Terms Used In New York Laws > Military > Article 7
- Judgement that a criminal defendant has not been proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
- A verdict of "not guilty."
- Acrobatic flying: means maneuvers not necessary for normal flight and intentionally performed by an aircraft, involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude or an abnormal acceleration. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- Adjourn: A motion to adjourn a legislative chamber or a committee, if passed, ends that day's session.
- Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
- Aircraft: means any contrivance, now or hereafter invented, for avigation of or flight in the air, except a parachute or other contrivance designed for use, and carried primarily for safety equipment. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- Airport: means any landing area used regularly by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo; or for the landing and take-off of aircraft being used for personal or training purposes. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Amendment: A proposal to alter the text of a pending bill or other measure by striking out some of it, by inserting new language, or both. Before an amendment becomes part of the measure, thelegislature must agree to it.
- Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
- Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- applied: include any method or means of application or attachment to, or of use on, or in connection with, or in relation to, an article, whether such application, attachment or use is to, on, by, in or with
- Appraisal: A determination of property value.
- Appraiser: shall mean any person or persons, firm, partnership, corporation or association or any officer, director, employee or agent thereof who purports to ascertain and state the true value of property. See N.Y. General Business Law 239
- Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
- Arraignment: A proceeding in which an individual who is accused of committing a crime is brought into court, told of the charges, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
- Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
- Article: means any article of merchandise and includes any portion of such article, whether a distinct part thereof, or not (including every part thereof whether or not separable and also including material for manufacture). See N.Y. General Business Law 230
- Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Avigation: means the steering, directing or managing of an aircraft, in or through the air; and such term is here used as a substitute for "aerial navigation. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- candidate: shall be deemed to apply to any person seeking a nomination, designation, or election to a public office or party office. See N.Y. Election Law 17-100
- candidate: means an individual who seeks nomination for election, or election, to any public office or party position to be voted for at a primary, general or special or New York city community school district election or election for trustee of the Long Island Power Authority, whether or not the public office or party position has been specifically identified at such time and whether or not such individual is nominated or elected, and, for purposes of this subdivision, an individual shall be deemed to seek nomination for election, or election, to an office or position, if he has (1) taken the action necessary to qualify himself for nomination for election, or election, or (2) received contributions or made expenditures, given his consent for any other person to receive contributions or make expenditures, with a view to bringing about his nomination for election, or election, to any office or position at any time whether in the year in which such contributions or expenditures are made or at any other time; and
8. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Caucus: From the Algonquian Indian language, a caucus meant "to meet together." An informal organization of members of the legislature that exists to discuss issues of mutual concern and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members. There are regional, political or ideological, ethnic, and economic-based caucuses.
- clearly identified candidate: means that:
(a) the name of the candidate involved appears;
(b) a photograph or drawing of the candidate appears; or
(c) the identity of the candidate is apparent by unambiguous reference. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- common operational control: means that (i) the same individual or individuals exercise actual and strategic control over the day-to-day affairs of both the political action committee and the independent expenditure committee, or (ii) employees of the political action committee and the independent expenditure committee engage in communications related to the strategic operations of either committee. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
- constituted committee: means a state committee, a county committee or a duly constituted subcommittee of a county committee;
4. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- contribution: means :
(1) any gift, subscription, outstanding loan (to the extent provided for in section 14-114 of this chapter), advance, or deposit of money or any thing of value, made in connection with the nomination for election,
or election, of any candidate, or made to promote the success or defeat of a political party or principle, or of any ballot proposal,
(2) any funds received by a political committee from another political committee to the extent such funds do not constitute a transfer,
(3) any payment, by any person other than a candidate or a political committee authorized by the candidate, made in connection with the nomination for election or election of any candidate, including any payment or expenditure where coordination has occurred as defined in section 14-107 of this article, or any payment made to promote the success or defeat of a political party or principle, or of any ballot proposal including but not limited to compensation for the personal services of any individual which are rendered in connection with a candidate's election or nomination without charge; provided however, that none of the foregoing shall be deemed a contribution if it is made, taken or performed by a candidate or his spouse or by a person or a political committee independent of the candidate or his agents or authorized political committees. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Control zone: means an airspace of defined dimensions extending upwards from the surface of the ground and including one or more airports and designated as such by the administrator of the federal aviation agency. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- district: means the entire state or any part thereof, as the case may be;
7. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Donor: The person who makes a gift.
- duly constituted subcommittee of a county committee: means , outside the city of New York, a city, town or village committee, and, within the city of New York, an assembly district committee, which consists of all county committee members from the city, town, village or assembly district, as the case may be, and only such members;
5. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- election: as used in this article shall be deemed to apply to and include all general, special and primary elections, unofficial primaries and all local elections relating to candidates, ballot proposals, proceedings for the nominations of candidates by petition, and all elections held pursuant to Article 52A of the education law. See N.Y. Election Law 17-100
- election: means all general, special and primary elections, but shall not include elections provided for pursuant to the education law, special district elections, fire district elections or library district elections. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Entertainment: means all forms of entertainment including, but not limited to, theatrical or operatic performances, concerts, motion pictures, all forms of entertainment at fair grounds, amusement parks and all types of athletic competitions including football, basketball, baseball, boxing, tennis, hockey, and any other sport, and all other forms of diversion, recreation or show. See N.Y. Arts and Cultural Affairs Law 25.03
- Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
- Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
- Executive authority: includes the governor, and any person performing the functions of governor in a state other than this state. See N.Y. Criminal Procedure Law 570.04
- Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
- Extradition: The formal process of delivering an accused or convicted person from authorities in one state to authorities in another state.
- Fair market value: The price at which an asset would change hands in a transaction between a willing, informed buyer and a willing, informed seller.
- Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
- Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Flight visibility: means the average horizontal distance that prominent objects may be seen from the cockpit. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- foreign national: means foreign national as such term is defined by subsection (b) of section 30121 of title 52 of the United States code. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- General village election: means the annual or biennial election for village officers. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
- Governor: includes any person performing the functions of governor by authority of the law of this state. See N.Y. Criminal Procedure Law 570.04
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
- Indemnification: In general, a collateral contract or assurance under which one person agrees to secure another person against either anticipated financial losses or potential adverse legal consequences. Source: FDIC
- independent expenditure committee: means a political committee, that makes only independent expenditures as defined in this article, and does not coordinate with a candidate, candidate's authorized committees or an agent of the candidate as defined in paragraph (g) of subdivision one of section 14-107 of this article. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Judge advocate: means an officer of a force of the organized militia who is a member of the judge advocate general's corps or who is designated as a judge advocate;
(10) "Legal officer" means an officer of the New York naval militia designated to perform legal duties for a command;
(11) "Code" means article seven of this chapter;
(12) "Accuser" means a person who signs and swears to charges, any person who directs that charges nominally be signed and sworn to by another, and any other person who has an interest other than an official interest in the prosecution of the accused. See N.Y. Military Law 130.1
- Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
- labor organization: means any organization of any kind which exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of representing employees employed within the state of New York in dealing with employers or
employer organizations or with a state government, or any political or civil subdivision or other agency thereof, concerning terms and conditions of employment, grievances, labor disputes, or other matters incidental to the employment relationship. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Landing area: means any locality either of land or water, including airports and intermediate landing fields, which is used or intended to be used for the landing and take-off of aircraft, whether or not facilities are provided for shelter, servicing or repair of aircraft or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
- Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
- Lineal descendant: Direct descendant of the same ancestors.
- Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
- Mark: means any mark, sign, device, imprint, stamp, brand applied to any article, or to any tag, card, paper, label, box, carton, container, holder, package cover or wrapping attached to, used in conjunction with or enclosing such article or any bill, bill of sale, invoice, statement, letter, circular, advertisement, notice, memorandum, or other writing or printing. See N.Y. General Business Law 230
- Minority leader: See Floor Leaders
- Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
- Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
- non-candidate expenditures: means expenditures made by a party committee or a constituted committee to maintain a permanent headquarters and staff and carry on ordinary party activities not promoting the candidacy of specific candidates;
6. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
- Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
- Operating aircraft: means performing the services of aircraft pilot. See N.Y. General Business Law 240
- Organized militia: means the organized militia, the composition of which is stated in section two of this chapter;
(2) "Officer" means a commissioned officer including a commissioned warrant officer;
(3) "Superior officer" means an officer superior in rank or command;
(4) "Enlisted person" means any person who is serving in an enlisted grade in any force of the organized militia;
(5) "Active state duty" means full time military duty in the active service of the state under an order of the governor issued pursuant to sections six or seven of this chapter and while going to and returning from such duty;
(6) "Duty status other than active state duty" means any one of the types of duty described in section forty-six of this chapter and while going to and returning from such duty;
(7) "Military court" means a court-martial, a court of inquiry, a provost court;
(8) "Military judge" means an official of a general court-martial detailed in accordance with section 130. See N.Y. Military Law 130.1
- Partnership: A voluntary contract between two or more persons to pool some or all of their assets into a business, with the agreement that there will be a proportional sharing of profits and losses.
- party committee: means any committee provided for in the rules of the political party in accordance with section two-one hundred of this chapter, other than a constituted committee. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Person: means any individual, firm, partnership, corporation, association, union or other organization. See N.Y. General Business Law 275
- Personal property: All property that is not real property.
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Plea: In a criminal case, the defendant's statement pleading "guilty" or "not guilty" in answer to the charges, a declaration made in open court.
- political action committee: means a political committee which makes no expenditures to aid or take part in the election or defeat of a candidate, or to promote the success or defeat of a ballot proposal, other than in the form of contributions, including in-kind contributions, to candidates, candidate's authorized committees, party committees, constituted committees, or independent expenditure committees provided there is no common operational control between the political action committee and the independent expenditure committee; or in the form of communications that are not distributed to a general public audience as described in subdivision thirteen of this section. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- political committee: means any corporation aiding or promoting and any committee, political club or combination of one or more persons operating or co-operating to aid or to promote the success or defeat of a political party or principle, or of any ballot proposal; or to aid or take part in the election or defeat of a candidate for public office or to aid or take part in the election or defeat of a candidate for nomination at a primary election or convention, including all proceedings prior to such primary election, or of a candidate for any party position voted for at a primary election, or to aid or defeat the nomination by petition of an independent candidate for public office; but nothing in this article shall apply to any committee or organization for the discussion or advancement of political questions or principles without connection with any vote or to a national committee organized for the election of presidential or vice-presidential candidates; provided, however, that a person or corporation making a contribution or contributions to a candidate or a political committee which has filed pursuant to section 14-118 shall not, by that fact alone, be deemed to be a political committee as herein defined. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
- Pretrial conference: A meeting of the judge and lawyers to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review evidence and witnesses, to set a timetable, and to discuss the settlement of the case.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Produced upon: means branded, stamped, stenciled, engraved, etched, blown, embossed, impressed, or otherwise permanently placed upon any vessel, receptacle or utensil. See N.Y. General Business Law 275
- Property: shall mean jewelry, watches, and objects made from or containing precious stones or metals. See N.Y. General Business Law 239
- Prosecute: To charge someone with a crime. A prosecutor tries a criminal case on behalf of the government.
- public officer: as used in this article shall be deemed to apply to any person who holds an elective or appointive office of the state, separate authority or any political subdivision of the state with authority to supervise other personnel within such subdivisions. See N.Y. Election Law 17-100
- Publish: means that any notice or resolution required to be published by a village shall be so printed within the time required in the law requring publication in the official newspaper of the village, or if none, one of general circulation within the village. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Quality mark: is a ny mark as herein defined indicating, describing, identifying or referring to or appearing or seeming or purporting to indicate, describe, identify or refer to the partial or total presence or existence of or the quality of or the percentage of or the purity of or the number of parts of platinum, iridium, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium and/or osmium in any article. See N.Y. General Business Law 230
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
- Special village election: means any election of village officers, other than, the general village election. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
- Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Ticket: means any evidence of the right of entry to any place of entertainment. See N.Y. Arts and Cultural Affairs Law 25.03
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- transfer: means any exchange of funds or any thing of value between political committees authorized by the same candidate and taking part solely in his campaign, or any exchange of funds between a party or constituted committee and a candidate or any of his authorized political committees. See N.Y. Election Law 14-100
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
- Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
- Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
- Village election: means and includes both general and special village elections for officers. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Village primary: means any election held by a political party for the purpose of nominating candidates for elective village offices. See N.Y. Election Law 15-102
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.