Terms Used In Texas Business and Commerce Code Chapter 4A
- Abstract of judgment: In a federal criminal proceeding, A certification from a U.S. District Court clerk that a judgment of restitution was entered against the defendant owing to the victim. If the defendant inherits, owns, or sells real property or holdings, these assets can then be attached at the state and local levels as well.
- Allegation: something that someone says happened.
- Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
- Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
- Associate: when used to indicate a relationship with a person, means:
(A) a domestic or foreign entity or organization for which the person:
(i) is an officer or governing person; or
(ii) beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, either individually or through an affiliate, 10 percent or more of a class of voting ownership interests or similar securities of the entity or organization;
(B) a trust or estate in which the person has a substantial beneficial interest or for which the person serves as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity;
(C) the person's spouse or a relative of the person related by consanguinity or affinity who resides with the person; or
(D) a governing person or an affiliate or officer of the person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Association: means an entity governed as an association under Title 6 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
- Bail: Security given for the release of a criminal defendant or witness from legal custody (usually in the form of money) to secure his/her appearance on the day and time appointed.
- Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
- Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
- Business: means a trade, occupation, profession, or other commercial activity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Certificate of formation: means :
(A) the document required to be filed with the filing officer under Chapter Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
- Contribution: means a tangible or intangible benefit that a person transfers to an entity in consideration for an ownership interest in the entity or otherwise in the person's capacity as an owner or a member. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Counterclaim: A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff.
- Court reporter: A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court and produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request.
- Deed: The legal instrument used to transfer title in real property from one person to another.
- Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
- Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
- Deposition: An oral statement made before an officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Such statements are often taken to examine potential witnesses, to obtain discovery, or to be used later in trial.
- Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
- Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
- Domestic: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under this code or the entity's internal affairs are governed by this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Entity: means a domestic entity or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
- Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
- Filing entity: means a domestic entity that is a corporation, limited partnership, limited liability company, professional association, cooperative, or real estate investment trust. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
- Foreign: means , with respect to an entity, that the entity is formed under, and the entity's internal affairs are governed by, the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
- General partner: means :
(A) each partner in a general partnership; or
(B) a person who is admitted to a limited partnership as a general partner in accordance with the governing documents of the limited partnership. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Governing authority: means a person or group of persons who are entitled to manage and direct the affairs of an entity under this code and the governing documents of the entity, except that if the governing documents of the entity or this code divide the authority to manage and direct the affairs of the entity among different persons or groups of persons according to different matters, "governing authority" means the person or group of persons entitled to manage and direct the affairs of the entity with respect to a matter under the governing documents of the entity or this code. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Governing documents: means :
(A) in the case of a domestic entity:
(i) the certificate of formation for a domestic filing entity or the document or agreement under which a domestic nonfiling entity is formed; and
(ii) the other documents or agreements adopted by the entity under this code to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity; or
(B) in the case of a foreign entity, the instruments, documents, or agreements adopted under the law of its jurisdiction of formation to govern the formation or the internal affairs of the entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Governing person: means a person serving as part of the governing authority of an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
- Habeas corpus: A writ that is usually used to bring a prisoner before the court to determine the legality of his imprisonment. It may also be used to bring a person in custody before the court to give testimony, or to be prosecuted.
- Impeachment: (1) The process of calling something into question, as in "impeaching the testimony of a witness." (2) The constitutional process whereby the House of Representatives may "impeach" (accuse of misconduct) high officers of the federal government for trial in the Senate.
- Individual: means a natural person. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
- Intangible property: Property that has no intrinsic value, but is merely the evidence of value such as stock certificates, bonds, and promissory notes.
- Jurisdiction of formation: means :
(A) in the case of a domestic filing entity, this state;
(B) in the case of a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed in connection with its formation, the jurisdiction in which the entity's certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is filed; or
(C) in the case of a domestic nonfiling entity or a foreign entity for which a certificate of formation or similar organizational instrument is not filed in connection with its formation:
(i) the jurisdiction the laws of which are chosen in the entity's governing documents to govern its internal affairs if that jurisdiction bears a reasonable relation to the owners or members or to the entity's business and affairs under the principles of this state that otherwise would apply to a contract among the owners or members; or
(ii) if Subparagraph (i) does not apply, the jurisdiction in which the entity has its chief executive office. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Law: means , unless the context requires otherwise, both statutory and common law. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
- License: means a license, certificate of registration, or other legal authorization. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Limited liability company: means an entity governed as a limited liability company under Title 3 or 7. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Limited liability partnership: means a partnership governed as a limited liability partnership under Title 4. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Limited partnership: means a partnership that is governed as a limited partnership under Title 4 and that has one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Manager: means a person designated as a manager of a limited liability company that is not managed by members of the company. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Member: means :
(A) in the case of a limited liability company, a person who is a member or has been admitted as a member in the limited liability company under its governing documents;
(B) in the case of a nonprofit corporation, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit corporation under its governing documents;
(C) in the case of a cooperative association, a member of a nonshare or share association;
(D) in the case of a nonprofit association, a person who has membership rights in the nonprofit association under its governing documents; or
(E) in the case of a professional association, a person who has membership rights in the professional association under its governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Membership interest: means a member's interest in an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- National securities exchange: means an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under Section 6, Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Officer: means an individual elected, appointed, or designated as an officer of an entity by the entity's governing authority or under the entity's governing documents. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Organization: means a corporation, limited or general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, joint venture, joint stock company, cooperative, association, bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, or other organization, regardless of whether the organization is for-profit, nonprofit, domestic, or foreign. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
- Ownership interest: means an owner's interest in an entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Partner: means a limited partner or general partner. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Partnership: means an entity governed as a partnership under Title 4. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Partnership interest: means a partner's interest in a partnership. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Person: means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, trust, association, or other organization, estate, government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other legal entity, or a series of a domestic limited liability company or foreign entity. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
- Pleadings: Written statements of the parties in a civil case of their positions. In the federal courts, the principal pleadings are the complaint and the answer.
- Population: means the population shown by the most recent federal decennial census. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
- Probable cause: A reasonable ground for belief that the offender violated a specific law.
- Probate: Proving a will
- Professional service: has the meaning assigned by Section Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Property: includes tangible and intangible property and an interest in that property. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
- Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
- Recourse: An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse. Source: FDIC
- Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
- Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
- Restitution: The court-ordered payment of money by the defendant to the victim for damages caused by the criminal action.
- Secretary: means the:
(A) individual designated as secretary of an entity under the entity's governing documents; or
(B) officer or committee of persons authorized to perform the functions of secretary of an entity without regard to the designated name of the officer or committee. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
- Share: means a unit into which the ownership interest in a for-profit corporation, professional corporation, real estate investment trust, or professional association is divided, regardless of whether the share is certificated or uncertificated. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002
- Signature: includes the mark of a person unable to write, and "subscribe" includes the making of such a mark. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Signed: includes any symbol executed or adopted by a person with present intention to authenticate a writing. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Statute of limitations: A law that sets the time within which parties must take action to enforce their rights.
- sworn: includes affirm or affirmed. See Texas Government Code 312.011
- Testator: A male person who leaves a will at death.
- Testify: Answer questions in court.
- Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
- Tort: A civil wrong or breach of a duty to another person, as outlined by law. A very common tort is negligent operation of a motor vehicle that results in property damage and personal injury in an automobile accident.
- Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
- Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
- Trust account: A general term that covers all types of accounts in a trust department, such as estates, guardianships, and agencies. Source: OCC
- Uphold: The decision of an appellate court not to reverse a lower court decision.
- Verdict: The decision of a petit jury or a judge.
- Week: means seven consecutive days. See Texas Government Code 311.005
- Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.
- written: means an expression of words, letters, characters, numbers, symbols, figures, or other textual information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium that is retrievable in a perceivable form. See Texas Business Organizations Code 1.002