Subchapter I Commencement of a Case
Subchapter II Officers
Subchapter III Administration
Subchapter IV Administrative Powers

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 11 > Chapter 3

  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 10 USC 2801
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • agreement: means the Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for Such Carriage, and the annexes and the appendices thereto, done at Geneva, September 1, 1970, under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations. See 10 USC 2834
  • agricultural commodity: as used in this chapter includes any agricultural commodity or product thereof. See 10 USC 2882
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • AMT: means the Alternative Minimum Tax for individuals under sections 55-59 of title 26, the term "EGTRRA" means the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-16), and the term "JGTRRA" means the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief and 1 Reconciliation Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-27). See 26 USC 1293
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate committees of Congress: means the congressional defense committees and, with respect to any project to be carried out by, or for the use of, an intelligence component of the Department of Defense, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate. See 10 USC 2801
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • BBEDCA: means the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985. See 26 USC 1293
  • beginning farmer or rancher: means such term as defined by the Secretary. See 14 USC 252
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the National Watermelon Promotion Board provided for in section 4906 of this title. See 10 USC 224
  • borrower: means any farm borrower who has outstanding obligations to the Secretary under any farmer program loan, without regard to whether the loan has been accelerated, but does not include any farm borrower all of whose loans and accounts have been foreclosed on or liquidated, voluntarily or otherwise. See 14 USC 252
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • budgetary effects: means the amount by which PAYGO legislation changes outlays flowing from direct spending or revenues relative to the baseline and shall be determined on the basis of estimates prepared under section 933 of this title. See 26 USC 1293
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Centers: means the Cooperative Research Centers established under section 3705 or 3707 of this title. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • Clearinghouse: means the Clearinghouse for State and Local Initiatives on Productivity, Technology, and Innovation established by section 3704a of this title. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • Committee: means the National Honey Nominations Committee provided for under section 4606(b) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • commodity group: means that portion of the flower and plant industry devoted to the production and importation of any one of the following: (A) cut flowers. See 10 USC 2807
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • Congressional Record: The substantially verbatim account of daily proceedings in Congress. It is printed for each day Congress is in session. At the back of each daily issue is the "Daily Digest," which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities.
  • consumer education: means any action to provide information on the care and handling of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • consumer education: means any action to provide information on the usage and care of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • contract of insurance: includes a contract of guarantee. See 14 USC 252
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative: means a private sector organization whose members own and control the organization and share in its services and its profits and that provides business services and outreach in cooperative development for its membership. See 10 USC 2801
  • corporation: includes associations, joint-stock companies, and insurance companies. See 38 USC 1912
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • cost of plant material: means the actual price paid by a producer for any propagational material or any other flowers and plants used in the production of flowers and plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • Credit report: A detailed report of an individual's credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan applicant's creditworthiness. Source: OCC
  • cut flowers: means all flowers and decorative foliage used as fresh-cut flowers, fresh-cut decorative foliage, dried, preserved, and processed flowers, or dried and preserved decorative foliage, produced either under cover or in field operations. See 10 USC 2807
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • debit: refers to the net total amount, when positive, by which costs recorded on the PAYGO scorecards for a fiscal year exceed savings recorded on those scorecards for that year. See 26 USC 1293
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • developing country: means a country that has a shortage of foreign exchange earnings and has difficulty meeting all of its food needs through commercial channels. See 10 USC 2801
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • direct loan: means a loan made or insured from funds in the account created by section 1929 of this title. See 14 USC 252
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • domestic: when applied to a corporation or partnership means created or organized in the United States or under the law of the United States or of any State unless, in the case of a partnership, the Secretary provides otherwise by regulations. See 38 USC 1912
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 38 USC 1912
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • equipment: means the special transport equipment that complies with the definitions and standards set forth in annex 1 to the agreement, including, but not limited to, railway cars, trucks, trailers, semitrailers, and intermodal freight containers that are insulated only, or insulated and equipped with a refrigerating, mechanically refrigerating, or heating appliance. See 10 USC 2834
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • exchanged basis property: means property having a basis determined under any provision of subtitle A (or under any corresponding provision of prior income tax law) providing that the basis shall be determined in whole or in part by reference to other property held at any time by the person for whom the basis is to be determined. See 38 USC 1912
  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • facility: means a building, structure, or other improvement to real property. See 10 USC 2801
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • farmer: includes a person who is engaged in, or who, with assistance afforded under this chapter, intends to engage in, fish farming. See 14 USC 252
  • farmer program loan: means a farm ownership loan (FO) under section 1923 of this title, operating loan (OL) under section 1942 of this title, soil and water loan (SW) under section 1924 of this title, emergency loan (EM) under section 1961 of this title, economic emergency loan (EE) under section 202 of the Emergency Agricultural Credit Adjustment Act (title II of Public Law 95-334), economic opportunity loan (EO) under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1961 (42 U. See 14 USC 252
  • farming: shall be deemed to include fish farming. See 14 USC 252
  • farmland: includes all land defined as follows:

    (A) prime farmland is land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, fiber, forage, oilseed, and other agricultural crops with minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor, and without intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the Secretary. See 10 USC 2541a

  • Federal agency: means any executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5 and the military departments as defined in section 102 of such title, as well as any agency of the legislative branch of the Federal Government. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Source: OCC
  • Federal laboratory: means any laboratory, any federally funded research and development center, or any center established under section 3705 or 3707 of this title that is owned, leased, or otherwise used by a Federal agency and funded by the Federal Government, whether operated by the Government or by a contractor. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • Federal program: means those activities or responsibilities of a department, agency, independent commission, or other unit of the Federal Government that involve (A) undertaking, financing, or assisting construction or improvement projects. See 10 USC 2541a
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 38 USC 1912
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fixed Rate: Having a "fixed" rate means that the APR doesn't change based on fluctuations of some external rate (such as the "Prime Rate"). In other words, a fixed rate is a rate that is not a variable rate. A fixed APR can change over time, in several circumstances:
    • You are late making a payment or commit some other default, triggering an increase to a penalty rate
    • The bank changes the terms of your account and you do not reject the change.
    • The rate expires (if the rate was fixed for only a certain period of time).
  • Floraboard: means the board provided for under section 4306 of this title. See 10 USC 2807
  • flowers and plants: means cut flowers, potted flowering plants, foliage plants, and propagational material. See 10 USC 2807
  • foliage plants: means those plants, normally without flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decorations, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 10 USC 2807
  • food security: means access by all people at all times to sufficient food and nutrition for a healthy and productive life. See 10 USC 2801
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • foreign: when applied to a corporation or partnership means a corporation or partnership which is not domestic. See 38 USC 1912
  • foreign estate: means an estate the income of which, from sources without the United States which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, is not includible in gross income under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • foreign trust: means any trust other than a trust described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (30). See 38 USC 1912
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • handler: means any person who handles honey. See 10 USC 2854a
  • handler: means any person (except a common or contract carrier of watermelons owned by another person) who handles watermelons in a manner specified in a plan issued under this chapter or in regulations promulgated thereunder. See 10 USC 224
  • honey: means the nectar and saccharine exudations of plants which are gathered, modified, and stored in the comb by honey bees. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Honey Board: means the board provided for under section 4606(c) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • honey production: means all beekeeping operations related to--

    (A) managing honey bee colonies to produce honey. See 10 USC 2854a

  • honey products: means products produced, in whole or part, from honey. See 10 USC 2854a
  • importer: means any person who imports cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants from outside of the United States or who acts as an agent, broker, or consignee of any person or nation that produces flowers and plants outside of the United States for sale in the United States. See 10 USC 2807
  • importer: means any person who imports honey or honey products into the United States or acts as an agent, broker, or consignee for any person or nation that produces honey outside of the United States for sale in the United States and who is listed in the import records as the importer of record for such honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • importer: means any person who imports watermelons into the United States. See 10 USC 224
  • including: when used in a definition contained in this title shall not be deemed to exclude other things otherwise within the meaning of the term defined. See 38 USC 1912
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • industry information: means information or a program that will lead to the development of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the honey industry, or an activity to enhance the image of honey and honey products and of the honey industry. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • insure: as used in this chapter includes guarantee, which means to guarantee the payment of a loan originated, held, and serviced by a private financial agency or other lender approved by the Secretary. See 14 USC 252
  • Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international carriage: means transportation of perishable foodstuffs if such foodstuffs are loaded in equipment or the equipment containing them is loaded onto a rail or road vehicle, in the territory of any country and such foodstuffs are, or the equipment containing them is, unloaded in the territory of another country that is a contracting party, where such transportation is by--

    (A) rail,

    (B) road,

    (C) any combination of rail and road, or

    (D) any sea crossing of less than one hundred and fifty kilometers, if preceded or followed by one or more land journeys as referred to in clauses (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph, and the perishable foodstuffs are shipped in the same equipment used for such land journeys without transloading of such foodstuffs. See 10 USC 2834

  • Invention: means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protected under title 35 or any novel variety of plant which is or may be protectable under the Plant Variety Protection Act (7 U. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • joint return: means a single return made jointly under section 6013 by a husband and wife. See 38 USC 1912
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Made: when used in conjunction with any invention means the conception or first actual reduction to practice of such invention. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Mandatory spending: Spending (budget authority and outlays) controlled by laws other than annual appropriations acts.
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition in commerce of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
  • military construction: as used in this chapter or any other provision of law includes any construction, development, conversion, or extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military installation, whether to satisfy temporary or permanent requirements, or any acquisition of land or construction of a defense access road (as described in section 210 of title 23). See 10 USC 2801
  • military installation: means a base, camp, post, station, yard, center, or other activity under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department or, in the case of an activity in a foreign country, under the operational control of the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Defense, without regard to the duration of operational control. See 10 USC 2801
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • national honey marketing cooperative: means a cooperative that markets its products in at least 2 of the following 4 regions of the United States, as determined by the Secretary:

    (A) The Atlantic Coast, including the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 2854a

  • Nolo contendere: No contest-has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
  • Nonprofit institution: means an organization owned and operated exclusively for scientific or educational purposes, no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • nonrecognition transaction: means any disposition of property in a transaction in which gain or loss is not recognized in whole or in part for purposes of subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • owner-operator: shall include in the State of Hawaii the lessee-operator of real property in any case in which the Secretary determines that such real property cannot be acquired in fee simple by such lessee-operator, that adequate security is provided for the loan with respect to such real property for which such lessee-operator applies under this chapter, and that there is a reasonable probability of accomplishing the objectives and repayment of such loan. See 14 USC 252
  • paid or accrued: shall be construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • partner: includes a member in such a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or organization. See 38 USC 1912
  • partnership: includes a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization, through or by means of which any business, financial operation, or venture is carried on, and which is not, within the meaning of this title, a trust or estate or a corporation. See 38 USC 1912
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • PAYGO Act: refers to a bill or joint resolution that affects direct spending or revenue relative to the baseline. See 26 USC 1293
  • perishable foodstuffs: means quick deep-frozen and frozen food products listed in annex 2 and food products listed in annex 3 to the agreement. See 10 USC 2834
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 10 USC 2807
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other entity. See 10 USC 2854a
  • person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 38 USC 1912
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or other entity. See 10 USC 224
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • plan: means an order issued by the Secretary under this chapter. See 10 USC 224
  • Point of order: A claim made by a legislator from the floor that a rule of the legislature is being violated. If the Chair sustains the point of order, the action in violation of the rule is not permitted.
  • potted flowering plants: means those plants that normally produce flowers, primarily produced in pots or similar containers, that are primarily used for interior decoration, whether grown under cover or in field operations. See 10 USC 2807
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • producer: means any person who produces domestically, for sale in commerce, cut flowers, potted flowering plants, or foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • producer: means any person who produces honey in the United States for sale in commerce. See 10 USC 2854a
  • producer: means any person engaged in the growing of 10 or more acres of watermelons. See 10 USC 224
  • producer-packer: means any person who is both a producer and handler of honey. See 10 USC 2854a
  • promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, to advance the image or desirability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • promotion: means any action, including paid advertising, pursuant to this chapter, to present a favorable image for honey or honey products to the public with the express intent of improving the competitive position and stimulating sales of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • promotion: means any action taken by the Board, under this chapter, to present a favorable image for watermelons to the public with the express intent of improving the competitive position of watermelons in the marketplace and stimulating sales of watermelons, and shall include, but not be limited to, paid advertising. See 10 USC 224
  • Public debt: Cumulative amounts borrowed by the Treasury Department or the Federal Financing Bank from the public or from another fund or account. The public debt does not include agency debt (amounts borrowed by other agencies of the Federal Government). The total public debt is subject to a statutory limit.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • qualified beginning farmer or rancher: means an applicant, regardless of whether the applicant is participating in a program under section 1935 of this title--

    (A) who is eligible for assistance under this chapter. See 14 USC 252

  • qualified national organization representing handler interests: means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee handler, handler-importer, alternate handler, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 4606(b) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • qualified national organization representing importer interests: means an organization that the Secretary certifies as being eligible to recommend nominations for the Committee importer, handler-importer, alternate importer, and alternate handler-importer members of the Honey Board under section 4606(b) of this title. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Quorum call: A call of the roll to establish whether a quorum is present. If any legislator "suggests the absence of a quorum," the presiding officer must direct the roll to be called.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act: Federal law that, among other things, requires lenders to provide "good faith" estimates of settlement costs and make other disclosures regarding the mortgage loan. RESPA also limits the amount of funds held in escrow for real estate taxes and insurance. Source: OCC
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • regulated public utility: means --

    (A) A corporation engaged in the furnishing or sale of--

    (i) electric energy, gas, water, or sewerage disposal services, or

    (ii) transportation (not included in subparagraph (C)) on an intrastate, suburban, municipal, or interurban electric railroad, on an intrastate, municipal, or suburban trackless trolley system, or on a municipal or suburban bus system, or

    (iii) transportation (not included in clause (ii)) by motor vehicle--


    if the rates for such furnishing or sale, as the case may be, have been established or approved by a State or political subdivision thereof, by an agency or instrumentality of the United States, by a public service or public utility commission or other similar body of the District of Columbia or of any State or political subdivision thereof, or by a foreign country or an agency or instrumentality or political subdivision thereof. See 38 USC 1912

  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means any type of research to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of cut flowers, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants. See 10 USC 2807
  • research: means any type of research designed to advance the image, desirability, usage, marketability, production, or quality of honey or honey products. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture, unless otherwise specified in this chapter. See 10 USC 2801
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2541a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2807
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 38 USC 1912
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 224
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Health and Human Services. See 42 USC 201
  • Secretary concerned: includes the Secretary of Defense with respect to matters concerning the Defense Agencies. See 10 USC 2801
  • Service: means the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • shareholder: includes a member in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
  • State: means any of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 10 USC 2541a
  • State: shall include each of the several States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and, to the extent the Secretary determines it to be feasible and appropriate, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 14 USC 252
  • State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 38 USC 1912
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 2854a
  • State: includes , in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • State association: means that organization of beekeepers in a State which is generally recognized as representing the beekeepers of that State. See 10 USC 2854a
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stock: includes shares in an association, joint-stock company, or insurance company. See 38 USC 1912
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supplemental appropriation: Budget authority provided in an appropriations act in addition to regular or continuing appropriations already provided. Supplemental appropriations generally are made to cover emergencies, such as disaster relief, or other needs deemed too urgent to be postponed until the enactment of next year's regular appropriations act.
  • Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxable year: means the calendar year, or the fiscal year ending during such calendar year, upon the basis of which the taxable income is computed under subtitle A. See 38 USC 1912
  • taxpayer: means any person subject to any internal revenue tax. See 38 USC 1912
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • trade or business: includes the performance of the functions of a public office. See 38 USC 1912
  • Training technology: means computer software and related materials which are developed by a Federal agency to train employees of such agency, including but not limited to software for computer-based instructional systems and for interactive video disc systems. See 42 USC 295f–1
  • transaction: includes a series of transactions. See 38 USC 1912
  • transferred basis property: means property having a basis determined under any provision of subtitle A (or under any corresponding provision of prior income tax law) providing that the basis shall be determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis in the hands of the donor, grantor, or other transferor. See 38 USC 1912
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Truth in Lending Act: The Truth in Lending Act is a federal law that requires lenders to provide standardized information so that borrowers can compare loan terms. In general, lenders must provide information on Source: OCC
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States of America, the territories and possessions of the United States of America, and the District of Columbia. See 10 USC 2807
  • United States: means the fifty States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See 10 USC 2834
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 38 USC 1912
  • United States: means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. See 10 USC 224
  • United States person: means --

    (A) a citizen or resident of the United States,

    (B) a domestic partnership,

    (C) a domestic corporation,

    (D) any estate (other than a foreign estate, within the meaning of paragraph (31)), and

    (E) any trust if--

    (i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust, and

    (ii) one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust. See 38 USC 1912

  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • watermelon: means all varieties of watermelon grown by producers in the United States or imported into the United States. See 10 USC 224
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291