(1) As used in this act:

(a) “Civil infraction” means an act or omission that is prohibited by a law and is not a crime under that law or that is prohibited by an ordinance and is not a crime under that ordinance, and for which civil sanctions may be ordered. Civil infraction includes, but is not limited to, the following:

Terms Used In Michigan Laws 600.113

  • state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, shall be construed to extend to and include the District of Columbia and the several territories belonging to the United States; and the words "United States" shall be construed to include the district and territories. See Michigan Laws 324.51501

(i) A violation of the Michigan vehicle code, Act No. 300 of the Public Acts of 1949, being sections 257.1 to 257.923 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, designated as a civil infraction.

(ii) A violation of a city, township, or village ordinance substantially corresponding to a provision of Act No. 300 of the Public Acts of 1949, if the ordinance designates the violation as a civil infraction.

(iii) A violation of an ordinance adopted pursuant to Act No. 235 of the Public Acts of 1969, being sections 257.941 to 257.943 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(iv) A violation of a city, township, or village ordinance adopting the uniform traffic code promulgated under Act No. 62 of the Public Acts of 1956, being sections 257.951 to 257.954 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, if the uniform traffic code designates the violation as a civil infraction.

(v) A violation of an ordinance adopted by the governing board of a state university or college pursuant to Act No. 291 of the Public Acts of 1967, being sections 390.891 to 390.893 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, if the ordinance designates the violation as a civil infraction.

(vi) A violation of regulations adopted by a county board of commissioners pursuant to Act No. 58 of the Public Acts of 1945, being section 46.201 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(vii) A municipal civil infraction.

(viii) A state civil infraction.

(ix) A violation of the pupil transportation act, Act No. 187 of the Public Acts of 1990, being sections 257.1801 to 257.1877 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, designated as a civil infraction.

(b) “Civil infraction action” means a civil action in which the defendant is alleged to be responsible for a civil infraction.

(c) “Municipal civil infraction” means a civil infraction involving a violation of an ordinance. Municipal civil infraction includes, but is not limited to, a trailway municipal civil infraction. Municipal civil infraction does not include a violation described in subdivision (a)(i) to (vi) or (ix) or any act or omission that constitutes a crime under any of the following:

(i) Article 7 or section 17766a of the public health code, Act No. 368 of the Public Acts of 1978, being sections 333.7101 to 333.7545 and 333.17766a of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(ii) The Michigan penal code, Act No. 328 of the Public Acts of 1931, being sections 750.1 to 750.568 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(iii) Act No. 300 of the Public Acts of 1949, being sections 257.1 to 257.923 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(iv) The Michigan liquor control act, Act No. 8 of the Public Acts of the Extra Session of 1933, being sections 436.1 to 436.58 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(v) Part 801 (marine safety) of the natural resources and environmental protection act, Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, being sections 324.80101 to 324.80199 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(vi) The aeronautics code of the state of Michigan, Act No. 327 of the Public Acts of 1945, being sections 259.1 to 259.208 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(vii) Part 821 (snowmobiles) of Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, being sections 324.82101 to 324.82159 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(viii) Part 811 (off-road recreation vehicles) of Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, being sections 324.81101 to 324.81150 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(ix) The railroad code of 1993, Act No. 354 of the Public Acts of 1993, being sections 462.101 to 462.451 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

(x) Any law of this state under which the act or omission is punishable by imprisonment for more than 90 days.

(d) “Municipal civil infraction action” means a civil action in which the defendant is alleged to be responsible for a municipal civil infraction. Municipal civil infraction action includes, but is not limited to, a trailway municipal civil infraction action.

(e) “State civil infraction” means a civil infraction involving either of the following:

(i) A violation of state law that is designated by statute as a state civil infraction.

(ii) A violation of a city, township, village, or county ordinance that is designated by statute as a state civil infraction.

(f) “State civil infraction action” means a civil action in which the defendant is alleged to be responsible for a state civil infraction.

(g) “Trailway municipal civil infraction” means a municipal civil infraction involving the operation of a vehicle on a recreational trailway at a time, in a place, or in a manner prohibited by ordinance.

(h) “Trailway municipal civil infraction action” means a civil infraction action in which the defendant is alleged to be responsible for a trailway municipal civil infraction.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this act:

(a) A civil infraction action involving a traffic or parking violation is governed by Act No. 300 of the Public Acts of 1949.

(b) A municipal civil infraction action is governed by chapter 87.

(c) A state civil infraction action is governed by chapter 88.

(3) A determination that a defendant is responsible for a civil infraction and thus subject to civil sanctions shall be by a preponderance of the evidence.