Subchapter I General Provisions
Subchapter II Livestock Mandatory Reporting
Subchapter III Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting
Subchapter IV Country of Origin Labeling
Subchapter V National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard
Subchapter VI Labeling of Certain Food
Subchapter VII Hemp Production

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 38

  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Advisory Board: means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. See 10 USC 7482
  • agricultural products: includes agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, livestock and poultry, bees, forest products, fish and shellfish, and any products thereof, including processed and manufactured products, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and any processed or manufactured product thereof, and the term "State" when used in this chapter 1 shall include the Virgin Islands and Guam. See 10 USC 2615
  • agricultural research: means research in the food and agricultural sciences. See 10 USC 7482
  • Allotment: means the total value of benefits a household is authorized to receive during each month. See 20 USC 6439
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • animal health research capacity: means the capacity of an eligible institution to conduct animal health and disease research, as determined by the Secretary. See 10 USC 7687
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appraisal: A determination of property value.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • aquaculture: means the propagation and rearing of aquacultural species, including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, or crustacean (or other aquatic invertebrate), amphibian, reptile, ornamental fish, or aquatic plant, in controlled or selected environments. See 10 USC 7482
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 19 USC 2295
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • benefit: means the value of supplemental nutrition assistance provided to a household by means of--

    (1) an electronic benefit transfer under section 2016(i) of this title. See 20 USC 6439

  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Board: means the National Sheep Promotion, Research, and Information Board established under section 7104(b) of this title. See 10 USC 7450
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • conflict of interest: means a situation in which a member or employee of the Board has a direct or indirect financial interest in a person that performs a service for, or enters into a contract with, the Board for anything of economic value. See 10 USC 7656
  • consumer information: means any action or program that provides information to consumers and other persons on the use, nutritional attributes, and other information that will assist consumers and other persons in making evaluations and decisions regarding the purchase, preparation, and use of Hass avocados. See 10 USC 7656
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperating forestry school: means an institution--

    (i) that is eligible to receive funds under Public Law 87-788 (commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act. See 10 USC 7482

  • cooperative extension services: means the organizations established at the land-grant colleges and universities under the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. See 10 USC 7482
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • cotton: means (1) all upland cotton harvested in the United States, and, except as used in section 2106(e) of this title, includes cottonseed of such cotton and the products derived from such cotton and its seed and (2) imports of upland cotton including the upland cotton content of the products derived from upland cotton (other than industrial products as defined by the Secretary). See 20 USC 7113
  • cotton-producing State: includes --

    (A) any combination of States described in paragraph (1). See 20 USC 7113

  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 19 USC 2292
  • Customs: means the United States Customs Service. See 10 USC 7656
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • dean: means the dean of an accredited school or college of veterinary medicine. See 10 USC 7687
  • Department: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 7656
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 7482
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: means the director of a State agricultural experiment station which qualifies as an eligible institution. See 10 USC 7687
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • eligible institution: means an accredited school or college of veterinary medicine or a State agricultural experiment station that conducts animal health and disease research. See 10 USC 7687
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • exempt handler: means a person who would otherwise be considered a first handler, except that all avocados purchased by the person have already been subject to the assessment under section 7804(h) of this title. See 10 USC 7656
  • extension: means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. See 10 USC 7482
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • first handler: means a person operating in the Hass avocados marketing system that sells domestic or imported Hass avocados for United States domestic consumption, and who is responsible for remitting assessments to the Board. See 10 USC 7656
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Food: means (1) any food or food product for home consumption except alcoholic beverages, tobacco, hot foods or hot food products ready for immediate consumption other than those authorized pursuant to clauses (3), (4), (5), (7), (8), and (9) of this subsection, and any deposit fee in excess of the amount of the State fee reimbursement (if any) required to purchase any food or food product contained in a returnable bottle or can, regardless of whether the fee is included in the shelf price posted for the food or food product, (2) seeds and plants for use in gardens to produce food for the personal consumption of the eligible household, (3) in the case of those persons who are sixty years of age or over or who receive supplemental security income benefits or disability or blindness payments under title I, II, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U. See 20 USC 6439
  • food and agricultural sciences: means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

    (A) Animal health, production, and well-being. See 10 USC 7482

  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • handler: means any person who handles cotton or cottonseed or, for the purposes of sections 2102, 2105(c), and 2112 of this title, any person who imports cotton, including de minimis amounts of cotton described in subsection (c), in the manner specified in the order or in the rules and regulations issued thereunder. See 20 USC 7113
  • Hass avocado: includes --

    (i) the fruit of any Hass variety avocado tree. See 10 USC 7656

  • Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities: means colleges or universities--

    (i) that qualify as Hispanic-serving institutions. See 10 USC 7482

  • Household: means --

    (A) an individual who lives alone or who, while living with others, customarily purchases food and prepares meals for home consumption separate and apart from the others. See 20 USC 6439

  • import: means any such entry. See 20 USC 7113
  • importer: means any person who enters, or withdraws from warehouse, cotton for consumption in the customs territory of the United States. See 20 USC 7113
  • importer: means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. See 10 USC 7656
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 19 USC 2297
  • industry information: means information and programs that are designed to increase efficiency in processing, enhance the development of new markets and marketing strategies, increase marketing efficiency, and activities to enhance the image of Hass avocados and the Hass avocado industry domestically. See 10 USC 7656
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • insular area: means --

    (A) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 10 USC 7482

  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • land-grant colleges and universities: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. See 10 USC 7482
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • livestock: means cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats--whether live or dead. See 20 USC 1070g-3
  • marketing: includes the sale of cotton or the pledging of cotton to the Commodity Credit Corporation as collateral for a price support loan. See 20 USC 7113
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 19 USC 2296
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 19 USC 2291
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 19 USC 2291
  • order: means a sheep and wool promotion, research, education, and information order issued under section 7103 of this title. See 10 USC 7450
  • order: means the Hass avocado promotion, research, and information order issued under this chapter. See 10 USC 7656
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • packer: means any person engaged in the business (a) of buying livestock in commerce for purposes of slaughter, or (b) of manufacturing or preparing meats or meat food products for sale or shipment in commerce, or (c) of marketing meats, meat food products, or livestock products in an unmanufactured form acting as a wholesale broker, dealer, or distributor in commerce. See 20 USC 1099a
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 20 USC 1070g-3
  • person: as used in this chapter includes an individual, partnership, corporation, association, and any other business unit. See 20 USC 6845
  • person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or any other entity. See 20 USC 7113
  • person: means any individual, group of individuals, firm, partnership, corporation, joint stock company, association, cooperative, or other legal entity. See 10 USC 7656
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • poultry: means chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other domestic fowl. See 20 USC 1070g-3
  • poultry growing arrangement: means any growout contract, marketing agreement, or other arrangement under which a poultry grower raises and cares for live poultry for delivery, in accord with another's instructions, for slaughter. See 20 USC 1070g-3
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • processing: means the milling or other processing (except cleaning and drying) of wheat, rye, barley or corn for market, including custom milling for toll as well as commercial milling, but shall not include the grinding or cracking thereof not in the form of flour for feed purposes only. See 20 USC 6861
  • producer: means any person who--

    (A) is engaged in the domestic production of Hass avocados for commercial use. See 10 USC 7656

  • promotion: means any action (including paid advertising) to advance the image and desirability of sheep or sheep products to improve the competitive position, and stimulate sales, of sheep products in the domestic and international marketplace. See 10 USC 7450
  • promotion: means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass avocados, including paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity, in order to improve the competitive position and stimulate sales of Hass avocados in the domestic marketplace. See 10 USC 7656
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • research: means development projects and studies relating to the production (including the feeding of sheep), processing, distribution, or use of sheep or sheep products to encourage, expand, improve, or make more efficient the marketing of sheep or sheep products. See 10 USC 7450
  • research: means any type of test, study, or analysis relating to market research, market development, and marketing efforts, or relating to the use, quality, or nutritional value of Hass avocados, other related food science research, or research designed to advance the image, desirability, and marketability of Hass avocados. See 10 USC 7656
  • Retail food store: means --

    (1) an establishment or house-to-house trade route that sells food for home preparation and consumption and--

    (A) offers for sale, on a continuous basis, a variety of at least 7 foods in each of the 4 categories of staple foods specified in subsection (r)(1), including perishable foods in at least 3 of the categories. See 20 USC 6439

  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 1070g-3
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 6439
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 20 USC 7113
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 7450
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 10 USC 7656
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 10 USC 7482
  • Sequester: To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • sheep: means ovine animals of any age, including lambs. See 10 USC 7450
  • State: means the fifty States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the reservations of an Indian tribe whose tribal organization meets the requirements of this chapter for participation as a State agency. See 20 USC 6439
  • State: means each of the 50 States. See 10 USC 7450
  • State: when used in this chapter 1 shall include the Virgin Islands and Guam. See 10 USC 2615
  • State: means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. See 10 USC 7656
  • State: means --

    (A) a State. See 10 USC 7482

  • State agency: means (1) the agency of State government, including the local offices thereof, which has the responsibility for the administration of the federally aided public assistance programs within such State, and in those States where such assistance programs are operated on a decentralized basis, the term shall include the counterpart local agencies administering such programs, and (2) the tribal organization of an Indian tribe determined by the Secretary to be capable of effectively administering a food distribution program under section 2013(b) of this title or a supplemental nutrition assistance program under section 2020(d) of this title. See 20 USC 6439
  • State agricultural experiment stations: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of March 2, 1887 (24 Stat. See 10 USC 7482
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • stockyard: means any place, establishment, or facility commonly known as stockyards, conducted, operated, or managed for profit or nonprofit as a public market for livestock producers, feeders, market agencies, and buyers, consisting of pens, or other inclosures, and their appurtenances, in which live cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats are received, held, or kept for sale or shipment in commerce. See 20 USC 1134d
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • sugar: means sugar in any form whatsoever, derived from sugar beets or sugarcane, whether raw sugar or direct-consumption sugar, including also edible molasses, sirups, and any mixture containing sugar (except blackstrap molasses and beet molasses). See 20 USC 6861
  • Supplemental nutrition assistance program: means the program operated pursuant to this chapter. See 20 USC 6439
  • sustainable agriculture: means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long-term--

    (A) satisfy human food and fiber needs. See 10 USC 7482

  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Thrifty food plan: means the diet required to feed a family of four persons consisting of a man and a woman twenty through fifty, a child six through eight, and a child nine through eleven years of age, determined in accordance with the Secretary's calculations. See 20 USC 6439
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Tribal organization: means the recognized governing body of an Indian tribe (including the tribally recognized intertribal organization of such tribes), as the term "Indian tribe" is defined in the Indian Self-Determination Act (25 U. See 20 USC 6439
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: means the 50 States of the United States of America. See 20 USC 7113
  • United States: means the 50 States and the District of Columbia. See 10 USC 7450
  • United States: means the United States collectively. See 10 USC 7656
  • university: include a research foundation maintained by a college or university described in subparagraph (A). See 10 USC 7482
  • unprocessed agricultural products: means food, fiber, and other agricultural products that have not been packaged or otherwise prepared for retail sale, including animal products and unfinished cotton, wool, leather, or any other unfinished natural material. See 10 USC 2651
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 19 USC 2294
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 19 USC 2293
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 19 USC 2291
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 19 USC 2291