Article 31 Offenses Relating to Unauthorized Photographs and Certain Copyrighted Materials

Terms Used In New York Laws > Arts and Cultural Affairs > Title J - Offenses Relating to Unauthorized Photographs and Certain Copyrighted Materials

  • Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
  • Assisted project: shall mean any project in respect of which the authority has granted a loan or guaranteed a loan. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Authority: shall mean the New York job development authority created by subdivision one of section eighteen hundred two of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Banking organization: when used in this title shall mean (a) any organization defined by subdivision eleven of section two of the banking law, (b) any agency or branch of a foreign banking corporation licensed by the department of financial services under article five of the banking law, (c) any national bank, federal savings and loan association and federal credit union, (d) any authorized insurer defined by paragraph ten of subsection (a) of section one hundred seven of the insurance law and (e) any public or private pension or investment fund required to file a report with any state or federal regulatory or supervisory body. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • Benefit corporation: means a business corporation incorporated under this article and whose status as a benefit corporation has not been terminated as provided in this article. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1702
  • board: means the board of trustees of the state university of New York. See
  • Chairman: means the chairman of the dormitory authority. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of environmental conservation except that within and for the purposes of title eleven of this article, the commissioner of parks and recreation. See
  • Commissioner: means the commissioner of environmental conservation except that within and for the purposes of title nine of this article, the term shall mean the commissioner of parks, recreation and historic preservation. See
  • Commissioner: shall mean the commissioner of consumer and worker protection. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Commissioners: shall mean the state commissioner of environmental conservation and the state commissioner of parks, recreation and historic preservation. See
  • committee: means the state committee for perfusion created by section sixty-six hundred thirty-four of this article. See
  • Comptroller: shall mean the comptroller of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • comptroller: means the comptroller of the state of New York with respect to the state university or the appropriate fiscal officer with respect to other employers. See
  • Conservation easement: means an easement, covenant, restriction or other interest in real property, created under and subject to the provisions of this title which limits or restricts development, management or use of such real property for the purpose of preserving or maintaining the scenic, open, historic, archaeological, architectural, or natural condition, character, significance or amenities of the real property in a manner consistent with the public policy and purpose set forth in section 49-0301 of this title, provided that no such easement shall be acquired or held by the state which is subject to the provisions of article fourteen of the constitution. See
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Cost: means the capital cost of a municipal landfill closure project or a municipal landfill gas management project, including engineering and architectural services, plans and specifications, consultant and legal services, and other direct capital expenses incident to such project, less any federal or other assistance for such project received or to be received. See
  • Cost: means the cost of an approved project, which shall include engineering and architectural services, plans and specifications, consultant and legal services, and other direct expenses incident to such project less any federal assistance received or to be received and any other assistance from responsible parties or otherwise. See
  • Cost: means the cost of an approved project, which shall include engineering and architectural services, plans and specifications, consultant and legal services, and other direct expenses incident to such project less any federal assistance received or to be received and any other assistance from other parties. See
  • curd: as used in this article applies to the substance otherwise known as "pot cheese" or "cottage cheese. See N.Y. Agriculture and Markets Law 48
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Department: means the department of environmental conservation. See
  • Department: means the department of environmental conservation. See
  • Department: shall mean the department of consumer and worker protection. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
  • Design professional: means an individual licensed and registered pursuant to title eight of the education law to practice professional engineering, architecture, landscape architecture, geology or land surveying. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1501
  • Design professional service corporation: means a corporation organized under this article practicing professional engineering, architecture, landscape architecture, geology, or land surveying, or practicing any combination of such professions. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1501
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • electing employee: shall mean any eligible employee who exercises his election pursuant to this article to come under the optional retirement program. See
  • electing employer: means a community college which elects to offer the optional retirement program as herein provided. See
  • Eligible business facility: shall mean any type of business facility to be used or occupied by any person in an enterprise deemed to offer a reasonable likelihood for promoting the creation or retention of job opportunities in the state, and includes, but is not limited to, industrial or manufacturing plants, facilities for research and development purposes, facilities for conducting wholesale, receiving and distributing operations, facilities for conducting office operations, warehousing operations, or any other operation dealing in the exchange of goods, wares, services or other types of property of any type or description. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • eligible employees: means those employees in positions requiring the performance of educational functions in teacher education, agriculture, home economics, forestry, ceramics, liberal and applied arts and sciences, engineering, technical skills, crafts, business education, labor and industrial relations, medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, nursing, law, public affairs, maritime officer training, academic administration, library service, student activities, student personnel service and other professions required to carry on the work of the state university and the colleges, schools, institutes, research centers, facilities and institutions comprising it and of the community colleges. See
  • employee: means a person employed by the state university, the board of higher education of the city of New York, or a community college established and operated under article one hundred twenty-six of this chapter. See
  • employer: means the state university of New York, the board of higher education of the city of New York, or a community college established and operated under article one hundred twenty-six of this chapter. See
  • Equity security: means any stock, bond, or other obligation of a target company, the holder of which has the right to vote for the election of members of the board of directors, or those exercising a similar function if the target company is not a corporation, of such target company. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1601
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Facility: means any structure or site improvement including paths, trails, roads, bridges, ramps and buildings. See
  • Federal agency: shall mean the United States of America, and any officer, department, board, commissioner, bureau, division, corporation, agency or instrumentality thereof. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Federal assistance: shall mean funds available, other than by loan, from the federal government, either directly or through allocation by the state for construction or program purposes pursuant to any federal law or program. See
  • Federal assistance: means funds available, other than by loan, from the federal government, either directly or through allocation by the state for construction or program purposes pursuant to any federal law or program. See
  • Forbearance: A means of handling a delinquent loan. A
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Foreign professional service corporation: means a professional service corporation, whether or not denominated as such, organized under the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state, all of the shareholders, directors and officers of which are authorized and licensed to practice the profession for which such corporation is licensed to do business; except that all shareholders, directors and officers of a foreign professional service corporation which provides health services in this state shall be licensed in this state. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1525
  • General public benefit: means a material positive impact on society and the environment, taken as a whole, assessed against a third-party standard, from the business and operations of a benefit corporation. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1702
  • Governing body: shall mean

    a. See

  • Governing body: means

    (a) in the case of a town, a town board;

    (b) in the case of a county outside of the city of New York, the county board of supervisors or other elective governing body;

    (c) in the case of a city or village, the local legislative body thereof, as the term is defined in the municipal home rule law;

    (d) in the case of a public benefit corporation, the board of directors, members or trustees thereof;

    (e) in the case of a school district, the board of education thereof;

    (f) in the case of a supervisory district, the board of cooperative educational services thereof. See

  • Governing body: means :

    a. See

  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
  • Historic preservation project: means :

    (a) State historic preservation projects. See

  • Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
  • Independent: means that a person has no material relationship with a benefit corporation or any of its subsidiaries. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1702
  • Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • insurer: shall mean a life insurance corporation, or other corporation subject to department of financial services supervision. See
  • insurer: means a life insurance corporation or other corporation subject to department of financial services supervision. See
  • Judgement: The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit.
  • Jurisprudence: The study of law and the structure of the legal system.
  • Landfill: means a disposal facility or part of one at which solid waste, or its residue after treatment, is intentionally placed in or on land, and at which solid waste will remain after closure and which is not a land spreading facility, a surface impoundment, or an injection well. See
  • Landfill: means a disposal facility or part of one at which solid waste, or its residue after treatment, is intentionally placed in or on land, at which solid waste will remain after closure, and which is not a landspreading facility, a surface impoundment, or an injection well. See
  • Landfill gas management system: means an active system for the control, capture, and management of gas created within and emitted from a solid waste landfill. See
  • Lands: shall mean lands, improvements and structures thereon or rights, franchises, and interests therein, lands under water and riparian rights, and shall also mean any and all interests in lands less than full title, including without limitations, easements, permanent or temporary, rights of way, uses, leases, licenses, and any other estate, interests or right in lands, legal or equitable. See
  • License: shall mean an authorization by the department of consumer and worker protection to carry on various activities within its jurisdiction, which may take the form of a license, permit, registration, certification or such other form as is designated under law, regulation or rule. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • licensing authority: means the regents of the university of the state of New York or the state education department, as the case may be, in the case of all professions licensed under title eight of the education law, and the appropriate appellate division of the supreme court in the case of the profession of law. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1501
  • Licensing authority: means the regents of the university of the state of New York or the state education department, as the case may be, in the case of all professions licensed under title eight of the education law, and the appropriate appellate division of the supreme court in the case of the profession of law. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1525
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Loan: shall mean (i) a mortgage loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation secured by a mortgage on a project, defined in subdivision fourteen (i) and (ii) of this section, made by a local development corporation, a project occupant or other person, firm or corporation; (ii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a loan agreement, contract or such other instrument deemed necessary or

    convenient on a project defined in subdivision fourteen (iii) of this section; (iii) a loan evidenced by a bond, note or other obligation of a local development corporation, a project occupant, or other person, firm or corporation secured by a security interest in machinery and equipment as provided in section eighteen hundred fourteen; and (iv) an employee ownership assistance loan made pursuant to paragraph (v) of subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Loan guarantee: shall mean the guaranteeing by the authority of a loan made by a banking organization on a project as defined in subdivision fourteen of this section. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Local development corporation: shall mean a non-profit corporation incorporated or reincorporated under the laws of this state, regardless of its particular name, which shall meet the additional requirements of section eighteen hundred twenty-five of this title. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • local sponsor: means any city, county, intermediate school district, or school district approved by the board, sponsoring or participating in the establishment or operation of a community college. See
  • Majority leader: see Floor Leaders
  • Manufacturing plant: shall include a plant used in connection with making, creating,

    working,

    preparing,

    processing,

    milling, manufacturing, finishing, fashioning, fabricating, or producing in any manner, goods, wares, merchandise, metals, fabrics, materials, products or substances of any kind or nature. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Minimum status vote: means that, in addition to any other approval or vote required by this chapter, the certificate of incorporation or a bylaw adopted by the shareholders:

    (1) The holders of shares of every class or series that are entitled to vote on the corporate action shall be entitled to vote as a class on the corporate action; and

    (2) The corporate action must be approved by vote of the shareholders of each class or series entitled to cast at least three-quarters of the votes that all shareholders of the class or series are entitled to cast thereon. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1702

  • Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgage loan: A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. Source: OCC
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Mortgagor: The person who pledges property to a creditor as collateral for a loan and who receives the money.
  • Municipal park project: means a project including an urban cultural park undertaken by a municipality for the acquisition, development or improvement of outdoor or indoor recreation facilities, including, but not limited to site acquisition, improvement, construction, reconstruction and improvement of structures, roads and parking facilities. See
  • Municipality: shall mean any county, city, town or village in the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Municipality: except as otherwise defined within this article, shall mean a city, county, town, village, public benefit corporation or school district or an improvement district within a city, county, town or village, or any combination thereof. See
  • Municipality: except as otherwise defined within this article, means a city, county, town, village, public benefit corporation or school district or an improvement district within a city, county, town or village, or Indian tribe residing within New York state, or any combination thereof. See
  • Municipality: means a local public authority or public benefit corporation, a county, city, town, village, or Indian tribe or nation residing within New York state, or any combination thereof. See
  • National Bank: A bank that is subject to the supervision of the Comptroller of the Currency. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a bureau of the U.S. Treasury Department. A national bank can be recognized because it must have "national" or "national association" in its name. Source: OCC
  • Not-for-profit conservation organization: means a not-for-profit corporation organized inter alia for the conservation or preservation of real property and which has the power to acquire interests in real property. See
  • Not-for-profit corporation: means a corporation formed pursuant to the not-for-profit corporation law and qualified for tax-exempt status under section 501(c)(3) of the federal internal revenue code. See
  • Not-for-profit corporation: means a corporation formed pursuant to the not-for-profit corporation law and qualified for tax-exempt status under the federal internal revenue code. See
  • Offeree: means the beneficial owner, residing in this state, of securities which an offeror acquires or offers to acquire in connection with a takeover bid. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1601
  • offeror: includes an issuer of securities whose securities are or are to be the subject of a takeover bid whether or not the issuer, upon acquisition, will become the beneficial owner of such securities. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1601
  • Office: shall mean the state office of parks, recreation and historic preservation. See
  • Office: shall mean the office of parks and recreation. See
  • Office: means the office of parks, recreation and historic preservation. See
  • Office: means the office of parks, recreation and historic preservation. See
  • Open space: means open or natural land in or near urban or suburban areas necessary to serve the scenic or recreation needs thereof. See
  • optional retirement program: means the retirement program established pursuant to this article. See
  • Organization: shall mean a business entity, including but not limited to a corporation, trust, estate, partnership, cooperative, association, firm, club or society. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • perfusion: means the provision of extracorporeal or intracorporeal patient care services to support or replace the circulatory or respiratory function of a patient, including the administration of pharmacological and therapeutic agents, and blood products, and the management, treatment and monitoring of the physiological status of a patient during the operation of extracorporeal circulation equipment or intracorporeal equipment that replaces or support circulatory or respiratory functions. See
  • perfusionist: means a person who is licensed to practice perfusion pursuant to this article. See
  • person: shall be deemed to include, in addition to those mentioned hereinabove, all the officers, directors and persons having an interest in more than ten percent of the issued and outstanding stock of the owner as herein defined, as holder or beneficial owner thereof, if such person be a corporation other than a banking organization as defined in section two of the banking law, a national banking association, a federal savings and loan association, the mortgage facilities corporation, savings banks life insurance fund, the savings banks retirement system, an authorized insurer as defined in section one hundred seven of the insurance law, or a trust company or other corporation organized under the laws of this state all the capital stock of which is owned by at least twenty savings banks or by at least twenty savings and loan associations or a subsidiary corporation all of the capital stock of which is owned by such trust company or other corporation. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 27-2004
  • Person: shall mean a natural person or an organization. See N.Y. New York City Administrative Code 20-102
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petty offense: A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Pine barrens: means a natural community of such biota as pitch pine, jack pine, and scrub oak which may be found associated with a variety of natural resources. See
  • Plant: shall mean real property, the buildings, improvements and structures thereon and the fixtures thereon other than machinery or equipment used by a project occupant in its operations. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Pollution control facilities: shall mean real or personal property having to do with, or the end purpose of which, is the control, abatement or prevention of land, sewer, water, air, thermal, radiational, noise or general environmental pollution resulting from the operation of an industrial, manufacturing or research plant. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • President: shall mean the president of the corporation. See N.Y. Education Law 651
  • Professional service: means any type of service to the public which may be lawfully rendered by a member of a profession within the purview of his or her profession. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1501
  • Professional service: means any type of service to the public which may be lawfully rendered by a member of a profession within the purview of his profession. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1525
  • Professional service corporation: means a corporation organized under this article. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1501
  • Project: shall mean (i) the construction of a new industrial or manufacturing plant, a new research and development building or other new eligible business facility, (ii) the acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of a former or existing industrial or manufacturing plant, of a former or existing building to be used for research and development, of a former or existing other eligible business facility, (iii) the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of pollution control facilities, (iv) the purchase of machinery and equipment, for which financial assistance from the authority is sought, or (v) assistance to employees under an employee ownership assistance loan agreement made pursuant to subtitle six of this title; provided, however, that any such plant, building, facility or machinery and equipment therefore shall not be primarily used in making retail sales of goods or services to customers who personally visit such facilities to obtain such goods or services, or used primarily as a hotel, apartment house or other place of business which furnishes dwelling space or accommodations to either residents or transients. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Project cost: shall mean the aggregate costs incurred to finance the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation, or improvement of a project, and which are determined by the authority to be or to have been reasonably necessary therefor, including, without intending thereby to limit the generality of such costs: the cost of acquiring real property therefor; the cost of constructing or reconstructing buildings and improvements thereon, including, to the extent such costs are not borne by the municipality or other taxing district within which the project is located, the cost of constructing means of access to and from such project; the cost of constructing extensions to the project site of existing utility systems if such costs are customarily borne by the consumer; insurance premiums, financing charges, interest costs, commitment fees and the like incurred prior to or during the period of construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement; any fees or charges imposed by the authority in respect of an application for a mortgage loan; the cost of preparing project specifications, maps, plans, surveys, estimates, applications and other documents, including costs related to determination of the feasibility of the project in the planning stages; and all such other costs, charges, fees, and expenses, including labor costs, overhead costs, the costs of materials and supplies, and engineering, accounting and legal expenses, as may be reasonably incident to the construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement of the project; provided, however, that the term "project

    cost" except when used in subtitle III of this title shall not include the cost of any machinery or equipment (other than fixtures) or personal property to be used by the project occupant in its operations or any expenses related to the installation, replacement or rehabilitation thereof. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • Project occupant: shall mean the business enterprise which proposes to use a project after construction, acquisition, rehabilitation or improvement. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • Public access: means access to lands for public use, including stream rights and waterways. See
  • Public body: means the state or a municipal corporation as that term is defined in section two of the general municipal law or the United States of America acting by and through the department of the interior. See
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
  • salary: means all amounts paid by or for the state as compensation for services rendered by an eligible employee holding a position with the state university or by or for a community college as compensation for services rendered by an eligible employee holding a position at such college. See
  • salary: means that amount fixed by or pursuant to law and paid by or for an employer to an employee as compensation for services rendered by the employee to the employer. See
  • Secretary: means the secretary of state. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • Small business: means a business which is independently owned and operated, and which is not dominant in the field of operation. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1695
  • Source separation equipment: shall mean :

    (a) Add-ons or trailers designed to modify collection vehicles to allow sorting and separation of collected wastes held for the purpose of recycling or collection vehicles whose function and design are exclusively for such purpose;

    (b) Containers for the source separation and temporary storage of recyclable wastes by residents or business prior to collection;

    (c) Bins, sheds or other facilities for the temporary storage of materials prior to transport for the purposes of recycling. See

  • Specific public benefit: includes :

    (1) providing low-income or underserved individuals or communities with beneficial products or services;

    (2) promoting economic opportunity for individuals or communities beyond the creation of jobs in the normal course of business;

    (3) preserving the environment;

    (4) improving human health;

    (5) promoting the arts, sciences or advancement of knowledge;

    (6) increasing the flow of capital to entities with a public benefit purpose; and

    (7) the accomplishment of any other particular benefit for society or the environment. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1702

  • State: shall mean the state of New York. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801
  • State agency: shall mean any officer, department, board, commission,

    bureau, division, public corporation, agency or instrumentality of the state. See N.Y. Public Authorities Law 1801

  • state university: means the state university of New York and the term "community college" means a college established and operated under article one hundred twenty-six of this chapter. See
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • Takeover bid: means the acquisition of or offer to acquire by an offeror from an offeree, pursuant to a tender offer or request or invitation for tenders, any equity security of a target company, if after acquisition thereof the offeror would, directly or indirectly, be a beneficial owner of more than five percent of any class of the issued and outstanding equity securities of such target company. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1601
  • Target company: means a corporation, organized under the laws of this state and having its principal executive offices or significant business operations located within this state. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1601
  • Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Third-party standard: means a recognized standard for defining, reporting and assessing general public benefit that is:

    (1) developed by a person that is independent of the benefit corporation; and

    (2) transparent because the following information about the standard is publicly available:

    (A) the factors considered when measuring the performance of a business;

    (B) the relative weightings of those factors; and

    (C) the identity of the persons who developed and control changes to the standard and the process by which those changes are made. See N.Y. Business Corporation Law 1702

  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trailways: means recreational trails developed under guidelines established for the development of a statewide trails system. See
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Unique character: means lands of special natural beauty, wilderness character, geological, ecological or historical significance suitable for the state nature and historic preserve and similar lands within a forest preserve county outside the Adirondack and Catskill parks. See
  • Urban areas: means cities, villages or towns with a population density of greater than one thousand persons per square mile. See
  • Urban forestry: means the planning, establishment, protection and other management of trees and other vegetation in urban areas for present and potential contribution to the physiological, sociological, and economic well-being of urban society. See
  • Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
  • Wetlands: means freshwater wetlands as defined in article twenty-four of this chapter and tidal wetlands as defined in article twenty-five of this chapter. See
  • Wildlife habitat: means specific areas essential for the conservation of threatened and endangered species which require special management considerations or protection for maintenance of such species. See