§ 1-01-01 This act – How referred to
§ 1-01-02 Origin of law
§ 1-01-03 Expression of law
§ 1-01-04 Common law divided
§ 1-01-05 Evidence of common law
§ 1-01-06 Code excludes common law
§ 1-01-07 Classification of civil rights
§ 1-01-08 Rights of property and person – How waived
§ 1-01-09 Word defined by statute always has same meaning
§ 1-01-10 Quorum
§ 1-01-11 Authority of deputies
§ 1-01-12 Variation from prescribed form
§ 1-01-13 Numerals
§ 1-01-14 Degrees of care
§ 1-01-15 Degrees of care and diligence – Definition
§ 1-01-16 Degrees of negligence
§ 1-01-17 Degrees of negligence – Definition
§ 1-01-18 Children – Definition
§ 1-01-19 Debtor and creditor – Definition
§ 1-01-20 Valuable consideration – Definition
§ 1-01-21 Good faith – Definition
§ 1-01-22 Notice – Classification
§ 1-01-23 Actual notice – Definition
§ 1-01-24 Constructive notice – Definition
§ 1-01-25 What deemed constructive notice
§ 1-01-26 False notice cannot become valid
§ 1-01-27 Paper – Definition
§ 1-01-29 Several – Definition
§ 1-01-30 Third persons – Definition
§ 1-01-31 Usage – Definition
§ 1-01-32 Usual and customary – Definition
§ 1-01-33 Year – Month – Week – Definition – Fraction of day disregarded
§ 1-01-34 Gender – Definition
§ 1-01-35 Singular – Definition
§ 1-01-35.1 Tense
§ 1-01-36 Compound interest – Definition
§ 1-01-37 Written and printed – Definition
§ 1-01-38 Seal – Definition
§ 1-01-39 When this code governs
§ 1-01-40 Coal – Definition
§ 1-01-41 Verdict – Definition
§ 1-01-42 Verified – Definition
§ 1-01-44 Successive weeks construed
§ 1-01-45 Corporate surety – Definition
§ 1-01-46 Decree – Definition
§ 1-01-47 Population – Definition
§ 1-01-49 Other general definitions
§ 1-01-50 Filing or presentation of petitions – Time limit
§ 1-01-51 Qualified elector defined

Terms Used In North Dakota Code > Chapter 1-01

  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attorney-in-fact: A person who, acting as an agent, is given written authorization by another person to transact business for him (her) out of court.
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Bequest: Property gifted by will.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Corporation: A legal entity owned by the holders of shares of stock that have been issued, and that can own, receive, and transfer property, and carry on business in its own name.
  • Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Equitable: Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy. See damages. A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something. See, e.g., injunction. In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases. Source: U.S. Courts
  • Evidence: Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
  • Executor: includes administrator and "administrator" includes executor. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Fee simple: Absolute title to property with no limitations or restrictions regarding the person who may inherit it.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • following: when used by way of reference to a chapter or other part of a statute means the next preceding or next following chapter or other part. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Foreclosure: A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. Source: OCC
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Grantor: The person who establishes a trust and places property into it.
  • Guarantor: A party who agrees to be responsible for the payment of another party's debts should that party default. Source: OCC
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Individual: means a human being. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Joint resolution: A legislative measure which requires the approval of both chambers.
  • Joint tenancy: A form of property ownership in which two or more parties hold an undivided interest in the same property that was conveyed under the same instrument at the same time. A joint tenant can sell his (her) interest but not dispose of it by will. Upon the death of a joint tenant, his (her) undivided interest is distributed among the surviving joint tenants.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mortgage: The written agreement pledging property to a creditor as collateral for a loan.
  • Mortgagee: The person to whom property is mortgaged and who has loaned the money.
  • Obligation: An order placed, contract awarded, service received, or similar transaction during a given period that will require payments during the same or a future period.
  • Organization: includes a foreign or domestic association, business trust, corporation, enterprise, estate, joint venture, limited liability company, limited liability partnership, limited partnership, partnership, trust, or any legal or commercial entity. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • paper: means any flexible material upon which it is usual to write. See North Dakota Code 1-01-27
  • Partnership: includes a limited liability partnership registered under chapter 45-22. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Person: means an individual, organization, government, political subdivision, or government agency or instrumentality. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Personal property: includes money, goods, chattels, things in action, and evidences of debt. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • population: means the number of inhabitants as determined by the last preceding state or federal census. See North Dakota Code 1-01-47
  • Power of attorney: A written instrument which authorizes one person to act as another's agent or attorney. The power of attorney may be for a definite, specific act, or it may be general in nature. The terms of the written power of attorney may specify when it will expire. If not, the power of attorney usually expires when the person granting it dies. Source: OCC
  • Process: means a writ or summons issued in the course of judicial proceedings. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Property: includes property, real and personal. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • qualified elector: means a citizen of the United States who is eighteen years of age or older; and is a resident of this state and of the area affected by the petition. See North Dakota Code 1-01-51
  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Right of survivorship: The ownership rights that result in the acquisition of title to property by reason of having survived other co-owners.
  • Rule: includes regulation. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • seal: includes an impression of such seal upon the paper alone as well as upon wax or a wafer affixed thereto. See North Dakota Code 1-01-38
  • State: when applied to the different parts of the United States, includes the District of Columbia and the territories. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Statute: A law passed by a legislature.
  • Summons: Another word for subpoena used by the criminal justice system.
  • third persons: includes all who are not parties to the obligation or transaction concerning which the phrase is used. See North Dakota Code 1-01-30
  • Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • United States: includes the District of Columbia and the territories. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Verified: means sworn to before an officer authorized to administer oaths. See North Dakota Code 1-01-42
  • week: means seven consecutive days and the word "month" a calendar month. See North Dakota Code 1-01-33
  • Writ: means an order or precept in writing, issued in the name of the state or of a court or judicial officer. See North Dakota Code 1-01-49
  • Writ of certiorari: An order issued by the Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case for which it will hear on appeal.
  • written: include "typewriting" and "typewritten" and "printing" and "printed" except in the case of signatures and when the words are used by way of contrast to typewriting and printing. See North Dakota Code 1-01-37
  • year: means twelve consecutive months. See North Dakota Code 1-01-33