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • En banc: In the bench or "full bench." Refers to court sessions with the entire membership of a court participating rather than the usual quorum. U.S. courts of appeals usually sit in panels of three judges, but may expand to a larger number in certain cases. They are then said to be sitting en banc.
  • engage in terrorist activity: means , in an individual capacity or as a member of an organization--

    (I) to commit or to incite to commit, under circumstances indicating an intention to cause death or serious bodily injury, a terrorist activity. See 10 USC 1453

  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • establishment: is a store, shop, or any similar place of business open to the general public for the primary purpose of selling goods or services in which the majority of the gross square feet of space that is nonresidential is used for that purpose, and in which nondramatic musical works are performed publicly. See 20 USC 6082
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executive capacity: means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily--

    (i) directs the management of the organization or a major component or function of the organization. See 26 USC 110

  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • exporter: means any person from outside the United States who exports kiwifruit into the United States. See 20 USC 7934
  • extraordinary ability: means , for purposes of subsection (a)(15)(O)(i), in the case of the arts, distinction. See 26 USC 110
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • financial gain: includes receipt, or expectation of receipt, of anything of value, including the receipt of other copyrighted works. See 20 USC 6082
  • first handler: means the first person who buys or takes possession of an agricultural commodity from a producer for marketing. See 20 USC 7907
  • first purchaser: means --

    (A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), a person who buys or otherwise acquires canola, rapeseed, or canola or rapeseed products produced by a producer. See 20 USC 7922

  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • food service or drinking establishment: is a restaurant, inn, bar, tavern, or any other similar place of business in which the public or patrons assemble for the primary purpose of being served food or drink, in which the majority of the gross square feet of space that is nonresidential is used for that purpose, and in which nondramatic musical works are performed publicly. See 20 USC 6082
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See 26 USC 110
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • handler: means any person, excluding a common carrier, engaged in the business of buying and selling, packing, marketing, or distributing kiwifruit as specified in the order. See 20 USC 7934
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • immigrant: means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens--

    (A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family. See 26 USC 110

  • immigrant visa: means an immigrant visa required by this chapter and properly issued by a consular officer at his office outside of the United States to an eligible immigrant under the provisions of this chapter. See 26 USC 110
  • immigration judge: means an attorney whom the Attorney General appoints as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review, qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title. See 26 USC 110
  • immigration laws: includes this chapter and all laws, conventions, and treaties of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, deportation, expulsion, or removal of aliens. See 26 USC 110
  • immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See 26 USC 110
  • importer: means any person who imports kiwifruit into the United States. See 20 USC 7934
  • importer: means any person who imports an agricultural commodity from outside the United States for sale in the United States as a principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee of any person. See 20 USC 7907
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • indoor facility: means a building that is enclosed. See 20 USC 7972
  • industry information: means information or a program that will lead to the development of--

    (A) new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the popcorn industry. See 20 USC 7974

  • industry information: means information or a program that will lead to the development of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the canola and rapeseed industry, or an activity to enhance the image of the canola or rapeseed industry. See 20 USC 7922
  • industry member: means a member of the canola and rapeseed industry who represents--

    (A) manufacturers of canola or rapeseed products. See 20 USC 7922

  • ineligible to citizenship: when used in reference to any individual, means, notwithstanding the provisions of any treaty relating to military service, an individual who is, or was at any time permanently debarred from becoming a citizen of the United States under section 3(a) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended (54 Stat. See 26 USC 110
  • information: means information and programs that are designed to increase--

    (A) efficiency in processing. See 20 USC 7907

  • infringing semiconductor chip product: is a semiconductor chip product which is made, imported, or distributed in violation of the exclusive rights of the owner of a mask work under this chapter. See 20 USC 7231c
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • innocent purchaser: is a person who purchases a semiconductor chip product in good faith and without having notice of protection with respect to the semiconductor chip product. See 20 USC 7231c
  • intended spouse: means any alien who meets the criteria set forth in section 1154(a)(1)(A)(iii)(II)(aa)(BB), 1154(a)(1)(B)(ii)(II)(aa)(BB), or 1229b(b)(2)(A)(i)(III) of this title. See 26 USC 110
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international financial institutions: means the International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, African Development Bank, African Development Fund, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank 2 Bank for Economic Cooperation and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,,3 and Inter-American Investment Corporation. See 26 USC 4218
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • joint work: is a work prepared by two or more authors with the intention that their contributions be merged into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole. See 20 USC 6082
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • kiwifruit: means all varieties of fresh kiwifruit grown in or imported into the United States. See 20 USC 7934
  • lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See 26 USC 110
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • market: means to sell or to otherwise dispose of an agricultural commodity in interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. See 20 USC 7907
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition of kiwifruit into interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce by buying, marketing, distribution, or otherwise placing kiwifruit into commerce. See 20 USC 7934
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition of unpopped popcorn for human consumption in a channel of commerce, but does not include a sale or disposition to or between processors. See 20 USC 7974
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition of canola, rapeseed, or canola or rapeseed products in a channel of commerce. See 20 USC 7922
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
  • mask work: is a series of related images, however fixed or encoded--

    (A) having or representing the predetermined, three-dimensional pattern of metallic, insulating, or semiconductor material present or removed from the layers of a semiconductor chip product. See 20 USC 7231c

  • migratory child: means a child or youth who made a qualifying move in the preceding 36 months--

    (A) as a migratory agricultural worker or a migratory fisher. See 20 USC 6399

  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • mother: include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother. See 26 USC 110
  • motion picture exhibition facility: means a movie theater, screening room, or other venue that is being used primarily for the exhibition of a copyrighted motion picture, if such exhibition is open to the public or is made to an assembled group of viewers outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances. See 20 USC 6082
  • national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See 26 USC 110
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • National Bank Examiner: An employee of the Comptroller of the Currency whose function is to examine national banks periodically to determine the financial position of a bank and the security of its deposits. The examiner also verifies that the bank maintains procedures consistent with federal banking laws and regulations. Source: OCC
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • national of the United States: means (A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States. See 26 USC 110
  • Native Hawaiian: as used in this subchapter , means a descendant of not less than one-half part of the blood of the races inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands previous to the year 1778. See 20 USC 7231c
  • naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See 26 USC 110
  • nonimmigrant visa: means a visa properly issued to an alien as an eligible nonimmigrant by a competent officer as provided in this chapter. See 26 USC 110
  • notice of protection: means having actual knowledge that, or reasonable grounds to believe that, a mask work is protected under this chapter. See 20 USC 7231c
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • order: means a kiwifruit research, promotion, and consumer information order issued by the Secretary under section 7463 of this title. See 20 USC 7934
  • order: means an order issued by the Secretary under section 7413 of this title that provides for a program of generic promotion, research, and information regarding agricultural commodities designed to--

    (A) strengthen the position of agricultural commodity industries in the marketplace. See 20 USC 7907

  • order: means an order issued under section 7443 of this title. See 20 USC 7922
  • order of deportation: means the order of the special inquiry officer, or other such administrative officer to whom the Attorney General has delegated the responsibility for determining whether an alien is deportable, concluding that the alien is deportable or ordering deportation. See 26 USC 110
  • organization: means , but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund. See 26 USC 110
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Park: means the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, as herein established. See 20 USC 6396
  • park: means the Keweenaw National Historical Park established by section 410yy-2(a)(1) of this title. See
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • passport: means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country. See 26 USC 110
  • Per stirpes: The legal means by which the children of a decedent, upon the death of an ancestor at a level above that of the decedent, receive by right of representation the share of the ancestor
  • performing rights society: is a n association, corporation, or other entity that licenses the public performance of nondramatic musical works on behalf of copyright owners of such works, such as the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), Broadcast Music, Inc. See 20 USC 6082
  • permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See 26 USC 110
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or other legal entity. See 20 USC 7934
  • person: means any State or local subdivision of a State, agency of such State or subdivision, corporation, or partnership that owns or operates or otherwise controls and provides children's services or any individual who owns or operates or otherwise controls and provides such services. See 20 USC 7972
  • person: means an individual or an organization. See 26 USC 110
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See 20 USC 7907
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See 20 USC 7922
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • phonorecords: includes the material object in which the sounds are first fixed. See 20 USC 6082
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • popcorn: means unpopped popcorn (Zea Mays L) that is--

    (A) commercially grown. See 20 USC 7974

  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Private law: A private bill enacted into law. Private laws have restricted applicability, often addressing immigration and naturalization issues affecting individuals.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • processing: means canning, fermenting, distilling, extracting, preserving, grinding, crushing, or in any manner changing the form of kiwifruit for the purpose of preparing the kiwifruit for market or marketing the kiwifruit. See 20 USC 7934
  • processor: means a person engaged in the preparation of unpopped popcorn for the market who owns or shares the ownership and risk of loss of the popcorn and who processes and distributes over 4,000,000 pounds of popcorn in the market per year. See 20 USC 7974
  • producer: means any person who grows kiwifruit in the United States for sale in commerce. See 20 USC 7934
  • producer: means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of an agricultural commodity in the United States and who owns, or shares the ownership and risk of loss of, the agricultural commodity. See 20 USC 7907
  • producer: means a person engaged in the growing of canola or rapeseed in the United States who owns, or who shares the ownership and risk of loss of, the canola or rapeseed. See 20 USC 7922
  • profession: shall include but not be limited to architects, engineers, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, and teachers in elementary or secondary schools, colleges, academies, or seminaries. See 26 USC 110
  • professional athlete: means an individual who is employed as an athlete by--

    (aa) a team that is a member of an association of 6 or more professional sports teams whose total combined revenues exceed $10,000,000 per year, if the association governs the conduct of its members and regulates the contests and exhibitions in which its member teams regularly engage. See 10 USC 1453

  • promotion: means any action taken under this subchapter (including paid advertising) to present a favorable image of kiwifruit to the general public for the purpose of improving the competitive position of kiwifruit and stimulating the sale of kiwifruit. See 20 USC 7934
  • promotion: means an action, including paid advertising, to enhance the image or desirability of popcorn. See 20 USC 7974
  • promotion: means any action taken by a board under an order, including paid advertising, to present a favorable image of an agricultural commodity to the public to improve the competitive position of the agricultural commodity in the marketplace and to stimulate sales of the agricultural commodity. See 20 USC 7907
  • promotion: means an action, including paid advertising, technical assistance, or a trade servicing activity, to enhance the image or desirability of canola, rapeseed, or canola or rapeseed products in domestic and foreign markets, or an activity designed to communicate to consumers, processors, wholesalers, retailers, government officials, or other persons information relating to the positive attributes of canola, rapeseed, or canola or rapeseed products or the benefits of use or distribution of canola, rapeseed, or canola or rapeseed products. See 20 USC 7922
  • proprietor: is a n individual, corporation, partnership, or other entity, as the case may be, that owns an establishment or a food service or drinking establishment, except that no owner or operator of a radio or television station licensed by the Federal Communications Commission, cable system or satellite carrier, cable or satellite carrier service or programmer, provider of online services or network access or the operator of facilities therefor, telecommunications company, or any other such audio or audiovisual service or programmer now known or as may be developed in the future, commercial subscription music service, or owner or operator of any other transmission service, shall under any circumstances be deemed to be a proprietor. See 20 USC 6082
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • pseudonymous work: is a work on the copies or phonorecords of which the author is identified under a fictitious name. See 20 USC 6082
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • publicly: means --

    (1) to perform or display it at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of persons outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered. See 20 USC 6082

  • qualifying move: means a move due to economic necessity--

    (A) from one residence to another residence. See 20 USC 6399

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • refugee: means (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such special circumstances as the President after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 1157(e) of this title) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. See 26 USC 110
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • representative: includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity. See 10 USC 1453
  • research: means any type of research relating to the use, nutritional value, and marketing of kiwifruit conducted for the purpose of advancing the image, desirability, marketability, or quality of kiwifruit. See 20 USC 7934
  • research: means any type of study to advance the image, desirability, marketability, production, product development, quality, or nutritional value of popcorn. See 20 USC 7974
  • research: means any type of test, study, or analysis designed to advance the image, desirability, use, marketability, production, product development, or quality of an agricultural commodity. See 20 USC 7907
  • research: means any type of test, study, or analysis to advance the image, desirability, marketability, production, product development, quality, or functional or nutritional value of canola, rapeseed, or canola or rapeseed products, including research activity designed to identify and analyze barriers to export sales of canola or rapeseed produced in the United States. See 20 USC 7922
  • residence: means the place of general abode. See 26 USC 110
  • residential property: means a single-family dwelling, the construction of which began before July 1, 1991, together with such land on which the dwelling and appurtenant buildings are located as is in the same ownership as such dwelling and as the Secretary designates as reasonably necessary for the owner's continued use and occupancy of the dwelling. See 20 USC 6395
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • rural community: means --

    (A) any town, township, municipality, or other similar unit of general purpose local government, or any area represented by a not-for-profit corporation or institution organized under State or Federal law to promote broad based economic development, or unit of general purpose local government, as approved by the Secretary, that has a population of not more than 10,000 individuals, is located within a county in which at least 15 percent of the total primary and secondary labor and proprietor income is derived from forestry, wood products, and forest-related industries such as recreation, forage production, and tourism and that is located within the boundary, or within 100 miles of the boundary, of a national forest. See 20 USC 6454

  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 7934
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 49 USC 31138
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 20 USC 7972
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See 20 USC 6396
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 6454
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 7907
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 7922
  • serious criminal offense: means --

    (1) any felony. See 26 USC 110

  • Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See 26 USC 110
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • special immigrant: means --

    (A) an immigrant, lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is returning from a temporary visit abroad. See 26 USC 110

  • State: means any of the 50 States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 20 USC 7922
  • State: shall include the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 49 USC 31142
  • State: includes the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territories to which this title is made applicable by an Act of Congress. See 20 USC 6082
  • State: means any State, and includes the District of Columbia. See 20 USC 6396
  • State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 26 USC 110
  • State: means any of the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 20 USC 7907
  • State fish and wildlife department: means any department or division of department of another name, or commission, or official or officials, of a State empowered under its laws to exercise the functions ordinarily exercised by a State fish and game department or State fish and wildlife department. See 49 USC 31138
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Statutes at large: A chronological listing of the laws enacted each Congress. They are published in volumes numbered by Congress.
  • stowaway: means any alien who obtains transportation without the consent of the owner, charterer, master or person in command of any vessel or aircraft through concealment aboard such vessel or aircraft. See 26 USC 110
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 19 USC 2291
  • substantial: means , for purposes of paragraph (15)(E) with reference to trade or capital, such an amount of trade or capital as is established by the Secretary of State, after consultation with appropriate agencies of Government. See 26 USC 110
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplemental appropriation: Budget authority provided in an appropriations act in addition to regular or continuing appropriations already provided. Supplemental appropriations generally are made to cover emergencies, such as disaster relief, or other needs deemed too urgent to be postponed until the enactment of next year's regular appropriations act.
  • suspend: means to issue a rule under section 553 of title 5 to temporarily prevent the operation of an order during a particular period of time specified in the rule. See 20 USC 7907
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Tenancy in common: A type of property ownership in which two or more individuals have an undivided interest in property. At the death of one tenant in common, his (her) fractional percentage of ownership in the property passes to the decedent
  • terminate: means to issue a rule under section 553 of title 5 to cancel permanently the operation of an order beginning on a date certain specified in the rule. See 20 USC 7907
  • terrorist activity: means any activity which is unlawful under the laws of the place where it is committed (or which, if it had been committed in the United States, would be unlawful under the laws of the United States or any State) and which involves any of the following:

    (I) The highjacking or sabotage of any conveyance (including an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle). See 10 USC 1453

  • terrorist organization: means an organization--

    (I) designated under section 1189 of this title. See 10 USC 1453

  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • totalitarian party: means an organization which advocates the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship or totalitarianism. See 26 USC 110
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • transfer of copyright ownership: is a n assignment, mortgage, exclusive license, or any other conveyance, alienation, or hypothecation of a copyright or of any of the exclusive rights comprised in a copyright, whether or not it is limited in time or place of effect, but not including a nonexclusive license. See 20 USC 6082
  • transmission program: is a body of material that, as an aggregate, has been produced for the sole purpose of transmission to the public in sequence and as a unit. See 20 USC 6082
  • treaty party: is a country or intergovernmental organization other than the United States that is a party to an international agreement. See 20 USC 6082
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 20 USC 7922
  • United States: means the 50 States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 20 USC 7934
  • United States: means all of the States. See 20 USC 7974
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, comprises the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the organized territories under the jurisdiction of the United States Government. See 20 USC 6082
  • United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 26 USC 110
  • United States: means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the territories and possessions of the United States. See 20 USC 7907
  • United States worker: means an employee who--

    (i) is a citizen or national of the United States. See 10 USC 1453

  • unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See 26 USC 110
  • useful article: is a n article having an intrinsic utilitarian function that is not merely to portray the appearance of the article or to convey information. See 20 USC 6082
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • VAWA self-petitioner: means an alien, or a child of the alien, who qualifies for relief under--

    (A) clause (iii), (iv), or (vii) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title. See 26 USC 110

  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
  • wildlife: means any species of wild, free-ranging fauna including fish, and also fauna in captive breeding programs the object of which is to reintroduce individuals of a depleted indigenous species into previously occupied range. See 49 USC 31138
  • wildlife conservation and restoration program: means a program developed by a State fish and wildlife department and approved by the Secretary under section 669c(d) 1 of this title, the projects that constitute such a program, which may be implemented in whole or part through grants and contracts by a State to other State, Federal, or local agencies (including those that gather, evaluate, and disseminate information on wildlife and their habitats), wildlife conservation organizations, and outdoor recreation and conservation education entities from funds apportioned under this chapter,1 and maintenance of such projects. See 49 USC 31138
  • wildlife conservation education: means projects, including public outreach, intended to foster responsible natural resource stewardship. See 49 USC 31138
  • wildlife-associated recreation: means projects intended to meet the demand for outdoor activities associated with wildlife including, but not limited to, hunting and fishing, wildlife observation and photography, such projects as construction or restoration of wildlife viewing areas, observation towers, blinds, platforms, land and water trails, water access, field trialing, trail heads, and access for such projects. See 49 USC 31138
  • wildlife-restoration project: includes the wildlife conservation and restoration program and means the selection, restoration, rehabilitation, and improvement of areas of land or water adaptable as feeding, resting, or breeding places for wildlife, including acquisition of such areas or estates or interests therein as are suitable or capable of being made suitable therefor, and the construction thereon or therein of such works as may be necessary to make them available for such purposes and also including such research into problems of wildlife management as may be necessary to efficient administration affecting wildlife resources, and such preliminary or incidental costs and expenses as may be incurred in and about such projects. See 49 USC 31138
  • work of the United States Government: is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person's official duties. See 20 USC 6082
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291