Article 1 Culpability 13A-2-1 – 13A-2-7
Article 2 Parties to Offenses 13A-2-20 – 13A-2-26

Terms Used In Alabama Code > Title 13A > Chapter 2 - Principles of Criminal Liability

  • Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • applicant: A natural person who files a written application with the governing body of any county in accordance with the provisions of Section 11-88-3. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • authority: The public corporation organized pursuant to this article. See Alabama Code 11-85-100
  • authority: A public corporation organized pursuant to the provisions of this article. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • board: The board of directors of an authority. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • board: The State Board of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-310
  • board: The State Board of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-350
  • BOARD OF DIRECTORS: The Board of Directors of the Alabama Revolving Loan Fund Authority. See Alabama Code 11-85-100
  • bonds: The bonds issued under this article. See Alabama Code 11-85-100
  • bonds: Bonds, notes, and certificates representing an obligation to pay money. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • CLEAR AND CONVINCING EVIDENCE: Evidence that, when weighed against evidence in opposition, will produce in the mind of the trier of fact a firm conviction as to each essential element of the claim and a high probability as to the correctness of the conclusion. See Alabama Code 6-11-20
  • commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-310
  • commissioner: The Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-350
  • CONCISE LEGAL DESCRIPTION: A reasonably concise description of a particular geographic area which may be by metes and bounds or by reference to government surveys, recorded maps and plats, municipal, county, or state boundary lines, well-defined landmarks and other monuments, or any combination of the foregoing. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • county: Any county in the state. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: The Department of Agriculture and Industries. See Alabama Code 2-8-350
  • DETERMINING COUNTY: Any county the governing body of which shall have made findings and determinations of fact in accordance with the provisions of Section 11-88-3. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • director: A member of the board of directors of the authority. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • FIRE PROTECTION FACILITY: Land, plants, systems, facilities, buildings, fire engines, fire hydrants, ladders, equipment, hoses, alarm apparatus, chemicals, uniforms, supplies, or any combination of any thereof used or useful or capable of future use in furnishing fire protection service and all other property deemed necessary or desirable by the authority for use in furnishing fire protection service. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • FIRE PROTECTION SERVICE: All services involved in protecting property and life from fires, including but not limited to discovering, ascertaining, extinguishing, preventing the spread of or fighting fires, or inspecting property for fire hazards, or any part or combination thereof. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • fraud: An intentional misrepresentation, deceit, or concealment of a material fact the concealing party had a duty to disclose, which was gross, oppressive, or malicious and committed with the intention on the part of the defendant of thereby depriving a person or entity of property or legal rights or otherwise causing injury. See Alabama Code 6-11-20
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • GOVERNING BODY: The county commission of a county. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
  • incorporators: The persons forming a public corporation organized pursuant to the provisions of this article. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • malice: The intentional doing of a wrongful act without just cause or excuse, either:

    a. See Alabama Code 6-11-20

  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • municipality: An incorporated city or town of the state. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • NEW TERRITORY: Any territory added, by amendment to the certificate of incorporation of an authority, to the area or areas in which that authority is authorized to render water service, fire protection service, sewer service or any thereof. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • oppression: Subjecting a person to cruel and unjust hardship in conscious disregard of that person's rights. See Alabama Code 6-11-20
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • person: Unless limited to a natural person by the context in which it is used, such term includes a public or private corporation, a municipality, a county, or an agency, department, or instrumentality of the state or of a county or municipality. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • property: Real and personal property and interests therein. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • PUBLIC FIRE PROTECTION FACILITY: A fire protection facility which is owned or operated by the United States of America, the state, a county, a municipality, a public corporation organized under the laws of the state, any combination of any thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more thereof or in which any one or more thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more thereof holds a reversionary or remainder interest. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • PUBLIC SEWER SYSTEM: A sewer system which is owned or operated by the United States of America, the state, a county, a municipality, a public corporation organized under the laws of the state, any combination of any thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more thereof or in which any one or more thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more thereof holds a reversionary or remainder interest. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • PUBLIC WATER SYSTEM: A water system which is owned or operated by the United States of America, the state, a county, a municipality, a public corporation organized under the laws of the state, any combination of any thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more thereof or in which any one or more thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more thereof holds a reversionary or remainder interest. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • REVOLVING LOAN FUNDS: The monies provided by the sale of the bonds pursuant to this article. See Alabama Code 11-85-100
  • SERVICE AREA: The geographic area or areas in which an authority is authorized by its certificate of incorporation or any amendment thereto to render water service, fire protection service, sewer service or any thereof, which area may include not only territory located outside the boundaries of any municipality but also territory located within the boundaries of one or more municipalities. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • SEWER SERVICE: All services involved in collecting, transporting, treating, and disposing of sanitary sewage and the performing of all functions and activities reasonably incident to the operation of a sewer system. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • SEWER SYSTEM: A sanitary sewer system, including mains, laterals, sewage disposal plants, and sewage treatment plants and all appurtenances to such a system and all properties, rights, easements, and franchises deemed necessary or desirable by the authority for use in rendering sewer services. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 11-85-100
  • state: The State of Alabama. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: includes the territories thereof and the District of Columbia. See Alabama Code 1-1-1
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • wantonness: Conduct which is carried on with a reckless or conscious disregard of the rights or safety of others. See Alabama Code 6-11-20
  • WATER SERVICE: The providing, furnishing, supplying, or distributing of water and the performing of all of the functions and activities reasonably incident to the operation of a water system, including the provision of water to a fire protection authority to be used in the rendition of fire protection service. See Alabama Code 11-88-1
  • WATER SYSTEM: Land, plants, systems, facilities, buildings, and other property, or any combination of any thereof, which are used or useful or capable of future use in providing, furnishing, supplying, or distributing water, including but not limited to water supply systems, water distribution systems, reservoirs, wells, intakes, mains, laterals, aqueducts, pumping stations, standpipes, filtration plants, purification plants, meters, valves, and all necessary appurtenances and equipment, and all properties, rights, easements, and franchises deemed necessary or desirable by the authority for use in rendering water service. See Alabama Code 11-88-1