Chapter 1 Bribery and Corruption
Chapter 2 Rescues
Chapter 3 Escapes and Aiding Therein
Chapter 4 Forging, Stealing, Mutilating, and Falsifying Judicial and Public Records and Documents
Chapter 5 Perjury and Subornation of Perjury
Chapter 6 Falsifying Evidence, and Bribing, Influencing, Intimidating or Threatening Witnesses
Chapter 7 Other Offenses Against Public Justice
Chapter 8 Conspiracy
Chapter 9 Criminal Profiteering
Chapter 10 Money Laundering
Chapter 10.5 Fraud and Embezzlement: Victim Restitution
Chapter 11 Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act

Terms Used In California Codes > Penal Code > Part 1 > Title 7

  • abuse or neglect in out-of-home care: includes physical injury or death inflicted upon a child by another person by other than accidental means, sexual abuse as defined in Section 11165. See California Penal Code 11165.5
  • Acquittal:
    1. Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
    2. A verdict of "not guilty."
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Alternative payment program: means a local government agency or nonprofit organization that has contracted with the department pursuant to Section 8220. See California Education Code 8208
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assessee: means the person to whom property or a tax is assessed. See California Education Code 5320
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Attendance: means the number of children present at a child care and development facility. See California Education Code 8208
  • back taxes: means all payments required to be made under any provision of law allowing payment of delinquent taxes in installments, except payments of current taxes due on the property and the penalties and costs on the current taxes. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 4187
  • Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • board: means the California Department of Tax and Fee Administration. See California Education Code 5301
  • book: signifies the recordation of an arrest in official police records, and the taking by the police of fingerprints and photographs of the person arrested, or any of these acts following an arrest. See California Education Code 1012
  • bribe: signifies anything of value or advantage, present or prospective, or any promise or undertaking to give any, asked, given, or accepted, with a corrupt intent to influence, unlawfully, the person to whom it is given, in his or her action, vote, or opinion, in any public or official capacity. See California Education Code 1012
  • Building: as used in this article means so much of any building or structure of any kind as is or may be entered through the same outside entrance. See California Penal Code 11235
  • bus: is a ny vehicle, including a trailer bus, designed, used, or maintained for carrying more than 15 persons including the driver. See California Education Code 8265
  • child: means a person under the age of 18 years. See California Penal Code 11165
  • child abuse or neglect: includes physical injury or death inflicted by other than accidental means upon a child by another person, sexual abuse as defined in Section 11165. See California Penal Code 11165.6
  • Child care and development programs: means those programs that offer a full range of services for children from infancy to 13 years of age, for any part of a day, by a public or private agency, in centers and family child care homes. See California Education Code 8208
  • child visitation monitor: means a person who, for financial compensation, acts as a monitor of a visit between a child and another person when the monitoring of that visit has been ordered by a court of law. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • Children with exceptional needs: means either of the following:

    California Education Code 8208

  • City: includes incorporated city, city and county, municipal corporation, municipality, town, and incorporated town. See California Education Code 5227
  • City: includes every city and city and county within this State. See California Education Code 8270
  • clergy member: means a priest, minister, rabbi, religious practitioner, or similar functionary of a church, temple, or recognized denomination or organization. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • commercial computer technician: means a person who works for a company that is in the business of repairing, installing, or otherwise servicing a computer or computer component, including, but not limited to, a computer part, device, memory storage or recording mechanism, auxiliary storage recording or memory capacity, or any other material relating to the operation and maintenance of a computer or computer network system, for a fee. See California Penal Code 11165.7
  • Commercial sexual exploitation: refers to either of the following:

    California Penal Code 11165.1

  • Commercial user: means any person who deals in full-size or non-full-size cribs of the kind governed by this chapter who otherwise by one's occupation holds oneself out as having knowledge or skill peculiar to the full-size or non-full-size cribs governed by this chapter, or any person who is in the business of remanufacturing, retrofitting, selling, leasing, subletting, or otherwise placing in the stream of commerce full-size or non-full-size cribs. See California Penal Code 11169
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conducts: includes , but is not limited to, initiating, concluding, or participating in conducting, initiating, or concluding a transaction. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 2954
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Controller: means the State Controller. See California Education Code 5303
  • corruptly: import s a wrongful design to acquire or cause some pecuniary or other advantage to the person guilty of the act or omission referred to, or to some other person. See California Education Code 1012
  • Cost: includes , but is not limited to, expenditures that are related to the operation of child care and development programs. See California Education Code 8208
  • county: includes "city and county". See California Education Code 1012
  • County: includes city and county. See California Education Code 5228
  • craft: includes every boat, ship, vessel, craft, barge, hulk, float or other thing capable of floating. See California Penal Code 11301
  • Crib: means a bed or containment designed to accommodate an infant. See California Penal Code 11169
  • Criminal activity: means a criminal offense punishable under the laws of this state by death, imprisonment in the state prison, or imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 or from a criminal offense committed in another jurisdiction punishable under the laws of that jurisdiction by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding one year. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 2954
  • criminal street gang: means any ongoing organization, association, or group of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, having as one of its primary activities the commission of one or more of the criminal acts enumerated in paragraphs (1) to (25), inclusive, or (31) to (33), inclusive, of subdivision (e), having a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, and whose members individually or collectively engage in, or have engaged in, a pattern of criminal gang activity. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 2960
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • department: means State Department of Health Services. See California Education Code 24943
  • Department: means the Department of Motor Vehicles except, when used in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 2100) of Division 2 and in Divisions 11 (commencing with Section 21000), 12 (commencing with Section 24000), 13 (commencing with Section 29000), 14 (commencing with Section 31600), 14. See California Education Code 8277.2
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • district attorney: means the civil legal adviser of the board of supervisors. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 654
  • driver: is a person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle. See California Education Code 8278.3
  • Embezzlement: In most states, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. Source: OCC
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Escheat: Reversion of real or personal property to the state when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. Source: OCC
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • for hire: means that the entity providing transportation services is compensated for the transportation under contract or agreement. See California Education Code 8370
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • gambling ship: as used in this article means any boat, ship, vessel, watercraft or barge kept, operated or maintained for the purpose of gambling, whether within or without the jurisdiction of the State, and whether it is anchored, lying to, or navigating. See California Penal Code 11317
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • Highway: is a way or place of whatever nature, publicly maintained and open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. See California Education Code 8332.7
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Infant: means any person less than 35 inches tall and less than three years of age. See California Penal Code 11169
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • instruction: includes classroom driver education, in-vehicle driver training, and correspondence study. See California Education Code 8279.2
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Juror: A person who is on the jury.
  • knowingly: import s only a knowledge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission within the provisions of this code. See California Education Code 1012
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • license: shall include a permit or a certificate issued by a state agency. See California Education Code 1097
  • licensing agency: means the State Department of Social Services office responsible for the licensing and enforcement of the California Community Care Facilities Act (Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 1500) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code), the California Child Day Care Act (Chapter 3. See California Penal Code 11165.11
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • magistrate: signifies any one of the officers mentioned in Section 808. See California Education Code 1012
  • Malice: means an intent to vex, annoy, harm, or injure in any way another person, or to thwart or interfere in any manner with the orderly administration of justice. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 3798.1
  • maliciously: import a wish to vex, annoy, or injure another person, or an intent to do a wrongful act, established either by proof or presumption of law. See California Education Code 1012
  • mandatory supervision: shall mean the portion of a defendant's sentenced term during which time he or she is supervised by the county probation officer pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (h) of Section 1170. See California Education Code 1094
  • Monetary instrument: means United States currency and coin. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 2954
  • month: means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. See California Education Code 1012
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • motor vehicle: includes a recreational vehicle as that term is defined in subdivision (a) of Section 18010 of the Health and Safety Code, but does not include a truck camper. See California Education Code 8360
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • neglect: means the negligent treatment or the maltreatment of a child by a person responsible for the child's welfare under circumstances indicating harm or threatened harm to the child's health or welfare. See California Penal Code 11165.2
  • newspaper: means a newspaper of general circulation. See California Education Code 5344
  • Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
  • official traffic control device: is a ny sign, signal, marking, or device, consistent with Section 21400, placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic, but does not include islands, curbs, traffic barriers, speed humps, speed bumps, or other roadway design features. See California Education Code 8365
  • owner: is a person having all the incidents of ownership, including the legal title of a vehicle whether or not such person lends, rents, or creates a security interest in the vehicle. See California Education Code 8368
  • Parent: means a biological parent, stepparent, adoptive parent, foster parent, caretaker relative, or any other adult living with a child who has responsibility for the care and welfare of the child. See California Education Code 8208
  • pattern of criminal gang activity: means the commission of, attempted commission of, conspiracy to commit, or solicitation of, sustained juvenile petition for, or conviction of two or more of the following offenses, provided at least one of these offenses occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the last of those offenses occurred within three years after a prior offense, and the offenses were committed on separate occasions, or by two or more persons:

    California Revenue and Taxation Code 2960

  • peace officer: signify any one of the officers mentioned in Chapter 4. See California Education Code 1012
  • Person: means any natural person, firm, corporation, association, or agent or employee thereof. See California Penal Code 11169
  • person: includes a corporation as well as a natural person. See California Education Code 1012
  • Person: as used in this article , means individuals, corporations, associations, partnerships, limited liability companies, trustees, lessees, agents and assignees. See California Penal Code 11207
  • Person: as used in this article means individuals, corporations, associations, partnerships, limited liability companies, trustees, lessees, agents and assignees. See California Penal Code 11234
  • Person: includes a natural person, firm, copartnership, association, limited liability company, or corporation. See California Education Code 8404
  • Person: includes any person, firm, partnership, general partner of a partnership, limited liability company, registered limited liability partnership, foreign limited liability partnership, association, corporation, company, syndicate, estate, trust, business trust, or organization of any kind. See California Education Code 5300
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
  • Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • private school: is a ny school, whether conducted for profit or not, giving a course of training similar to that given in a public school at or below the twelfth grade, including but not limited to schools owned or operated by any church. See California Education Code 8409
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Probate: Proving a will
  • Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
  • Probation officers: Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision.
  • property: includes both real and personal property. See California Education Code 1012
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public defender: Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Redemption amount: means the total amount which would be necessary to redeem tax-defaulted property at the time an election is made to pay delinquent taxes in installments under this article. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 4216
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • schoolbus: is a motor vehicle designed, used, or maintained for the transportation of any school pupil at or below the 12th grade level to or from a public or private school or to or from public or private school activities, except the following:

    California Education Code 8444

  • seal: includes an impression of such seal upon the paper alone, or upon any substance attached to the paper capable of receiving a visible impression. See California Education Code 1012
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Severe neglect: means the negligent failure of a person having the care or custody of a child to protect the child from severe malnutrition or medically diagnosed nonorganic failure to thrive. See California Penal Code 11165.2
  • sexual abuse: means sexual assault or sexual exploitation as defined by the following:

    California Penal Code 11165.1

  • Sexual exploitation: refers to any of the following:

    California Penal Code 11165.1

  • spouse: includes "registered domestic partner" as required by Section 297. See California Education Code 1012
  • Standard reimbursement rate: means that rate established by the Superintendent pursuant to Section 8265. See California Education Code 8208
  • state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories, and the words "United States" may include the district and territories. See California Education Code 1012
  • state agency: shall include any state board, commission, bureau, or division created pursuant to the provisions of the Business and Professions Code, the Education Code, or the Chiropractic Initiative Act to license and regulate individuals who engage in certain businesses and professions. See California Education Code 1097
  • Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Substantiated report: means a report that is determined by the investigator who conducted the investigation to constitute child abuse or neglect, as defined in Section 11165. See California Penal Code 11165.12
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Support services: means those services that, when combined with child care and development services, help promote the healthy physical, mental, social, and emotional growth of children. See California Education Code 8208
  • taxes: includes assessments. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 3771
  • taxes: includes all taxes and assessments and annual installments of assessments charged on the roll, except for the following:

    California Revenue and Taxation Code 4186

  • taxes: includes assessments collected at the same time and in the same manner as county taxes. See California Welfare and Institutions Code 653.7
  • taxing agency: includes a county treasurer acting as trustee for a reclamation district and the "governing body" of a taxing agency includes such a county treasurer acting with the consent of the board of trustees of the reclamation district. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 3772
  • Temporary restraining order: Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. It is intended to last only until a hearing can be held.
  • Terminal: is a place where a vehicle of a type listed in Section 34500 is regularly garaged or maintained, or from which the vehicle is operated or dispatched. See California Education Code 8482.6
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • traffic: includes pedestrians, ridden animals, vehicles, street cars, and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using any highway for purposes of travel. See California Education Code 8483.3
  • Transaction: includes the deposit, withdrawal, transfer, bailment, loan, pledge, payment, or exchange of currency, or a monetary instrument, as defined by subdivision (d), or the electronic, wire, magnetic, or manual transfer of funds between accounts by, through, or to, a financial institution as defined by subdivision (b). See California Revenue and Taxation Code 2954
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trial jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • university: when used in this chapter with reference to the sale, exposing or offering for sale, of alcoholic beverages, means an institution which has the authority to grant an academic graduate degree. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 4985.2
  • unlawful corporal punishment or injury: means a situation where any person willfully inflicts upon any child any cruel or inhuman corporal punishment or injury resulting in a traumatic condition. See California Penal Code 11165.4
  • vehicle: is a device by which any person or property may be propelled, moved, or drawn upon a highway, excepting a device moved exclusively by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. See California Education Code 8486
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • vessel: means a vessel as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 651 of the Harbors and Navigation Code. See California Education Code 1012
  • Victim: means any natural person with respect to whom there is reason to believe that any crime as defined under the laws of this state or any other state or of the United States is being or has been perpetrated or attempted to be perpetrated. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 3798.1
  • willful harming or injuring of a child or the endangering of the person or health of a child: means a situation in which any person willfully causes or permits any child to suffer, or inflicts thereon, unjustifiable physical pain or mental suffering, or having the care or custody of any child, willfully causes or permits the person or health of the child to be placed in a situation in which his or her person or health is endangered. See California Penal Code 11165.3
  • willfully: when applied to the intent with which an act is done or omitted, implies simply a purpose or willingness to commit the act, or make the omission referred to. See California Education Code 1012
  • Witness: means any natural person, (i) having knowledge of the existence or nonexistence of facts relating to any crime, or (ii) whose declaration under oath is received or has been received as evidence for any purpose, or (iii) who has reported any crime to any peace officer, prosecutor, probation or parole officer, correctional officer or judicial officer, or (iv) who has been served with a subpoena issued under the authority of any court in the state, or of any other state or of the United States, or (v) who would be believed by any reasonable person to be an individual described in subparagraphs (i) to (iv), inclusive. See California Revenue and Taxation Code 3798.1
  • writ: signifies an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the people, or of a court or judicial officer, and the word "process" a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings. See California Education Code 1012
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.