Chapter 1 General Provisions
Chapter 2 Issuance of Orders
Chapter 3 Registration and Enforcement of Orders

Terms Used In California Codes > Family Code > Division 10 > Part 4

  • action taken: means a collective decision made by the members of a state body, a collective commitment or promise by the members of the state body to make a positive or negative decision or an actual vote by the members of a state body when sitting as a body or entity upon a motion, proposal, resolution, order or similar action. See California Government Code 11122
  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Affinity: signifies the connection existing in consequence of marriage, between each of the married persons and the blood relatives of the other when applied to the marriage relation. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Age: refers to the chronological age of any individual who has reached a 40th birthday. See California Government Code 12926
  • Aggrieved person: includes any person who claims to have been injured by a discriminatory housing practice or believes that the person will be injured by a discriminatory housing practice that is about to occur. See California Government Code 12927
  • agreement: means the total legal obligation that results from the parties' agreement as determined by this code and as supplemented by any other applicable laws. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Agreement: includes , but is not limited to, agreements providing for valuations, appraisals, and similar proceedings and agreements between employers and employees or between their respective representatives. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1280
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • applicator: refers to "structural pest control applicator. See California Business and Professions Code 8507.1
  • Aquaculture: means that form of agriculture devoted to the propagation, cultivation, maintenance, and harvesting of aquatic plants and animals in marine, brackish, and fresh water. See California Fish and Game Code 17
  • Award: includes , but is not limited to, an award made pursuant to an agreement not in writing. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1280
  • axle: is a structure or portion of a structure consisting of one or more shafts, spindles, or bearings in the same vertical transverse plane by means of which, in conjunction with wheels mounted on said shafts, spindles, or bearings, a portion of the weight of a vehicle and its load, if any, is continuously transmitted to the roadway when the vehicle is in motion. See California Vehicle Code 230
  • Bag limit: means the maximum limit, in number or amount, of birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, or amphibians that may lawfully be taken by any one person during a specified period of time. See California Fish and Game Code 18
  • ballot: means any of the following:

    California Elections Code 301

  • Bank: means a person engaged in the business of banking, and includes a savings bank, savings and loan association, credit union, and trust company. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Bearer: means a person in possession of a negotiable instrument, document of title, or certificated security that is payable to bearer or endorsed in blank. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • board: means the Public Employment Relations Board established pursuant to Section 3541 of the Government Code. See California Education Code 8431
  • board: means the California Veterans Board. See California Military and Veterans Code 61
  • board: means any entity listed in Section 101, the entities referred to in Sections 1000 and 3600, the State Bar, the Department of Real Estate, and any other state agency that issues a license, certificate, or registration authorizing a person to engage in a business or profession. See California Business and Professions Code 31
  • Bonds: means bonds, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness issued solely for the purposes of paying the cost of electric power and transmission, scheduling, and other related expenses incurred by the department on and after the effective date of this division, or to reimburse expenditures from the fund for those purposes. See California Water Code 80010
  • building: includes (a) one or more buildings located or to be located on one or more sites. See California Education Code 81330
  • business: includes a proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and any other form of commercial enterprise. See California Vehicle Code 234
  • candidate: includes any officeholder who is subject to a recall election. See California Elections Code 305
  • Certified provider organization: means a provider organization that is certified by the Public Employment Relations Board as the representative of family childcare providers in an appropriate unit after a proceeding under Section 8434. See California Education Code 8431
  • City: includes city and county. See California Business and Professions Code 18
  • Commission: means the Public Utilities Commission. See California Water Code 80010
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • contract: means the bargain of the parties in fact, as found in their language or inferred from other circumstances, including course of performance, course of dealing, or usage of trade as provided in Section 1303. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Controversy: means any question arising between parties to an agreement whether the question is one of law or of fact or both. See California Code of Civil Procedure 1280
  • Cost: includes , but is not limited to, expenditures that are related to the operation of child care and development programs. See California Education Code 8208
  • Council: means the Fair Employment and Housing Council and "council member" means a member of the council. See California Government Code 12925
  • County: includes city and county. See California Water Code 14
  • County: includes every county and city and county within this State. See California Vehicle Code 270
  • County: includes city and county. See California Business and Professions Code 17
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • County: includes "city and county. See California Public Resources Code 14
  • County: includes city and county. See California Family Code 67
  • Credible science: means the best available scientific information that is not overly prescriptive due to the dynamic nature of science, and includes the evaluation principles of relevance, inclusiveness, objectivity, transparency, timeliness, verification, validation, and peer review of information as appropriate. See California Fish and Game Code 33
  • Creditor: includes a general creditor, a secured creditor, a lien creditor, and any representative of creditors, including an assignee for the benefit of creditors, a trustee in bankruptcy, a receiver in equity, and an executor or administrator of an insolvent debtor's or assignor's estate. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • creed: include all aspects of religious belief, observance, and practice, including religious dress and grooming practices. See California Government Code 12926
  • Defendant: includes a person in the position of defendant in a counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party claim. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • department: means the Department of Veterans Affairs. See California Military and Veterans Code 60
  • Department: means the Department of Fair Employment and Housing. See California Government Code 12925
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Director: means the Director of Fish and Wildlife. See California Fish and Game Code 39
  • Director: means the Director of Fair Employment and Housing. See California Government Code 12925
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Discrimination: includes refusal to sell, rent, or lease housing accommodations. See California Government Code 12927
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • driver: is a person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. See California Vehicle Code 305
  • Election: means any election including a primary that is provided for under this code. See California Elections Code 318
  • Elections official: means any of the following:

    California Elections Code 320

  • employees: shall be deemed to refer to a "provider" as defined in subdivision (b), any references to "employee organizations" shall be deemed to refer to "provider organizations" as defined in subdivision (d), any references to "exclusive representative" shall be deemed to refer to "certified provider organization" as defined in subdivision (a), and any references to "employer" shall be deemed to refer solely to the State Department of Education, the State Department of Social Services, any other agency, department, contractor, subcontractor, or any political subdivision of the state administering a state-funded early care and education program. See California Education Code 8431
  • Employer: includes any person regularly employing five or more persons, or any person acting as an agent of an employer, directly or indirectly, the state or any political or civil subdivision of the state, and cities, except as follows:

    California Government Code 12926

  • Employment agency: includes any person undertaking for compensation to procure employees or opportunities to work. See California Government Code 12926
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • field representative: refers to "structural pest control field representative. See California Business and Professions Code 8507
  • Fish passage guidelines: means those guidelines specified in the department's California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual and the National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Region, Guidelines for Salmonid Passage at Stream Crossings, and subsequent amendments or updates to either document. See California Fish and Game Code 1651
  • Fishery: means both of the following:

    California Fish and Game Code 94

  • Fund: means the Department of Water Resources Electric Power Fund established by Section 80200. See California Water Code 80010
  • Gender: means sex, and includes a person's gender identity and gender expression. See California Government Code 12926
  • Gender expression: means a person's gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person's assigned sex at birth. See California Government Code 12926
  • Genetic information: includes any request for, or receipt of, genetic services, or participation in clinical research that includes genetic services, by an individual or any family member of the individual. See California Government Code 12926
  • Good faith: except as otherwise provided in Division 5 (commencing with Section 5101), means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable commercial standards of fair dealing. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Habitat restoration or enhancement project: means a project with the primary purpose of improving fish and wildlife habitat. See California Fish and Game Code 1651
  • Highway: is a way or place of whatever nature, publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See California Vehicle Code 360
  • Holder: means :

    California Commercial Code 1201

  • Housing accommodation: includes a building, structure, or portion thereof that is occupied, or intended to be occupied, pursuant to a transaction facilitated by a hosting platform, as defined in Section 22590 of the Business and Professions Code. See California Government Code 12927
  • Insolvency proceeding: includes an assignment for the benefit of creditors or other proceeding intended to liquidate or rehabilitate the estate of the person involved. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Insolvent: means :

    California Commercial Code 1201

  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Interrogatories: Written questions asked by one party of an opposing party, who must answer them in writing under oath; a discovery device in a lawsuit.
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • Jury instructions: A judge's directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules that it must apply. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Kelp: means kelp or other marine aquatic plants and the seeds thereof. See California Fish and Game Code 51
  • Labor organization: includes any organization that exists and is constituted for the purpose, in whole or in part, of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning grievances, terms or conditions of employment, or of other mutual aid or protection. See California Government Code 12926
  • lease or agreement: shall include a lease purchase agreement. See California Education Code 81331
  • Licensee: means any person authorized by a license, certificate, registration, or other means to engage in a business or profession regulated by this code or referred to in Sections 1000 and 3600. See California Business and Professions Code 23.8
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Loan: includes , but is not limited to, a borrowing by a local agency represented or to be represented by bonds of a local agency. See California Government Code 53859
  • local agency: means city, county, municipality, or political subdivision. See California Government Code 53861
  • Local educational agency: means a school district, a county office of education, a community college district, or a school district acting on behalf of one or more schools within the school district. See California Education Code 8208
  • Medical condition: means either of the following:

    California Government Code 12926

  • meeting: includes any congregation of a majority of the members of a state body at the same time and place to hear, discuss, or deliberate upon any item that is within the subject matter jurisdiction of the state body to which it pertains. See California Government Code 11122.5
  • Mental disability: includes , but is not limited to, all of the following:

    California Government Code 12926

  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Money: means a medium of exchange currently authorized or adopted by a domestic or foreign government. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • motor vehicle: includes a recreational vehicle as that term is defined in subdivision (a) of Section 18010 of the Health and Safety Code, but does not include a truck camper. See California Vehicle Code 415
  • Net: means any gear made of any kind of twine, thread, string, rope, wire, wood, or other materials used for the gilling, entangling, trapping, or impounding of fish. See California Fish and Game Code 56
  • Neutral arbitrator: means an arbitrator who is (1) . See California Code of Civil Procedure 1280
  • Notice: includes all papers and orders required to be served in any proceedings before any court, board, or officer, or when required by law to be served independently of such proceeding. See California Government Code 26660
  • Nurse anesthetist: means a person who is a registered nurse, licensed by the board and who has met standards for certification from the board. See California Business and Professions Code 2826
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Government Code 15
  • Oath: includes affirmation. See California Elections Code 335
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • On the bases enumerated in this part: means or refers to discrimination on the basis of one or more of the following: race, religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry, physical disability, mental disability, medical condition, genetic information, marital status, sex, age, sexual orientation, or veteran or military status. See California Government Code 12926
  • operator: refers to "structural pest control operator. See California Business and Professions Code 8506
  • order: include a decree, as appropriate under the circumstances. See California Family Code 100
  • Organization: means a person other than an individual. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Owner: includes the lessee, sublessee, assignee, managing agent, real estate broker or salesperson, or any person having any legal or equitable right of ownership or possession or the right to rent or lease housing accommodations, and includes the state and any of its political subdivisions and any agency thereof. See California Government Code 12927
  • owner: is a person having all the incidents of ownership, including the legal title of a vehicle whether or not such person lends, rents, or creates a security interest in the vehicle. See California Vehicle Code 460
  • Person: means any person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or company. See California Water Code 19
  • Person: means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Person: includes one or more individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, limited liability companies, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, and receivers or other fiduciaries. See California Government Code 12925
  • Person: includes a natural person, firm, copartnership, association, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Vehicle Code 470
  • Person: includes a natural person, firm, association, organization, partnership, business trust, corporation, limited liability company, or public entity. See California Family Code 105
  • pest control: as used in this chapter are synonymous. See California Business and Professions Code 8505
  • Petitioner: includes plaintiff, where appropriate. See California Family Code 126
  • Physical disability: includes , but is not limited to, all of the following:

    California Government Code 12926

  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Power: means electric power and energy, including, but not limited to, capacity and output, or any of them. See California Water Code 80010
  • Precinct: means a geographical area within a county that is made up of voters and is formed pursuant to Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 12200) of Division 12. See California Elections Code 338.6
  • precinct board: means the board appointed by the elections official to serve at a vote center. See California Elections Code 339
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Proceeding: includes an action. See California Family Code 110
  • Process: includes all writs, warrants, summons, and orders of courts of justice, or judicial officers. See California Government Code 26660
  • Process: includes a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings of either a civil or criminal nature. See California Government Code 22
  • Process: signifies a writ or summons issued in the course of a judicial proceeding. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Project proponent: means a person, public agency, or nonprofit organization seeking to implement a habitat restoration or enhancement project. See California Fish and Game Code 1651
  • Property: includes real and personal property and any interest therein. See California Family Code 113
  • provider: means a childcare provider who participates in a state-funded early care and education program as specified in subdivision (f) and is either of the following:

    California Education Code 8431

  • Provider organization: means an organization that has all of the following characteristics:

    California Education Code 8431

  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Purchase: means taking by sale, lease, discount, negotiation, mortgage, pledge, lien, security interest, issue or reissue, gift, or any other voluntary transaction creating an interest in property. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Purchaser: means a person that takes by purchase. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Real estate-related transactions: include any of the following:

    California Government Code 12927

  • Recess: A temporary interruption of the legislative business.
  • Record: means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
  • Religious dress practice: shall be construed broadly to include the wearing or carrying of religious clothing, head or face coverings, jewelry, artifacts, and any other item that is part of an individual observing a religious creed. See California Government Code 12926
  • Religious grooming practice: shall be construed broadly to include all forms of head, facial, and body hair that are part of an individual observing a religious creed. See California Government Code 12926
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Representative: means a person empowered to act for another, including an agent, an officer of a corporation or association, and a trustee, executor, or administrator of an estate. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Respondent: includes defendant, where appropriate. See California Family Code 127
  • retarder: is a device, other than a brake, which, when activated by the driver, applies a retarding force to the wheels of a vehicle without the use of friction. See California Vehicle Code 521
  • Right: includes remedy. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Road: means any existing vehicle route established before January 1, 1979, with significant evidence of prior regular travel by vehicles subject to registration pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 4000) of Chapter 1 of Division 3. See California Vehicle Code 527
  • Salvage vehicle rebuilder: means any person who rebuilds a total loss salvage vehicle, as defined in Section 544, or a vehicle reported for dismantling pursuant to Section 11520, for subsequent resale. See California Vehicle Code 543.5
  • season: means "open season. See California Fish and Game Code 62
  • Security interest: includes any interest of a consignor and a buyer of accounts, chattel paper, a payment intangible, or a promissory note in a transaction that is subject to Division 9 (commencing with Section 9101). See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Sell: includes offer or possess for sale, barter, exchange, or trade. See California Fish and Game Code 75
  • Sell: includes offer for sale, expose for sale, possess for sale, exchange, barter, or trade. See California Food and Agricultural Code 44
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Sex: includes , but is not limited to, the following:

    California Government Code 12926

  • Sexual orientation: means heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality. See California Government Code 12926
  • Sheriff: includes marshal. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Signed: includes using any symbol executed or adopted with present intention to adopt or accept a writing. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • site: includes one or more sites, and also may include any building or buildings located or to be located on a site. See California Education Code 81330
  • Site supervisor: means a person who, regardless of his or her title, has operational program responsibility for a child care and development program at a single site. See California Education Code 8208
  • Source of income: includes a federal Department of Housing and Urban Development Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing voucher. See California Government Code 12927
  • Spousal support: means support of the spouse of the obligor. See California Family Code 142
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Government Code 12.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Business and Professions Code 14.2
  • Spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Code of Civil Procedure 17
  • Startup costs: means those expenses an agency incurs in the process of opening a new or additional facility before the full enrollment of children. See California Education Code 8208
  • State: means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, or a commonwealth, territory, or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See California Family Code 145
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Water Code 18
  • State: means the State of California, unless applied to the different parts of the United States. See California Harbors and Navigation Code 20
  • State: means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • state agency: includes every state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, and commission. See California Government Code 11000
  • state body: means each of the following:

    California Government Code 11121

  • State-funded early care and education program: means a program administered by the State Department of Education, the State Department of Social Services, another department or agency, or a political subdivision of the state, including programs established subsequent to the enactment of this article, to subsidize early learning and care for children, but does not include the public education system. See California Education Code 8431
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • stock: means a species, subspecies, geographical grouping, or other category of fish capable of management as a unit. See California Fish and Game Code 98.5
  • Subdivision: means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs unless some other section is expressly mentioned. See California Water Code 10
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Supervisor: means any individual having the authority, in the interest of the employer, to hire, transfer, suspend, lay off, recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward, or discipline other employees, or the responsibility to direct them, or to adjust their grievances, or effectively to recommend that action, if, in connection with the foregoing, the exercise of that authority is not of a merely routine or clerical nature, but requires the use of independent judgment. See California Government Code 12926
  • Support: refers to a support obligation owing on behalf of a child, spouse, or family, or an amount owing pursuant to Section 17402. See California Family Code 150
  • Surety: includes a guarantor or other secondary obligor. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • third party: means a person that has engaged in a transaction or made an agreement subject to this code. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Total loss salvage vehicle: means either of the following:

    California Vehicle Code 544

  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Unauthorized signature: means a signature made without actual, implied, or apparent authority. See California Commercial Code 1201
  • Undue hardship: means an action requiring significant difficulty or expense, when considered in light of the following factors:

    California Government Code 12926

  • vehicle: is a device by which any person or property may be propelled, moved, or drawn upon a highway, excepting a device moved exclusively by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. See California Vehicle Code 670
  • Veteran or military status: means a member or veteran of the United States Armed Forces, United States Armed Forces Reserve, the United States National Guard, and the California National Guard. See California Government Code 12926
  • Voir dire: The process by which judges and lawyers select a petit jury from among those eligible to serve, by questioning them to determine knowledge of the facts of the case and a willingness to decide the case only on the evidence presented in court. "Voir dire" is a phrase meaning "to speak the truth."
  • Voter: means any elector who is registered under this code. See California Elections Code 359
  • Wildlife: means and includes all wild animals, birds, plants, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and related ecological communities, including the habitat upon which the wildlife depends for its continued viability. See California Fish and Game Code 89.5
  • Writing: includes printing, typewriting, or any other intentional reduction to tangible form. See California Commercial Code 1201