Terms Used In New York Laws > Estates, Powers and Trusts > Article 3
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Affirmed: In the practice of the appellate courts, the decree or order is declared valid and will stand as rendered in the lower court.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Authorized internet entity: means any business, organization or other entity providing or offering a service over the internet which permits persons under eighteen years of age to access, meet, congregate or communicate with other users for the purpose of social networking. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- candidate: shall be deemed to apply to any person seeking a nomination, designation, or election to a public office or party office. See N.Y. Election Law 17-100
- candidate: means an individual who seeks nomination for election, or election, to any public office or party position to be voted for at a primary, general or special or New York city community school district election or election for trustee of the Long Island Power Authority, whether or not the public office or party position has been specifically identified at such time and whether or not such individual is nominated or elected, and, for purposes of this subdivision, an individual shall be deemed to seek nomination for election, or election, to an office or position, if he has (1) taken the action necessary to qualify himself for nomination for election, or election, or (2) received contributions or made expenditures, given his consent for any other person to receive contributions or make expenditures, with a view to bringing about his nomination for election, or election, to any office or position at any time whether in the year in which such contributions or expenditures are made or at any other time; and
8. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
- City: means the City of New York. See N.Y. Correction Law 150
- clearly identified candidate: means that:
(a) the name of the candidate involved appears;
(b) a photograph or drawing of the candidate appears; or
(c) the identity of the candidate is apparent by unambiguous reference. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Codicil: An addition, change, or supplement to a will executed with the same formalities required for the will itself.
- Commissioner: means the commissioner of correction of the city provided, however, that if there shall be established by law a correctional administration in the city, "commissioner" shall mean the correctional administrator of the City. See N.Y. Correction Law 150
- common operational control: means that (i) the same individual or individuals exercise actual and strategic control over the day-to-day affairs of both the political action committee and the independent expenditure committee, or (ii) employees of the political action committee and the independent expenditure committee engage in communications related to the strategic operations of either committee. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- constituted committee: means a state committee, a county committee or a duly constituted subcommittee of a county committee;
4. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- contribution: means :
(1) any gift, subscription, outstanding loan (to the extent provided for in section 14-114 of this chapter), advance, or deposit of money or any thing of value, made in connection with the nomination for election,
or election, of any candidate, or made to promote the success or defeat of a political party or principle, or of any ballot proposal,
(2) any funds received by a political committee from another political committee to the extent such funds do not constitute a transfer,
(3) any payment, by any person other than a candidate or a political committee authorized by the candidate, made in connection with the nomination for election or election of any candidate, including any payment or expenditure where coordination has occurred as defined in section 14-107 of this article, or any payment made to promote the success or defeat of a political party or principle, or of any ballot proposal including but not limited to compensation for the personal services of any individual which are rendered in connection with a candidate's election or nomination without charge; provided however, that none of the foregoing shall be deemed a contribution if it is made, taken or performed by a candidate or his spouse or by a person or a political committee independent of the candidate or his agents or authorized political committees. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- Decedent: A deceased person.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Department: means the department of correction of the city provided, however, that if there shall be established by law a correctional administration in the city, "department" shall mean such administration. See N.Y. Correction Law 150
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- district: means the entire state or any part thereof, as the case may be;
7. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Division: means the division of criminal justice services as defined by section eight hundred thirty-seven of the executive law. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Donee: The recipient of a gift.
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- duly constituted subcommittee of a county committee: means , outside the city of New York, a city, town or village committee, and, within the city of New York, an assembly district committee, which consists of all county committee members from the city, town, village or assembly district, as the case may be, and only such members;
5. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- election: as used in this article shall be deemed to apply to and include all general, special and primary elections, unofficial primaries and all local elections relating to candidates, ballot proposals, proceedings for the nominations of candidates by petition, and all elections held pursuant to Article 52A of the education law. See N.Y. Election Law 17-100
- election: means all general, special and primary elections, but shall not include elections provided for pursuant to the education law, special district elections, fire district elections or library district elections. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- foreign national: means foreign national as such term is defined by subsection (b) of section 30121 of title 52 of the United States code. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Forgery: The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. Source: OCC
- Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- General village election: means the annual or biennial election for village officers. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
- Hearsay: Statements by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else. Hearsay is usually not admissible as evidence in court.
- Hospital: means : (a) a hospital as defined in subdivision two of section four hundred of this chapter and applies to persons committed to such hospital by order of commitment made pursuant to article sixteen of this chapter; or (b) a secure treatment facility as defined in section 10. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- independent expenditure committee: means a political committee, that makes only independent expenditures as defined in this article, and does not coordinate with a candidate, candidate's authorized committees or an agent of the candidate as defined in paragraph (g) of subdivision one of section 14-107 of this article. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Indictment: The formal charge issued by a grand jury stating that there is enough evidence that the defendant committed the crime to justify having a trial; it is used primarily for felonies.
- Institution of higher education: means an institution in the state providing higher education as such term is defined in subdivision eight of section two of the education law. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Inter vivos: Transfer of property from one living person to another living person.
- Internet identifiers: means electronic mail addresses and designations used for the purposes of chat, instant messaging, social networking or other similar internet communication. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Intestate: Dying without leaving a will.
- Judge advocate: means an officer of a force of the organized militia who is a member of the judge advocate general's corps or who is designated as a judge advocate;
(10) "Legal officer" means an officer of the New York naval militia designated to perform legal duties for a command;
(11) "Code" means article seven of this chapter;
(12) "Accuser" means a person who signs and swears to charges, any person who directs that charges nominally be signed and sworn to by another, and any other person who has an interest other than an official interest in the prosecution of the accused. See N.Y. Military Law 130.1
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- labor organization: means any organization of any kind which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of representing employees employed within the state of New York in dealing with employers or
employer organizations or with a state government, or any political or civil subdivision or other agency thereof, concerning terms and conditions of employment, grievances, labor disputes, or other matters incidental to the employment relationship. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Law enforcement agency having jurisdiction: means : (a) (i) the chief law enforcement officer in the village, town or city in which the offender expects to reside upon his or her discharge, probation, parole, release to post-release supervision or upon any form of state or local conditional release; or (ii) if there be no chief law enforcement officer in such village, town or city, the chief law enforcement officer of the county in which the offender expects to reside; or (iii) if there be no chief enforcement officer in such village, town, city or county, the division of state police and (b) in the case of a sex offender who is or expects to be employed by, enrolled in, attending or employed, whether for compensation or not, at an institution of higher education, (i) the chief law enforcement officer in the village, town or city in which such institution is located; or (ii) if there be no chief law enforcement officer in such village, town or city, the chief law enforcement officer of the county in which such institution is located; or (iii) if there be no chief law enforcement officer in such village, town, city or county, the division of state police; and (iv) if such institution operates or employs a campus law enforcement or security agency, the chief of such agency and (c) in the case of a sex offender who expects to reside within a state park or on other land under the jurisdiction of the office of parks, recreation and historic preservation, the state regional park police. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Local correctional facility: means a local correctional facility as that term is defined in subdivision sixteen of section two of this chapter. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- non-candidate expenditures: means expenditures made by a party committee or a constituted committee to maintain a permanent headquarters and staff and carry on ordinary party activities not promoting the candidacy of specific candidates;
6. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Nonresident student: means a person required to register as a sex offender in another jurisdiction who is enrolled on a full-time or part-time basis in any public or private educational institution in this state including any secondary school, trade or professional institution or institution of higher education. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Organized militia: means the organized militia, the composition of which is stated in section two of this chapter;
(2) "Officer" means a commissioned officer including a commissioned warrant officer;
(3) "Superior officer" means an officer superior in rank or command;
(4) "Enlisted person" means any person who is serving in an enlisted grade in any force of the organized militia;
(5) "Active state duty" means full time military duty in the active service of the state under an order of the governor issued pursuant to sections six or seven of this chapter and while going to and returning from such duty;
(6) "Duty status other than active state duty" means any one of the types of duty described in section forty-six of this chapter and while going to and returning from such duty;
(7) "Military court" means a court-martial, a court of inquiry, a provost court;
(8) "Military judge" means an official of a general court-martial detailed in accordance with section 130. See N.Y. Military Law 130.1
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- party committee: means any committee provided for in the rules of the political party in accordance with section two-one hundred of this chapter, other than a constituted committee. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- political action committee: means a political committee which makes no expenditures to aid or take part in the election or defeat of a candidate, or to promote the success or defeat of a ballot proposal, other than in the form of contributions, including in-kind contributions, to candidates, candidate's authorized committees, party committees, constituted committees, or independent expenditure committees provided there is no common operational control between the political action committee and the independent expenditure committee; or in the form of communications that are not distributed to a general public audience as described in subdivision thirteen of this section. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- political committee: means any corporation aiding or promoting and any committee, political club or combination of one or more persons operating or co-operating to aid or to promote the success or defeat of a political party or principle, or of any ballot proposal; or to aid or take part in the election or defeat of a candidate for public office or to aid or take part in the election or defeat of a candidate for nomination at a primary election or convention, including all proceedings prior to such primary election, or of a candidate for any party position voted for at a primary election, or to aid or defeat the nomination by petition of an independent candidate for public office; but nothing in this article shall apply to any committee or organization for the discussion or advancement of political questions or principles without connection with any vote or to a national committee organized for the election of presidential or vice-presidential candidates; provided, however, that a person or corporation making a contribution or contributions to a candidate or a political committee which has filed pursuant to section 14-118 shall not, by that fact alone, be deemed to be a political committee as herein defined. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Predatory: means an act directed at a stranger, or a person with whom a relationship has been established or promoted for the primary purpose of victimization. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Predicate sex offender: means a sex offender who has been convicted of an offense set forth in subdivision two or three of this section when the offender has been previously convicted of an offense set forth in subdivision two or three of this section. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probate: Proving a will
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- public officer: as used in this article shall be deemed to apply to any person who holds an elective or appointive office of the state, separate authority or any political subdivision of the state with authority to supervise other personnel within such subdivisions. See N.Y. Election Law 17-100
- Publish: means that any notice or resolution required to be published by a village shall be so printed within the time required in the law requring publication in the official newspaper of the village, or if none, one of general circulation within the village. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Rescission: The cancellation of budget authority previously provided by Congress. The Impoundment Control Act of 1974 specifies that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. If both Houses have not approved a rescission proposal (by passing legislation) within 45 days of continuous session, any funds being withheld must be made available for obligation.
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Sex offender: includes any person who is convicted of any of the offenses set forth in subdivision two or three of this section. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Sex offense: means : (a) (i) a conviction of or a conviction for an attempt to commit any of the provisions of sections 120. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Sexual predator: means a sex offender who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense defined in subdivision three of this section and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder that makes him or her likely to engage in predatory sexually violent offenses. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Sexually violent offender: means a sex offender who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense defined in subdivision three of this section. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Sexually violent offense: means : (a) (i) a conviction of or a conviction for an attempt to commit any of the provisions of sections 130. See N.Y. Correction Law 168-A
- Special village election: means any election of village officers, other than, the general village election. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- transfer: means any exchange of funds or any thing of value between political committees authorized by the same candidate and taking part solely in his campaign, or any exchange of funds between a party or constituted committee and a candidate or any of his authorized political committees. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- Veto: The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President/Governor refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President/Governor returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President/Governor usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. In Congress, the veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
- Village election: means and includes both general and special village elections for officers. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Village primary: means any election held by a political party for the purpose of nominating candidates for elective village offices. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Work release program: means a program in which the limits of place of confinement are extended for the purpose of seeking or engaging in employment or self-employment, attending an educational institution, participating in a training program, or obtaining medical treatment not otherwise available, caring for the prisoner's household and family or for some other compelling reason consistent with the public interest. See N.Y. Correction Law 150