Subchapter I Federal Trade Commission
Subchapter II Promotion of Export Trade
Subchapter III Labeling of Wool Products
Subchapter IV Labeling of Fur Products
Subchapter V Textile Fiber Products Identification
Subchapter VI Prevention of Unfair Methods of Competition

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 15 > Chapter 2

  • Administrator: means , except as otherwise provided, the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration, within the Federal Emergency Management Agency. See
  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See
  • advanced automobile propulsion system: means an energy conversion system, including engine and drive train, which utilizes advanced technology and is suitable for use in an advanced automobile. See
  • advanced electric or hybrid vehicle: means a vehicle which--

    (A) minimizes the total amount of energy to be consumed with respect to its fabrication, operation, and disposal, and represents a substantial improvement over existing electric and hybrid vehicles with respect to the total amount of energy so consumed. See

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • affiliate: means any person who (other than by means of a franchise) controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, any other person. See
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • affixed: means attached to the textile fiber product in any manner. See
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • automotive fuel: means liquid fuel of a type distributed for use as a fuel in any motor vehicle. See
  • automotive fuel rating: means --

    (A) the octane rating of an automotive spark-ignition engine fuel. See

  • automotive fuel requirement: means , with respect to automotive fuel for use in a motor vehicle or a class thereof, imported, manufactured, or assembled by a manufacturer, the minimum automotive fuel rating of such automotive fuel which such manufacturer recommends for the efficient operation of such motor vehicle, or a substantial portion of such class, without knocking. See
  • automotive fuel retailer: means any person who markets automotive fuel to the general public for ultimate consumption. See
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Board: means the National Processor Advertising and Promotion Board established under section 6407(b) of this title. See
  • chemical substance: means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including--

    (i) any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature, and

    (ii) any element or uncombined radical. See

  • commerce: means any trade, traffic, transportation, exchange, or other commerce--

    (A) between any State and any place outside of such State. See

  • commerce: means any trade, traffic, transportation, exchange, or other commerce--

    (A) between any State and any place outside of such State. See

  • commerce: means commerce among the several States or with foreign nations, or in any Territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia, or between any such Territory and another, or between any such Territory and any State or foreign nation, or between the District of Columbia and any State or Territory or foreign nation. See
  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See
  • commerce: means commerce among the several States or with foreign nations, or in any Territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia, or between any such Territory and another, or between any such Territory and any State or foreign nation or between the District of Columbia and any State or Territory or foreign nation. See
  • commerce: means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. See
  • commerce: means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. See
  • commerce: includes interstate, foreign, and intrastate commerce. See
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See
  • Commission: means the Federal Trade Commission. See
  • Committee: means the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences established under section 2932 of this title. See
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • conditions of use: means the circumstances, as determined by the Administrator, under which a chemical substance is intended, known, or reasonably foreseen to be manufactured, processed, distributed in commerce, used, or disposed of. See
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • contract: means any oral or written agreement. See
  • Council: means the Federal Coordinating Council on Science, Engineering, and Technology. See
  • Council: means the Mushroom Council established under section 6104(b) of this title. See
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See
  • Department: means the Department of Agriculture. See
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • distribution in commerce: when used to describe an action taken with respect to a chemical substance or mixture or article containing a substance or mixture mean to sell, or the sale of, the substance, mixture, or article in commerce. See
  • distributor: means any person who receives automotive fuel and distributes such automotive fuel to another person other than the ultimate purchaser. See
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • environment: includes water, air, and land and the interrelationship which exists among and between water, air, and land and all living things. See
  • fabric: means any material woven, knitted, felted, or otherwise produced from, or in combination with, any natural or manufactured fiber, yarn, or substitute therefor. See
  • Federal Trade Commission Act: means the Act of Congress entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission, to define its powers and duties, and for other purposes" approved September 26, 1914, as amended, and the Federal Trade Commission Act approved March 21, 1938. See
  • Federal Trade Commission Act: means the Act entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission, to define its powers and duties, and for other purposes" approved September 26, 1914, as amended [15 U. See
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • franchise: includes --

    (i) any contract under which a retailer or distributor (as the case may be) is authorized or permitted to occupy leased marketing premises, which premises are to be employed in connection with the sale, consignment, or distribution of motor fuel under a trademark which is owned or controlled by such refiner or by a refiner which supplies motor fuel to the distributor which authorizes or permits such occupancy. See

  • franchise relationship: means the respective motor fuel marketing or distribution obligations and responsibilities of a franchisor and a franchisee which result from the marketing of motor fuel under a franchise. See
  • franchisee: means a retailer or distributor (as the case may be) who is authorized or permitted, under a franchise, to use a trademark in connection with the sale, consignment, or distribution of motor fuel. See
  • franchisor: means a refiner or distributor (as the case may be) who authorizes or permits, under a franchise, a retailer or distributor to use a trademark in connection with the sale, consignment, or distribution of motor fuel. See
  • fuel: means any energy source capable of propelling an automobile. See
  • fuel economy: refers to the average distance traveled in representative driving conditions by an automobile per unit of fuel consumed, as determined by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with test procedures which shall be established by rule and shall require that fuel economy tests be conducted in conjunction with the exhaust emissions tests mandated by section 7525 of title 42. See
  • fur: means any animal skin or part thereof with hair, fleece, or fur fibers attached thereto, either in its raw or processed state, but shall not include such skins as are to be converted into leather or which in processing shall have the hair, fleece, or fur fiber completely removed. See
  • fur product: means any article of wearing apparel made in whole or in part of fur or used fur. See
  • Fur Products Name Guide: means the register issued by the Commission pursuant to section 69e of this title. See
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • global change: means changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. See
  • global change research: means study, monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information management activities to describe and understand--

    (A) the interactive physical, chemical, and biological processes that regulate the total Earth system. See

  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • guidance: means any significant written guidance of general applicability prepared by the Administrator. See
  • health and safety study: means any study of any effect of a chemical substance or mixture on health or the environment or on both, including underlying information and epidemiological studies, studies of occupational exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, toxicological, clinical, and ecological studies of a chemical substance or mixture, and any test performed pursuant to this chapter. See
  • hybrid vehicle: means a vehicle propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power source and components thereof. See
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • invoice: means a written account, memorandum, list, or catalog, which is issued in connection with any commercial dealing in fur products or furs, and describes the particulars of any fur products or furs, transported or delivered to a purchaser, consignee, factor, bailee, correspondent, or agent, or any other person who is engaged in dealing commercially in fur products or furs. See
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • leased marketing premises: means marketing premises owned, leased, or in any way controlled by a franchisor and which the franchisee is authorized or permitted, under the franchise, to employ in connection with the sale, consignment, or distribution of motor fuel. See
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local: means of or pertaining to any city, town, county, special purpose district, unincorporated territory, or other political subdivision of a State. See
  • manufacture: means to import into the customs territory of the United States (as defined in general note 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States), produce, or manufacture. See
  • manufactured fiber: means any fiber derived by a process of manufacture from any substance which, at any point in the manufacturing process, is not a fiber. See
  • manufacturer: means any person who imports, manufactures, or assembles motor vehicles for sale. See
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition of mushrooms in any channel of commerce. See
  • marketing: means the sale or other disposition of soybeans or soybean products in any channel of commerce. See
  • marketing premises: means , in the case of any franchise, premises which, under such franchise, are to be employed by the franchisee in connection with sale, consignment, or distribution of motor fuel. See
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • mixture: means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction. See
  • motor fuel: means gasoline and diesel fuel of a type distributed for use as a fuel in self-propelled vehicles designed primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. See
  • motor vehicle: means any self-propelled four-wheeled vehicle, of less than 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight, which is designed primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. See
  • National Credit Union Administration: The federal regulatory agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. (NCUA also administers the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund, which insures the deposits of federal credit unions.) Source: OCC
  • new chemical substance: means any chemical substance which is not included in the chemical substance list compiled and published under section 2607(b) of this title. See
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See
  • Office: means the National Climate Program Office. See
  • order: means an order issued under this chapter (other than sections 6808, 6809, and 6811 of this title). See
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or any other form of business enterprise, plural or singular, as the case demands. See
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, business trust, or any organized group of any of the foregoing. See
  • person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association or any other form of business enterprise. See
  • person: includes partnerships, corporations, and associations. See
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity. See
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plan: means the National Global Change Research Plan developed under section 2934 of this title, or any revision thereof. See
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation: means a group of individuals within the general population identified by the Administrator who, due to either greater susceptibility or greater exposure, may be at greater risk than the general population of adverse health effects from exposure to a chemical substance or mixture, such as infants, children, pregnant women, workers, or the elderly. See
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • process: means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce--

    (A) in the same form or physical state as, or in a different form or physical state from, that in which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture, or

    (B) as part of an article containing the chemical substance or mixture. See

  • processor: means any person who processes a chemical substance or mixture. See
  • Program: means the National Climate Program. See
  • Program: means the United States Global Change Research Program established under section 2933 of this title. See
  • project: means the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Project established under section 2503(a) of this title. See
  • promotion: means any action taken by the Board, pursuant to this chapter, to present a favorable image of pecans to the public with the express intent of improving the competitive position of pecans in the marketplace and stimulating sales of pecans, including paid advertising. See
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • protocols and methodologies for the development of information: means a prescription of--

    (A) the--

    (i) health and environmental effects, and

    (ii) information relating to toxicity, persistence, and other characteristics which affect health and the environment,


    for which information for a chemical substance or mixture are to be developed and any analysis that is to be performed on such information, and

    (B) to the extent necessary to assure that information respecting such effects and characteristics are reliable and adequate--

    (i) the manner in which such information are 2 to be developed,

    (ii) the specification of any test protocol or methodology to be employed in the development of such information, and

    (iii) such other requirements as are necessary to provide such assurance. See

  • recycled wool: means (1) the resulting fiber when wool has been woven or felted into a wool product which, without ever having been utilized in any way by the ultimate consumer, subsequently has been made into a fibrous state, or (2) the resulting fiber when wool or reprocessed wool has been spun, woven, knitted, or felted into a wool product which, after having been used in any way by the ultimate consumer, subsequently has been made into a fibrous state. See
  • refiner: means any person engaged in the production or importation of automotive fuel. See
  • relevant geographic market area: includes a State or a standard metropolitan statistical area as periodically established by the Office of Management and Budget. See
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means any type of test, study, or analysis designed to advance the image, desirability, usage, marketability, production, product development, or quality of pecans. See
  • research: means any type of study to advance the image, desirability, marketability, production, product development, quality, or nutritional value of mushrooms. See
  • research: means any type of research relating to the use and nutritional value of limes and designed to advance the image, desirability, marketability, or quality of limes. See
  • research: means any type of study to advance the image, desirability, marketability, production, product development, quality, or functional or nutritional value of soybeans or soybean products, including any research activity designed to identify and analyze barriers to export sales of soybeans and soybean products. See
  • research: means market research to support advertising and promotion efforts, including educational activities, research directed to product characteristics, product development, including new products or improved technology in production, manufacturing or processing of milk and the products of milk. See
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See
  • Service: means the Foreign Agricultural Service of the Department of Agriculture. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and any other commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and any other commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See
  • State: means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau (until such time as the Compact of Free Association is ratified). See
  • State: has the meaning given the term in section 101 of title 6. See
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States. See
  • State: means any of the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • State: means each of the 50 States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • termination: includes cancellation. See
  • Territory: includes the insular possessions of the United States and also any Territory of the United States. See
  • Territory: includes the insular possessions of the United States, and also any Territory of the United States. See
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • textile fiber: means a unit of matter which is capable of being spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by bonding or by interlacing in a variety of methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, twisting, or webbing, and which is the basic structural element of textile products. See
  • textile fiber product: means --

    (1) any fiber, whether in the finished or unfinished state, used or intended for use in household textile articles. See

  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • trademark: means any trademark, trade name, service mark, or other identifying symbol or name. See
  • ultimate consumer: means a person who obtains a textile fiber product by purchase or exchange with no intent to sell or exchange such textile fiber product in any form. See
  • ultimate purchaser: means , with respect to any item, the first person who purchases such item for purposes other than resale. See
  • United States: means the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Territories and possessions of the United States. See
  • United States: includes each of the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. See
  • United States: means collectively the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • United States: include the 50 States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • United States: means the 50 States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • United States: consist of the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See
  • used fur: means fur in any form which has been worn or used by an ultimate consumer. See
  • User fees: Fees charged to users of goods or services provided by the government. In levying or authorizing these fees, the legislature determines whether the revenue should go into the treasury or should be available to the agency providing the goods or services.
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • waste fur: means the ears, throats, or scrap pieces which have been severed from the animal pelt, and shall include mats or plates made therefrom. See
  • wool: means the fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of the Angora or Cashmere goat (and may include the so-called specialty fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna) which has never been reclaimed from any woven or felted wool product. See
  • wool product: means any product, or any portion of a product, which contains, purports to contain, or in any way is represented as containing wool or recycled wool. See
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.