Subchapter I General Provisions
Subchapter II Livestock Mandatory Reporting
Subchapter III Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting
Subchapter IV Country of Origin Labeling
Subchapter V National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard
Subchapter VI Labeling of Certain Food
Subchapter VII Hemp Production

Terms Used In U.S. Code > Title 7 > Chapter 38 - Distribution and Marketing of Agricultural Products

  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
     
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Advisory Board: means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. See 7 USC 3103
  • advocates: includes , but is not limited to, advises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and admits belief in. See 8 USC 1101
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • agency: includes any department, independent establishment, commission, administration, authority, board or bureau of the United States or any corporation in which the United States has a proprietary interest, unless the context shows that such term was intended to be used in a more limited sense. See 18 USC 6
  • agricultural products: includes agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, livestock and poultry, bees, forest products, fish and shellfish, and any products thereof, including processed and manufactured products, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and any processed or manufactured product thereof, and the term "State" when used in this chapter 1 shall include the Virgin Islands and Guam. See 7 USC 1626
  • agricultural research: means research in the food and agricultural sciences. See 7 USC 3103
  • alien: means any person not a citizen or national of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • aquaculture: means the propagation and rearing of aquacultural species, including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, or crustacean (or other aquatic invertebrate), amphibian, reptile, ornamental fish, or aquatic plant, in controlled or selected environments. See 7 USC 3103
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • association: when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association" in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. See 1 USC 5
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attorney General: means the Attorney General of the United States. See 8 USC 1101
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Balanced budget: A budget in which receipts equal outlays.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Baseline: Projection of the receipts, outlays, and other budget amounts that would ensue in the future without any change in existing policy. Baseline projections are used to gauge the extent to which proposed legislation, if enacted into law, would alter current spending and revenue levels.
  • basic agricultural commodity: means wheat, rye, flax, barley, cotton, field corn, grain sorghums, hogs, cattle, rice, potatoes, tobacco, sugar beets and sugarcane, peanuts, and milk and its products, and any regional or market classification, type, or grade thereof. See 7 USC 611
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • blackstrap molasses: means the commercially so-designated "byproduct" of the cane-sugar industry, not used for human consumption or for the extraction of sugar. See 7 USC 609
  • Budget authority: Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in outlays of Federal funds. Budget authority may be classified by the period of availability (one-year, multiyear, no-year), by the timing of congressional action (current or permanent), or by the manner of determining the amount available (definite or indefinite).
  • bulk agricultural commodity: means any agricultural commodity that can be transported in bulk and can be temporarily stored in bulk quantities without undergoing processing or packaging. See 7 USC 3702
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • child: means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is--

    (A) a child born in wedlock. See 8 USC 1101

  • commerce: means commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof. See 7 USC 182
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Concurrent resolution: A legislative measure, designated "S. Con. Res." and numbered consecutively upon introduction, generally employed to address the sentiments of both chambers, to deal with issues or matters affecting both houses, such as a concurrent budget resolution, or to create a temporary joint committee. Concurrent resolutions are not submitted to the President/Governor and thus do not have the force of law.
  • consular officer: means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality. See 8 USC 1101
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • cooperative extension services: means the organizations established at the land-grant colleges and universities under the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. See 7 USC 3103
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • cotton: means (1) all upland cotton harvested in the United States, and, except as used in section 2106(e) of this title, includes cottonseed of such cotton and the products derived from such cotton and its seed and (2) imports of upland cotton including the upland cotton content of the products derived from upland cotton (other than industrial products as defined by the Secretary). See 7 USC 2116
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • county: includes a parish, or any other equivalent subdivision of a State or Territory of the United States. See 1 USC 2
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means one of the executive departments enumerated in section 1 of Title 5, unless the context shows that such term was intended to describe the executive, legislative, or judicial branches of the government. See 18 USC 6
  • Department of Agriculture: means the United States Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3103
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • direct-consumption sugar: means any sugar, as defined above, manufactured or marketed in, or brought into, the United States in any form whatsoever, for any purpose other than to be further refined (or improved in quality, or further prepared for distribution or use). See 7 USC 609
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • extension: means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3103
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • facility: means a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in section 1886(d)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U. See 8 USC 1182
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act: A federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. Source: OCC
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Federal health care offense: means a violation of, or a criminal conspiracy to violate--

    (1) section 669, 1035, 1347, or 1518 of this title or section 1128B of the Social Security Act (42 U. See

  • Federal Reserve System: The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. Source: OCC
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • financial institution: means --

    (1) an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3(c)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act). See

  • first domestic processing: means each domestic processing, including each processing of successive domestic processings, of sugar beets, sugarcane, or raw sugar, which directly results in direct-consumption sugar. See 7 USC 609
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • food and agricultural sciences: means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

    (A) Animal health, production, and well-being. See 7 USC 3103

  • foreign state: includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states. See 8 USC 1101
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • handler: means any person who handles cotton or cottonseed or, for the purposes of sections 2102, 2105(c), and 2112 of this title, any person who imports cotton, including de minimis amounts of cotton described in subsection (c), in the manner specified in the order or in the rules and regulations issued thereunder. See 7 USC 2116
  • immigrant: means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens--

    (A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family. See 8 USC 1101

  • immigration laws: includes this chapter and all laws, conventions, and treaties of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, deportation, expulsion, or removal of aliens. See 8 USC 1101
  • immigration officer: means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title. See 8 USC 1101
  • importer: means any person who enters, or withdraws from warehouse, cotton for consumption in the customs territory of the United States. See 7 USC 2116
  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • individual: shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development. See 1 USC 8
  • ineligible to citizenship: when used in reference to any individual, means, notwithstanding the provisions of any treaty relating to military service, an individual who is, or was at any time permanently debarred from becoming a citizen of the United States under section 3(a) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended (54 Stat. See 8 USC 1101
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • insular area: means --

    (A) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. See 7 USC 3103

  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • interstate commerce: as used in this title , includes commerce between one State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia and another State, Territory, Possession, or the District of Columbia. See
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • land-grant colleges and universities: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. See 7 USC 3103
  • lawfully admitted for permanent residence: means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed. See 8 USC 1101
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • live poultry dealer: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining live poultry by purchase or under a poultry growing arrangement for the purpose of either slaughtering it or selling it for slaughter by another, if poultry is obtained by such person in commerce, or if poultry obtained by such person is sold or shipped in commerce, or if poultry products from poultry obtained by such person are sold or shipped in commerce. See 7 USC 182
  • livestock: means cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats--whether live or dead. See 7 USC 182
  • livestock products: means all products and byproducts (other than meats and meat food products) of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry derived in whole or in part from livestock. See 7 USC 182
  • Magistrate judges: Judicial officers who assist U.S. district judges in getting cases ready for trial, who may decide some criminal and civil trials when both parties agree to have the case heard by a magistrate judge instead of a judge.
  • marriage: means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word "spouse" refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife. See 1 USC 7
  • meat food products: means all products and byproducts of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry--if edible. See 7 USC 182
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • mother: include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother. See 8 USC 1101
  • national: means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state. See 8 USC 1101
  • national of the United States: means (A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States. See 8 USC 1101
  • native: means hydrocarbon-containing plants and other agricultural crops of strategic and industrial importance which may be cultured in North America, especially plants which are members of the genus Parthenium known as Guayule. See 7 USC 178a
  • naturalization: means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever. See 8 USC 1101
  • oath: includes affirmation, and "sworn" includes affirmed. See 1 USC 1
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • officer: includes any person authorized by law to perform the duties of the office. See 1 USC 1
  • organization: means a person other than an individual. See 18 USC 18
  • organization: means , but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund. See 8 USC 1101
  • Outlays: Outlays are payments made (generally through the issuance of checks or disbursement of cash) to liquidate obligations. Outlays during a fiscal year may be for payment of obligations incurred in prior years or in the same year.
  • outlying possessions of the United States: means American Samoa and Swains Island. See 8 USC 1101
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • packer: means any person engaged in the business (a) of buying livestock in commerce for purposes of slaughter, or (b) of manufacturing or preparing meats or meat food products for sale or shipment in commerce, or (c) of marketing meats, meat food products, or livestock products in an unmanufactured form acting as a wholesale broker, dealer, or distributor in commerce. See 7 USC 191
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • permanent: means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law. See 8 USC 1101
  • person: means an individual or an organization. See 8 USC 1101
  • person: includes individuals, partnerships, corporations, and associations. See 7 USC 182
  • person: as used in this chapter includes an individual, partnership, corporation, association, and any other business unit. See 7 USC 608a
  • person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or any other entity. See 7 USC 2116
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • potatoes: means all varieties of potatoes included in the species Solanum tuberosum. See 7 USC 611
  • poultry: means chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other domestic fowl. See 7 USC 182
  • poultry grower: means any person engaged in the business of raising and caring for live poultry for slaughter by another, whether the poultry is owned by such person or by another, but not an employee of the owner of such poultry. See 7 USC 182
  • poultry growing arrangement: means any growout contract, marketing agreement, or other arrangement under which a poultry grower raises and cares for live poultry for delivery, in accord with another's instructions, for slaughter. See 7 USC 182
  • Preliminary hearing: A hearing where the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to make the defendant have a trial.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • processing: means the milling or other processing (except cleaning and drying) of wheat, rye, barley or corn for market, including custom milling for toll as well as commercial milling, but shall not include the grinding or cracking thereof not in the form of flour for feed purposes only. See 7 USC 609
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • raw sugar: means any sugar, as defined above, manufactured or marketed in, or brought into, the United States, in any form whatsoever, for the purpose of being, or which shall be, further refined (or improved in quality, or further prepared for distribution or use). See 7 USC 609
  • raw value: means a standard unit of sugar testing ninety-six sugar degrees by the polariscope. See 7 USC 609
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • region: means two or more States acting together to develop a coordinated regional subterminal facilities plan. See 7 USC 3702
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • representative: includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity. See 8 USC 1182
  • Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
  • residence: means the place of general abode. See 8 USC 1101
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • rough rice: means rice in that condition which is usual and customary when delivered by the producer to a processor. See 7 USC 609
  • Secretaries: means the Secretary of Agriculture and/or the Secretary of Commerce acting each separately or jointly. See 7 USC 178a
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 182
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 2116
  • Secretary: means Secretary of Agriculture. See 7 USC 3702
  • Secretary: means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. See 7 USC 3103
  • Sentencing guidelines: A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Sequester: To separate. Sometimes juries are sequestered from outside influences during their deliberations.
  • Service: means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice. See 8 USC 1101
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • State: when used in this chapter 1 shall include the Virgin Islands and Guam. See 7 USC 1626
  • State: means --

    (A) a State. See 7 USC 3103

  • State: includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
  • State agricultural experiment stations: means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of March 2, 1887 (24 Stat. See 7 USC 3103
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • subscription: includes a mark when the person making the same intended it as such. See 1 USC 1
  • sugar: means sugar in any form whatsoever, derived from sugar beets or sugarcane, whether raw sugar or direct-consumption sugar, including also edible molasses, sirups, and any mixture containing sugar (except blackstrap molasses and beet molasses). See 7 USC 609
  • swine contractor: means any person engaged in the business of obtaining swine under a swine production contract for the purpose of slaughtering the swine or selling the swine for slaughter, if--

    (A) the swine is obtained by the person in commerce. See 7 USC 182

  • swine production contract: means any growout contract or other arrangement under which a swine production contract grower raises and cares for the swine in accordance with the instructions of another person. See 7 USC 182
  • swine production contract grower: means any person engaged in the business of raising and caring for swine in accordance with the instructions of another person. See 7 USC 182
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • totalitarian party: means an organization which advocates the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship or totalitarianism. See 8 USC 1101
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: means the 50 States of the United States of America. See 7 USC 2116
  • United States: as used in this title in a territorial sense, includes all places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone. See 18 USC 5
  • United States: except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. See 8 USC 1101
  • university: include a research foundation maintained by a college or university described in subparagraph (A). See 7 USC 3103
  • unmarried: when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married. See 8 USC 1101
  • unprocessed agricultural products: means food, fiber, and other agricultural products that have not been packaged or otherwise prepared for retail sale, including animal products and unfinished cotton, wool, leather, or any other unfinished natural material. See 7 USC 3702
  • Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
  • vehicle: includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. See 1 USC 4
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. See 1 USC 3
  • whoever: include corporations, companies, associations, firms, partnerships, societies, and joint stock companies, as well as individuals. See 1 USC 1
  • world communism: means a revolutionary movement, the purpose of which is to establish eventually a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in any or all the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist political movement. See 8 USC 1101
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • writing: includes printing and typewriting and reproductions of visual symbols by photographing, multigraphing, mimeographing, manifolding, or otherwise. See 1 USC 1