§ 8.1 Original acts; custody
§ 8.3 General rules of construction
§ 8.3a Approved usage; technical words and phrases
§ 8.3b Singular and plural; gender
§ 8.3c Authority of majority
§ 8.3d “Annual meeting” defined
§ 8.3e “Grantor” and “grantee” defined
§ 8.3f “Inhabitant” defined
§ 8.3g “Insane person” defined
§ 8.3i “Land,””real estate,” and “real property” defined
§ 8.3j “Month” and “year” defined
§ 8.3k “Oath” and “sworn” defined
§ 8.3l “Person” defined
§ 8.3m “Preceding” and “following” defined
§ 8.3n “Seal” defined
§ 8.3o “State” and “United States” defined
§ 8.3q “Written” and “in writing” construed
§ 8.3r Acts of incorporation deemed public acts
§ 8.3s “General election” defined
§ 8.3t “Firearm” defined
§ 8.3u Re-enactments
§ 8.3v Population
§ 8.3w Section numbers
§ 8.4 Effect of repeal of repealing statute
§ 8.4a Effect of repeal
§ 8.4b Catchline not part of section
§ 8.4c “Shall not apply” defined
§ 8.5 Severability
§ 8.6 Statutes and rules; time; computation
§ 8.6a Auditor general; access to records
§ 8.7 Department of natural resources; references
§ 8.8 “Law” defined; reference to “Michigan Compiled Laws”; reference to statute as including latest amendments; use of “as amended”; reference in title or enacting section to law adding or amending section
§ 8.9 Criminal offense committed on or after January 1, 2016; guilt; strict criminal liability; culpability; defense; section inapplicable to certain crimes; definitions

Terms Used In Michigan Laws > Chapter 8 > R.S. of 1846 > Chapter 1 - Of the Statutes

  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • agricultural drain: means a human-made conveyance of water that meets all of the following requirements:
  (a) Does not have continuous flow. See Michigan Laws 324.30305
  • All hazard incident: means an incident, whether natural or human-caused, that requires an organized response by a public, private, or governmental entity to protect life, public health or safety, or other values or to minimize any disruption of governmental, social, or economic services. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
  • annual meeting: when applied to townships, mean the annual meeting required by law to be held on the Saturday immediately preceding the first Monday in April. See Michigan Laws 8.3d
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Breast height: means 4. See Michigan Laws 324.52501
  • Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
  • Certification: means a process where an independent third party organization assesses and evaluates forest management practices according to the standards of a certification program resulting in an issuance of a certificate of compliance or conformity. See Michigan Laws 324.52501
  • Certified prescribed burn manager: means an individual who has successfully completed the certification program of the department under section 51513 and possesses a valid certification number. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Commission: means the commission of natural resources. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • Commissioner: means the county drain commissioner or the county road commission in counties not having a drain commissioner, and, if more than 1 county is involved, each of the drain commissioners or drain commissioner and road commission in counties having no drain commissioner. See Michigan Laws 324.30701
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Compensation: means salaries. See Michigan Laws 4.511
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Conservation: means the wise use of natural resources. See Michigan Laws 324.52501
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • County board: means the county board of commissioners, and if more than 1 county is involved, the boards of commissioners of each of those counties. See Michigan Laws 324.30701
  • Court: means a circuit court, and if more than 1 judicial circuit is involved, the circuit court designated by the county board or otherwise authorized by law to preside over an action. See Michigan Laws 324.30701
  • Dam: means an artificial barrier, structure, or facility, and appurtenant works, used to regulate or maintain the level of an inland lake. See Michigan Laws 324.30701
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Delegated authority: means the county drain commissioner or any other person designated by the county board to perform duties required under this part. See Michigan Laws 324.30701
  • Department: means the department of treasury. See Michigan Laws 141.2103
  • Department: means the department of agriculture and rural development. See Michigan Laws 324.51301
  • Department: means the director of the department of natural resources or his or her designee to whom the director delegates a power or duty by written instrument. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • Department: means the department of natural resources. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Department: means the department of environmental quality. See Michigan Laws 324.30301
  • Department of natural resources: means the principal state department created in section 501. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Director: means the director of the department of natural resources. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • Domestic purposes: refers to burning that is any of the following:
  •   (i) A fire within the curtilage of a dwelling where the material being burned has been properly placed in a debris burner constructed of metal or masonry, with a metal covering device with openings no larger than 3/4 of an inch. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Election: means an election or primary election at which the electors of this state or of a subdivision of this state choose or nominate by ballot an individual for public office or decide a ballot question lawfully submitted to them. See Michigan Laws 168.2
  • election precinct: as used in this act shall mean a political subdivision, the area of which is embraced in its entirety within the confines of a city, ward, township or village, and for which not more than 1 polling place is provided for all qualified and registered electors residing therein. See Michigan Laws 168.654
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Expenses: means expenses incurred by the legislator in connection with the discharge of his official duties. See Michigan Laws 4.511
  • Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Flammable material: means any substance that will burn, including, but not limited to, refuse, debris, waste forest material, brush, stumps, logs, rubbish, fallen timber, grass, stubble, leaves, fallow land, slash, crops, or crop residue. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Forestland: means a tract of land that may include nonproductive land that is intermixed with productive land that is an integral part of a managed forest and the owner of which agrees to develop, maintain, and actively manage the land as a private forest through planting, natural reproduction, or other silvicultural practices. See Michigan Laws 324.51301
  • Free flowing: means existing or flowing in natural condition without impoundment, diversion, straightening, riprapping, or other modification. See Michigan Laws 324.30501
  • Fund: means the private forestland enhancement fund created in section 51305. See Michigan Laws 324.51301
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • in writing: shall be construed to include printing, engraving, and lithographing; except that if the written signature of a person is required by law, the signature shall be the proper handwriting of the person or, if the person is unable to write, the person's proper mark, which may be, unless otherwise expressly prohibited by law, a clear and classifiable fingerprint of the person made with ink or another substance. See Michigan Laws 8.3q
  • Inland lake: means a natural or artificial lake, pond, impoundment, or a part of 1 of those bodies of water. See Michigan Laws 324.30701
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • local unit: means a municipality or county. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Metropolitan district: means a district incorporated under the metropolitan district act, 1929 PA 312, MCL 119. See Michigan Laws 168.17
  • Mileage: means cost of transportation via the shortest traveled route either by train, bus or private automobile from the residence of the legislator to Lansing. See Michigan Laws 4.511
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • month: means a calendar month; the word "year" a calendar year; and the word "year" alone shall be equivalent to the words "year of our Lord". See Michigan Laws 8.3j
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Municipal security: means a security that when issued was not exempt from this act or former 1943 PA 202 by the provisions of this act or by former 1943 PA 202 or by the provisions of the law authorizing its issuance and that is payable from or secured by any of the following:
  •   (i) Ad valorem real and personal property taxes. See Michigan Laws 141.2103
  • Municipality: means a county, township, city, village, school district, intermediate school district, community college district, metropolitan district, port district, drainage district, district library, or another governmental authority or agency in this state that has the power to issue a security. See Michigan Laws 141.2103
  • Municipality: means a city, village, or township. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • Name that was formally changed: means a name changed by a proceeding under chapter XI of the probate code of 1939, 1939 PA 288, MCL 711. See Michigan Laws 168.3
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • Natural river: means a river that has been designated by the department for inclusion in the wild, scenic, and recreational rivers system. See Michigan Laws 324.30501
  • Nonindustrial private forestland: means a privately owned tract of land consisting of 20 or more acres, or the timber rights in the land if the timber rights have been severed, that has the productive capacity to grow on average not less than 20 cubic feet per acre per year and that meets either of the following conditions:
  •   (i) For a tract of land that contains less than 40 acres, at least 80% of the land is occupied by forest tree species. See Michigan Laws 324.51301
  • Normal level: means the level or levels of the water of an inland lake that provide the most benefit to the public; that best protect the public health, safety, and welfare; that best preserve the natural resources of the state; and that best preserve and protect the value of property around the lake. See Michigan Laws 324.30701
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
  • person: may extend and be applied to bodies politic and corporate, as well as to individuals. See Michigan Laws 8.3l
  • Person: means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, governmental entity, or other legal entity. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • Person: means an individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, association, municipality, this state, an instrumentality or agency of this state, the federal government, an instrumentality or agency of the federal government, or other legal entity. See Michigan Laws 324.30301
  • Plan: means the forestry development, conservation, and recreation management plan for state forests as provided for in section 52503. See Michigan Laws 324.52501
  • prescribed burning: means the burning, in compliance with a prescription and to meet planned fire or land management objectives, of a continuous cover of fuels. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Prescription: means a written plan establishing the criteria necessary for starting, controlling, and extinguishing a burn. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • primary election: as used in this act , shall mean a primary election held for the purpose of deciding by ballot who shall be the nominees for the offices named in this act, or for the election by ballot of delegates to political conventions. See Michigan Laws 168.7
  • Primary public safety answering point: means that term as defined in section 102 of the emergency 9-1-1 service enabling act, 1986 PA 32, MCL 484. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
  • Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Qualified forester: means that term as it is defined in section 7jj of the general property tax act, 1893 PA 206, MCL 211. See Michigan Laws 324.51301
  • Qualified status: means a municipality that has filed a qualifying statement under section 303 and has been determined by the department to be qualified to issue municipal securities without further approval by the department. See Michigan Laws 141.2103
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Reforestation: means adequate stocking of forestland is assured by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or by planting seeds or seedlings. See Michigan Laws 324.52501
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Residence: as used in this act , for registration and voting purposes means that place at which a person habitually sleeps, keeps his or her personal effects, and has a regular place of lodging. See Michigan Laws 168.11
  • River: means a flowing body of water or a portion or tributary of a flowing body of water, including streams, creeks, or impoundments and small lakes thereon. See Michigan Laws 324.30501
  • Rule: means a rule promulgated pursuant to the administrative procedures act of 1969, 1969 PA 306, MCL 24. See Michigan Laws 324.301
  • School district: means a school district, a local act school district, or an intermediate school district, as those terms are defined in the revised school code, 1976 PA 451, MCL 380. See Michigan Laws 168.4
  • seal: shall be construed to include any of the following:
  •   (a) The impression of the seal on the paper alone. See Michigan Laws 8.3n
  • Security: means an evidence of debt such as a bond, note, contract, obligation, refunding obligation, certificate of indebtedness, or other similar instrument issued by a municipality, which pledges payment of the debt by the municipality from an identified source of revenue. See Michigan Laws 141.2103
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • shall not apply: means that the pertinent provision is not operative as to certain persons or things or in conjunction with a particular date or dates. See Michigan Laws 8.4c
  • state: when applied to the different parts of the United States, shall be construed to extend to and include the District of Columbia and the several territories belonging to the United States; and the words "United States" shall be construed to include the district and territories. See Michigan Laws 8.3o
  • State forest: means state land owned or controlled by the department that is designated as state forest by the director. See Michigan Laws 324.52501
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Subpoena duces tecum: A command to a witness to produce documents.
  • Sustainable forestry: means forestry practices that are designed to meet present and future needs by employing a land stewardship ethic that integrates the reforestation, managing, growing, nurturing, and harvesting of trees for useful products with the conservation of soil, air and water quality, wildlife and fish habitat, and visual qualities. See Michigan Laws 324.52501
  • System: means all of those rivers or portions of rivers designated under this part. See Michigan Laws 324.30501
  • Technical assistance: means direct on-site assistance provided to individuals. See Michigan Laws 324.51301
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Timber: means wood growth, mature or immature, growing or dead, standing or down. See Michigan Laws 324.51301
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: shall be construed to include the district and territories. See Michigan Laws 8.3o
  • Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
  • village: as used in this act , shall mean an incorporated village. See Michigan Laws 168.9
  • Wetland: means land characterized by the presence of water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances does support, wetland vegetation or aquatic life, and is commonly referred to as a bog, swamp, or marsh. See Michigan Laws 324.51501
  • Wetland: means a land or water feature, commonly referred to as a bog, swamp, or marsh, inundated or saturated by water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances does support, hydric soils and a predominance of wetland vegetation or aquatic life. See Michigan Laws 324.30301