As used in this title, unless a different meaning plainly is required:
Terms Used In North Dakota Code 12.1-01-04
- Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
- Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
- Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
- following: when used by way of reference to a chapter or other part of a statute means the next preceding or next following chapter or other part. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- Individual: means a human being. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
- Oath: includes "affirmation". See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- Partnership: includes a limited liability partnership registered under chapter 45-22. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- Person: means an individual, organization, government, political subdivision, or government agency or instrumentality. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
- Process: means a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- Property: includes property, real and personal. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- State: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
- Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- written: include "typewriting" and "typewritten" and "printing" and "printed" except in the case of signatures and when the words are used by way of contrast to typewriting and printing. See North Dakota Code 1-01-37
1. “Act” or “action” means a bodily movement, whether voluntary or involuntary.
2. “Acted”, “acts”, and “actions” include, where relevant, “omitted to act” and “omissions to act”.
3. “Actor” includes, where relevant, a person guilty of an omission.
4. “Bodily injury” means any impairment of physical condition, including physical pain.
5. “Court” means any of the following courts: the supreme court, a district court, and where relevant, a municipal court.
6. “Dangerous weapon” includes any switchblade or gravity knife, machete, scimitar, stiletto, sword, or dagger; any billy, blackjack, sap, bludgeon, cudgel, metal knuckles, or sand club; any slungshot; any bow and arrow, crossbow, or spear; any weapon that will expel, or is readily capable of expelling, a projectile by the action of a spring, compressed air, or compressed gas including any such weapon, loaded or unloaded, commonly referred to as a BB gun, air rifle, or CO2 gun; and any projector of a bomb or any object containing or capable of producing and emitting any noxious liquid, gas, or substance.
7. “Destructive device” means any explosive, incendiary or poison gas bomb, grenade, mine, rocket, missile, or similar device.
8. “Explosive” means gunpowders, powders used for blasting, all forms of high explosives, blasting materials, fuses (other than electric circuit breakers), detonators and other detonating agents, smokeless powders, and any chemical compounds, mechanical mixture, or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing that ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by detonation of the compound, or material, or any part thereof may cause an explosion.
9. “Firearm” means any weapon that will expel, or is readily capable of expelling, a projectile by the action of an explosive and includes any such weapon, loaded or unloaded, commonly referred to as a pistol, revolver, rifle, gun, machine gun, shotgun, bazooka, or cannon.
10. “Force” means physical action.
11. “Government” means:
a. The government of this state or any political subdivision of this state;
b. Any agency, subdivision, or department of the state or any political subdivision of the state, including the executive, legislative, and judicial branches;
c. Any corporation or other entity established by law to carry on any governmental function; and
d. Any commission, corporation, or agency established by statute, compact, or contract between or among governments for the execution of intergovernmental programs.
12. “Governmental function” includes any activity that one or more public servants are legally authorized to undertake on behalf of government.
13. “Harm” means loss, disadvantage, or injury to the person affected, and includes loss, disadvantage, or injury to any other person in whose welfare the person affected is interested.
14. “Included offense” means an offense:
a. That is established by proof of the same or less than all the facts required to establish commission of the offense charged;
b. That consists of criminal facilitation of or an attempt or solicitation to commit the offense charged; or
c. That differed from the offense charged only in that it constitutes a less serious harm or risk of harm to the same person, property, or public interest, or because a lesser degree of culpability suffices to establish its commission.
15. “Includes” should be read as if the phrase “but is not limited to” were also set forth.
16. “Law enforcement officer” or “peace officer” means a public servant authorized by law or by a government agency or branch to enforce the law and to conduct or engage in investigations or prosecutions for violations of law.
17. “Local” means of or pertaining to any political subdivision of the state.
18. “Manifest injustice” means a specific finding by the court that the imposition of sentence is unreasonably harsh or shocking to the conscience of a reasonable individual, with due consideration of the totality of circumstances.
19. “Offense” means conduct for which a term of imprisonment or a fine is authorized by statute after conviction.
20. “Official action” includes a decision, opinion, recommendation, vote, or other exercise of discretion by any government agency.
21. “Official proceeding” means a proceeding heard or which may be heard before any government agency or branch or public servant authorized to take evidence under oath, including any referee, hearing examiner, commissioner, notary, or other person taking testimony or a deposition in connection with any such proceeding.
22. “Omission” means a failure to act.
23. As used in this title and in sections outside this title which define offenses, “person” includes, where relevant, a corporation, limited liability company, partnership, unincorporated association, or other legal entity. When used to designate a party whose property may be the subject of action constituting an offense, the word “person” includes a government that may lawfully own property in this state.
24. “Political subdivision” as used in this title and in any statute outside this title which defines an offense means a county, city, school district, township, and any other local governmental entity created by law.
25. “Public servant” as used in this title and in any statute outside this title which defines an offense means any officer or employee of government, including law enforcement officers, whether elected or appointed, and any person participating in the performance of a governmental function. The term does not include witnesses.
26. “Risk assessment” means an initial phase with a secondary process approved by the department of human services for the evaluation of the likelihood a person that committed an offense will commit another similar offense. The initial phase is an assessment tool that is administered by a trained probation and parole officer. A predetermined score on the initial phase initiates the secondary process that includes a clinical interview, psychological testing, and verification through collateral information or psychophysiological testing, or both. The department of human services shall perform the secondary process of the risk assessment.
27. “Serious bodily injury” means bodily injury that creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious permanent disfigurement, unconsciousness, extreme pain, permanent loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ, a bone fracture, or impediment of air flow or blood flow to the brain or lungs.
28. “Signature” includes any name, mark, or sign written or affixed with intent to authenticate any instrument or writing.
29. “Substantial bodily injury” means a substantial temporary disfigurement, loss, or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.
30. “Thing of value” or “thing of pecuniary value” means a thing of value in the form of money, tangible or intangible property, commercial interests, or anything else the primary significance of which is economic gain to the recipient.
31. “Tier 1 mental health professional” has the same meaning as provided under section 25-01-01.