Chapter 41 Administrative Office of United States Courts
Chapter 42 Federal Judicial Center
Chapter 43 United States Magistrate Judges
Chapter 44 Alternative Dispute Resolution
Chapter 45 Supreme Court
Chapter 47 Courts of Appeals
Chapter 49 District Courts
Chapter 51 United States Court of Federal Claims
Chapter 55 Court of International Trade
Chapter 57 General Provisions Applicable to Court Officers and Employees
Chapter 58 United States Sentencing Commission

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 28 > Part III

  • adjusted age of housing: means the arithmetic product of the age of housing in the metropolitan city or urban county multiplied times the adjustment factor. See 42 USC 5302
  • Adjusted gross estate: The gross estate, less funeral expenses, expenses of estate administration during probate, debts of the estate, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • administering organization: means the recognized, voluntary, private sector, consensus standards body with specific experience in developing model residential building codes and standards involving all disciplines regarding construction and safety that administers the consensus standards through a development process. See 42 USC 5402
  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. See 42 USC 7602
  • Administrator: means the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See 42 USC 9102
  • Advisory Committee: means the Advisory Committee established under section 7704(a)(5) of this title. See 42 USC 7703
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • age of housing: means the number of existing housing units constructed in 1939 or earlier based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time. See 42 USC 5302
  • agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 28 USC 451
  • alcohol: means alcohol (including methanol and ethanol) which is produced from biomass and which is suitable for use by itself or in combination with other substances as a fuel or as a substitute for petroleum or petrochemical feedstocks. See 42 USC 8802
  • alteration: includes changes of any kind, reconstruction, or removal in whole or in part. See 33 USC 511
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • applicable implementation plan: means the portion (or portions) of the implementation plan, or most recent revision thereof, which has been approved under section 7410 of this title, or promulgated under section 7410(c) of this title, or promulgated or approved pursuant to regulations promulgated under section 7601(d) of this title and which implements the relevant requirements of this chapter. See 42 USC 7602
  • application: means any application submitted under this chapter (A) for issuance of a license for the ownership, construction, and operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship. See 42 USC 9102
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • appropriate committees of Congress: includes the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bailiff: a court officer who enforces the rules of behavior in courtrooms.
  • bank: means (A) a banking institution organized under the laws of the United States or a Federal savings association, as defined in section 1462(5) 1 of title 12, (B) a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, (C) any other banking institution or savings association, as defined in section 1462(4) 1 of title 12, whether incorporated or not, doing business under the laws of any State or of the United States, a substantial portion of the business of which consists of receiving deposits or exercising fiduciary powers similar to those permitted to national banks under the authority of the Comptroller of the Currency pursuant to section 92a of title 12, and which is supervised and examined by State or Federal authority having supervision over banks or savings associations, and which is not operated for the purpose of evading the provisions of this chapter, and (D) a receiver, conservator, or other liquidating agent of any institution or firm included in clauses (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph. See
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • biomass: means any organic matter which is available on a renewable basis, including agricultural crops and agricultural wastes and residues, wood and wood wastes and residues, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and aquatic plants. See 42 USC 8802
  • biomass energy: means --

    (A) biomass fuel. See 42 USC 8802

  • biomass energy project: means any facility (or portion of a facility) located in the United States which is primarily for--

    (A) the production of biomass fuel (and byproducts). See 42 USC 8802

  • biomass fuel: means any gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel produced by conversion of biomass. See 42 USC 8802
  • bridge: means a lawful bridge over navigable waters of the United States, including approaches, fenders, and appurtenances thereto, which is used and operated for the purpose of carrying railroad traffic, or both railroad and highway traffic, or if a State, county, municipality, or other political subdivision is the owner or joint owner thereof, which is used and operated for the purpose of carrying highway traffic. See 33 USC 511
  • bridge owner: means any State, county, municipality, or other political subdivision, or any corporation, association, partnership, or individual owning, or jointly owning, any bridge, and, when any bridge shall be in the possession or under the control of any trustee, receiver, trustee in a case under title 11, or lessee, such terms shall include both the owner of the legal title and the person or the entity in possession or control of such bridge. See 33 USC 511
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • Bureau: means the Bureau of the Census. See
  • Chairman: means the Chairman of the National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policies. See 22 USC 262r
  • Chief judge: The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court but also decides cases; chief judges are determined by seniority.
  • city: means (A) any unit of general local government which is classified as a municipality by the United States Bureau of the Census or (B) any other unit of general local government which is a town or township and which, in the determination of the Secretary, (i) possesses powers and performs functions comparable to these associated with municipalities, (ii) is closely settled, and (iii) contains within its boundaries no incorporated places as defined by the United States Bureau of the Census which have not entered into cooperation agreements with such town or township to undertake or to assist in the undertaking of essential community development and housing assistance activities. See 42 USC 5302
  • Clerk of court: An officer appointed by the court to work with the chief judge in overseeing the court's administration, especially to assist in managing the flow of cases through the court and to maintain court records.
  • coastal State: means a State in, or bordering on, the Atlantic, Pacific, or Arctic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Long Island Sound, or one or more of the Great Lakes. See 42 USC 9102
  • Commission: means the United States Sentencing Commission. See 28 USC 998
  • Commission: means the Securities and Exchange Commission established by section 78d of this title. See
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • community resilience: means the ability of a community to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse seismic events. See 42 USC 7703
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conference: shall mean the Judicial Conference of the United States. See 28 USC 639
  • Conference report: The compromise product negotiated by the conference committee. The "conference report" is submitted to each chamber for its consideration, such as approval or disapproval.
  • consensus committee: means the committee established under section 5403(a)(3) of this title. See 42 USC 5402
  • consensus standards development process: means the process by which additions, revisions, and interpretations to the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards and enforcement regulations shall be developed and recommended to the Secretary by the consensus committee. See 42 USC 5402
  • construction: means --

    (i) the construction or acquisition of any biomass energy project. See 42 USC 8802

  • construction: means any activities conducted at sea to supervise, inspect, actually build, or perform other functions incidental to the building, repairing, or expanding of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship or any of its components, including but not limited to, piledriving, emplacement of mooring devices, emplacement of cables and pipelines, and deployment of the cold water pipe, and alterations, modifications, or additions to an ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship. See 42 USC 9102
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative: means any agricultural association, as that term is defined in section 1141j(a) of title 12. See 42 USC 8802
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Council: shall mean the Judicial Council of the Circuit. See 28 USC 639
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See
  • court of the United States: includes the Supreme Court of the United States, courts of appeals, district courts constituted by chapter 5 of this title, including the Court of International Trade and any court created by Act of Congress the judges of which are entitled to hold office during good behavior. See 28 USC 451
  • courts: includes the courts of appeals and district courts of the United States, the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Virgin Islands, the United States Court of Federal Claims, and the Court of International Trade. See 28 USC 610
  • courts: include the Supreme Court of the United States and the courts enumerated in section 610 of this title. See 28 USC 963
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • defect: includes any defect in the performance, construction, components, or material of a manufactured home that renders the home or any part thereof not fit for the ordinary use for which it was intended. See 42 USC 5402
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Department: means the Department of State. See 22 USC 1433
  • Department: means the Department of Energy or any component thereof, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. See 42 USC 7101
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 28 USC 451
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • design approval primary inspection agency: means a State agency or private organization that has been approved by the Secretary to evaluate and either approve or disapprove manufactured home designs and quality control procedures. See 42 USC 5402
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Director: shall mean the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. See 28 USC 639
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • distributor: means any person engaged in the sale and distribution of manufactured homes for resale. See 42 USC 5402
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Donee: The recipient of a gift.
  • Dower: A widow
  • employee: shall include a full-time life insurance salesman who is considered an employee for the purpose of chapter 21. See 26 USC 7701
  • energy product equivalent: means an energy carrier including, but not limited to, ammonia, hydrogen, or molten salts or an energy-intensive commodity, including, but not limited to, electrometals, fresh water, or nutrients for aquaculture. See 42 USC 9008
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • executive department: means any executive department, agency, or independent establishment of the United States or any corporation wholly owned by the United States. See 42 USC 201
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • extent of growth lag: means the number of persons who would have been residents in a metropolitan city or urban county, in excess of the current population of such metropolitan city or urban county, if such metropolitan city or urban county had had a population growth rate between 1960 and the date of the most recent population count referable to the same point or period in time equal to the population growth rate for such period of all metropolitan cities. See 42 USC 5302
  • extent of poverty: means the number of persons whose incomes are below the poverty level. See 42 USC 5302
  • facility: means an ocean thermal energy conversion facility. See 42 USC 9102
  • Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard: means a reasonable standard for the construction, design, and performance of a manufactured home which meets the needs of the public including the need for quality, durability, and safety. See 42 USC 5402
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • fiduciary: means a guardian, trustee, executor, administrator, receiver, conservator, or any person acting in any fiduciary capacity for any person. See 26 USC 7701
  • financial assistance: means any of the following forms of financial assistance provided under this chapter, or any combination of such forms:

    (i) loans,

    (ii) loan guarantees,

    (iii) price guarantees, and

    (iv) purchase agreements. See 42 USC 8802

  • Full-time magistrate judge: shall mean a full-time United States magistrate judge. See 28 USC 639
  • functions: shall be deemed to include references to duty, obligation, power, authority, responsibility, right, privilege, and activity, or the plural thereof, as the case may be. See 42 USC 5874
  • Fund: means the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund maintained by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to section 4042 of this title. See
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Government agency: means any executive department, board, bureau, commission, or other agency of the Federal Government, or independent establishment, or any corporation wholly owned (either directly or through one or more corporations) by the United States. See 22 USC 1433
  • Governor: means the Governor of a State or the person designated by law to exercise the powers granted to the Governor pursuant to this chapter. See 42 USC 9102
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Gross estate: The total fair market value of all property and property interests, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of which a decedent had beneficial ownership at the time of death before subtractions for deductions, debts, administrative expenses, and casualty losses suffered during estate administration.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • guidelines: means the guidelines promulgated by the Commission pursuant to section 994(a) of this title. See 28 USC 998
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • high seas: means that part of the oceans lying seaward of the territorial sea of the United States and outside the territorial sea, as recognized by the United States, of any other nation. See 42 USC 9102
  • housing stock: means the number of existing housing units based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time. See 42 USC 5302
  • imminent safety hazard: means an imminent and unreasonable risk of death or severe personal injury. See 42 USC 5402
  • In forma pauperis: In the manner of a pauper. Permission given to a person to sue without payment of court fees on claim of indigence or poverty.
  • incumbent domestic licensee: means a licensee as provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47 that was broadcasting a television signal as of January 1, 1989. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indian tribe: means any Indian tribe, band, group, and nation, including Alaska Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos, and any Alaskan Native Village, of the United States, which is considered an eligible recipient under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (Public Law 93-638) [25 U. See 42 USC 5302
  • Indian tribe: means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act [43 U. See 42 USC 8802
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • installation standards: means reasonable specifications for the installation of a manufactured home, at the place of occupancy, to ensure proper siting, the joining of all sections of the home, and the installation of stabilization, support, or anchoring systems. See 42 USC 5402
  • Interagency Coordinating Committee: means the Interagency Coordinating Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction established under section 7704(a) of this title. See 42 USC 7703
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • international energy program: means the Agreement on an International Energy Program, signed by the United States on November 18, 1974, including (A) the annex entitled "Emergency Reserves" (B) any amendment to such Agreement which includes another nation as a party to such Agreement, and (C) any technical or clerical amendment to such Agreement. See 42 USC 6202
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • judge of the United States: includes judges of the courts of appeals, district courts, Court of International Trade and any court created by Act of Congress, the judges of which are entitled to hold office during good behavior. See 28 USC 451
  • judicial district: means the districts enumerated in Chapter 5 of this title. See 28 USC 451
  • Law clerk: Assist judges with research and drafting of opinions.
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • licensee: has the meaning provided in section 153(c) 1 of title 47. See 22 USC 1465ff
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • lifeline infrastructure: means public works and utilities, including transportation facilities and infrastructure, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power and communication facilities and infrastructure, and water supply and sewage treatment facilities. See 42 USC 7703
  • Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • local Ombudsman entity: means an entity designated under section 3058g(a)(5)(A) of this title to carry out the duties described in section 3058g(a)(5)(B) of this title with respect to a planning and service area or other substate area. See 42 USC 3058f
  • Made: when used in conjunction with any invention means the conception or first actual reduction to practice of such invention. See
  • magistrate judge: shall mean both full-time and part-time United States magistrate judges. See 28 USC 639
  • Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • manufactured home: means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which, in the traveling mode, is eight body feet or more in width or forty body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is three hundred twenty or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein. See 42 USC 5402
  • manufactured home construction: means all activities relating to the assembly and manufacture of a manufactured home including but not limited to those relating to durability, quality, and safety. See 42 USC 5402
  • manufactured home safety: means the performance of a manufactured home in such a manner that the public is protected against any unreasonable risk of the occurrence of accidents due to the design or construction of such manufactured home, or any unreasonable risk of death or injury to the user or to the public if such accidents do occur. See 42 USC 5402
  • manufacturer: means any person engaged in manufacturing or assembling manufactured homes, including any person engaged in importing manufactured homes for resale. See 42 USC 5402
  • Marital deduction: The deduction(s) that can be taken in the determination of gift and estate tax liabilities because of the existence of a marriage or marital relationship.
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See
  • metropolitan area: means a standard metropolitan statistical area as established by the Office of Management and Budget. See 42 USC 5302
  • metropolitan city: means (A) a city within a metropolitan area which is the central city of such area, as defined and used by the Office of Management and Budget, or (B) any other city, within a metropolitan area, which has a population of fifty thousand or more. See 42 USC 5302
  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • monitoring: means the process of periodic review of the primary inspection agencies, by the Secretary or by a State agency under an approved State plan pursuant to section 5422 of this title, in accordance with regulations promulgated under this chapter, giving due consideration to the recommendations of the consensus committee under section 5403(b) of this title, which process shall be for the purpose of ensuring that the primary inspection agencies are discharging their duties under this chapter. See 42 USC 5402
  • municipal waste: means any organic matter, including sewage, sewage sludge, and industrial or commercial waste, and mixtures of such matter and inorganic refuse--

    (i) from any publicly or privately operated municipal waste collection or similar disposal system, or

    (ii) from similar waste flows (other than such flows which constitute agricultural wastes or residues, or wood wastes or residues from wood harvesting activities or production of forest products). See 42 USC 8802

  • narcotic: means opium and coca leaves and the several alkaloids derived therefrom, the best known of these alkaloids being morphia, heroin, and codeine, obtained from opium, and cocaine derived from the coca plant. See 42 USC 201
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See
  • ocean thermal energy conversion: means a method of converting part of the heat from the Sun which is stored in the surface layers of a body of water into electrical energy or energy product equivalent. See 42 USC 9008
  • ocean thermal energy conversion facility: means any facility which is standing, fixed or moored in whole or in part seaward of the highwater mark and which is designed to use temperature differences in ocean water to produce electricity or another form of energy capable of being used directly to perform work, and includes any equipment installed on such facility to use such electricity or other form of energy to produce, process, refine, or manufacture a product, and any cable or pipeline used to deliver such electricity, fresh water, or product to shore, and all other associated equipment and appurtenances of such facility, to the extent they are located seaward of the highwater mark. See 42 USC 9102
  • ocean thermal energy conversion plantship: means any vessel which is designed to use temperature differences in ocean water while floating unmoored or moving through such water, to produce electricity or another form of energy capable of being used directly to perform work, and includes any equipment installed on such vessel to use such electricity or other form of energy to produce, process, refine, or manufacture a product, and any equipment used to transfer such product to other vessels for transportation to users, and all other associated equipment and appurtenances of such vessel. See 42 USC 9102
  • Office: means the office established in section 3058g(a)(1)(A) of this title. See 42 USC 3058f
  • Office of Alcohol Fuels: means the Office of Alcohol Fuels established under section 8820 of this title. See 42 USC 8802
  • Ombudsman: means the individual described in section 3058g(a)(2) of this title. See 42 USC 3058f
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Part-time magistrate judge: shall mean a part-time United States magistrate judge. See 28 USC 639
  • participant: means a person who participates in the Foreign Service Pension System. See
  • performance: when used in relation to functions, shall be deemed to include the exercise of power, authority, rights, and privileges. See 42 USC 5874
  • person: shall be construed to mean and include an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation. See 26 USC 7701
  • person: means a natural person, company, government, or political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality of a government. See
  • person: means any individual (whether or not a citizen of the United States), any corporation, partnership, association, or other entity organized or existing under the laws of any nation, and any Federal, State, local or foreign government or any entity of any such government. See 42 USC 9102
  • petroleum: includes crude oil, gases (including natural gas), natural gasoline, and other related hydrocarbons, oil shale, and the products of any of such resources. See 42 USC 6501
  • petroleum product: means crude oil, residual fuel oil, or any refined petroleum product (including any natural liquid and any natural gas liquid product). See 42 USC 6202
  • Petty offense: A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • plantship: means an ocean thermal energy conversion plantship. See 42 USC 9102
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Plea agreement: An arrangement between the prosecutor, the defense attorney, and the defendant in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for special considerations. Source:
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • population: means total resident population based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census and referable to the same point or period in time. See 42 USC 5302
  • possession: includes , among other possessions, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • preceding calendar period: means --

    (1) calendar years 1932 and 1970 and all calendar years intervening between calendar year 1932 and calendar year 1970,

    (2) the first calendar quarter of calendar year 1971 and all calendar quarters intervening between such calendar quarter and the first calendar quarter of calendar year 1982, and

    (3) all calendar years after 1981 and before the calendar year for which the tax is being computed. See 26 USC 2502

  • Presentence report: A report prepared by a court's probation officer, after a person has been convicted of an offense, summarizing for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence. Source: U.S. Courts
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • primary inspection agency: means a State agency or private organization that has been approved by the Secretary to act as a design approval primary inspection agency or a production inspection primary inspection agency, or both. See 42 USC 5402
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • production inspection primary inspection agency: means a State agency or private organization that has been approved by the Secretary to evaluate the ability of manufactured home manufacturing plants to comply with approved quality control procedures and with the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards promulgated hereunder, including the inspection of homes in the plant. See 42 USC 5402
  • Program: means the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program established under section 7704 of this title. See 42 USC 7703
  • program: means the State Long-Term Care Ombudsman program established in section 3058g(a)(1)(B) of this title. See 42 USC 3058f
  • Program agencies: means the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the United States Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. See 42 USC 7703
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • purchaser: means the first person purchasing a manufactured home in good faith for purposes other than resale. See 42 USC 5402
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Ranking minority member: The highest ranking (and usually longest serving) minority member of a committee or subcommittee.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • representative: includes an employee or volunteer who represents an entity designated under section 3058g(a)(5)(A) of this title and who is individually designated by the Ombudsman. See 42 USC 3058f
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • resident: means an individual who resides in a long-term care facility. See 42 USC 3058f
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • retailer: means any person engaged in the sale, leasing, or distribution of new manufactured homes primarily to persons who in good faith purchase or lease a manufactured home for purposes other than resale. See 42 USC 5402
  • River: means a flowing body of water or estuary or a section, portion, or tributary thereof, including rivers, streams, creeks, runs, kills, rills, and small lakes. See
  • rules and regulations: means rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission pursuant to section 995 of this title. See 28 USC 998
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of State. See 22 USC 1433
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Interior when used in connection with public lands administered by him through the Bureau of Land Management and the Secretary of Agriculture in connection with public lands administered by him through the Forest Service. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Commerce. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. See 42 USC 5302
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate. See 26 USC 7701
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. See 42 USC 5402
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See 42 USC 6202
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Energy. See
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. See 33 USC 511
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Service: means the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See
  • State: means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. See
  • State: means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 42 USC 7602
  • State: means any State of the United States, or any instrumentality thereof approved by the Governor. See 42 USC 5302
  • State: means --

    (A) a State. See

  • State: includes each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Canal Zone, and American Samoa. See 42 USC 5402
  • State: includes , in addition to the several States, only the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. See 42 USC 201
  • State: means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or any territory or possession of the United States. See 42 USC 6202
  • State: means each of the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. See 42 USC 7703
  • State: shall be construed to include the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out provisions of this title. See 26 USC 7701
  • State: means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia. See
  • State: means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or any other possession of the United States. See
  • State: means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and any other Commonwealth, territory, or possession over which the United States has jurisdiction. See 42 USC 9102
  • State mental health authority: means the State health authority, except that, in the case of any State in which there is a single State agency, other than the State health authority, charged with responsibility for administering the mental health program of the State, it means such other State agency. See 42 USC 201
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • student: means any individual--

    (i) who is temporarily present in the United States--

    (I) under subparagraph (F) or (M) of section 101(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or

    (II) as a student under subparagraph (J) or (Q) of such section 101(15), and


    (ii) who substantially complies with the requirements for being so present. See 26 USC 7701

  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See
  • Surgeon General: means the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. See 42 USC 201
  • System: means the National Marine Sanctuary System established by section 1431 of this title. See
  • System: means the Foreign Service Pension System. See
  • Tax Court: means the United States Tax Court. See 26 USC 7701
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • uniformed service: means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, Public Health Service, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See 42 USC 201
  • unit of general local government: means any city, county, town, township, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a State. See 42 USC 5302
  • United States: when used in a geographical context, means all the States thereof. See
  • United States: when used in the geographical sense means all of the States and the Outer Continental Shelf. See 42 USC 6202
  • United States: means , when used in a geographical sense, all of the States as defined in paragraph (4). See 42 USC 7703
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense includes only the States and the District of Columbia. See 26 USC 7701
  • United States: when used in a geographical sense, includes the Territories and possessions of the United States. See 33 USC 511
  • United States citizen: means (A) any individual who is a citizen of the United States by law, birth, or naturalization. See 42 USC 9102
  • United States district courts: means the Federal district courts of the United States and the United States courts of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, the Canal Zone, and American Samoa. See 42 USC 5402
  • urban county: means any county within a metropolitan area which--

    (i) is authorized under State law to undertake essential community development and housing assistance activities in its unincorporated areas, if any, which are not units of general local government. See 42 USC 5302

  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See
  • Victim advocate: work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime.
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See