Sections
Subchapter 1 Generally 101
Subchapter 2 Definition of Terms 111 – 149
Subchapter 3 Rules of Construction 171 – 177
Subchapter 4 Effect of Statutes 211 – 215

Terms Used In Vermont Statutes > Title 1 > Chapter 3

  • Accumulated contributions: shall mean the sum of all the amounts deducted from the compensation of a member together with any amount transferred to the account of the member established pursuant to this system from the respective account of said member under one or both of the predecessor systems, with interest thereon, as provided in section 473 of this title. See
  • Actuarial equivalent: shall mean a benefit of equal value under the actuarial assumptions last adopted by the Retirement Board under subsection 472a(h) of this title. See
  • Adopting authority: means , for agencies that are attached to the Agencies of Administration, of Commerce and Community Development, of Natural Resources, of Human Services, and of Transportation, or any of their components, the secretaries of those agencies; for agencies attached to other departments or any of their components, the commissioners of those departments; and for other agencies, the chief officer of the agency. See
  • Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
  • Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
  • Agency: means a State board, commission, department, agency, or other entity or officer of State government, other than the Legislature, the courts, the Commander in Chief, and the Military Department, authorized by law to make rules or to determine contested cases. See
  • agency: means any agency, board, department, commission, committee, branch, instrumentality, or authority of the State or any agency, board, committee, department, branch, instrumentality, commission, or authority of any political subdivision of the State. See
  • Agreement: means a written agreement resulting from collective bargaining negotiation and covers the terms, tenure, and conditions of employment. See
  • Allegation: something that someone says happened.
  • Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
  • Annuity: shall mean annual payments for life derived from the accumulated contributions of a member. See
  • Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
  • Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
  • Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
  • Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
  • Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
  • Arbitrary: when applied to an agency rule or action, means that one or more of the following apply:

  • Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
  • Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
  • Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
  • Average final compensation: shall mean :

  • Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
  • bargaining collectively: means the process of negotiating terms, tenure, or conditions of employment between the State of Vermont, the Vermont State Colleges, the University of Vermont, or the Department of State's Attorneys and Sheriffs and representatives of employees with the intent to arrive at an agreement that, when reached, shall be reduced to writing. See
  • Beneficiary: shall mean any person in receipt of a pension, an annuity, a retirement allowance, or other benefit as provided by this subchapter. See
  • Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
  • Benefit: means any abatement, loan, or grant awarded to the business as enumerated in subdivision (2) of this section. See
  • biennially: shall mean the year in which a regular session of the General Assembly is held. See
  • board: refers to the boards, commissions, and professions listed in section 122 of this title and, in the case of disciplinary matters or denials of licensure, either an administrative law officer appointed under subsection 129(j) of this title or the Director in advisor professions. See
  • Board: shall mean the board provided for in section 471 of this title to administer the Retirement System. See
  • Board: means the State Labor Relations Board established under section 921 of this title. See
  • Board: means the State Labor Relations Board established pursuant to section 921 of this title. See
  • Business: means any individual, partnership, corporation, or other entity that has been granted a tax abatement pursuant to the provisions of Title 24, or has been granted a loan or a grant by any board, commission, or program established under the provisions of Title 10 or 24, or under the provisions of this title. See
  • Business day: means a day that a public agency is open to provide services. See
  • Business of the public body: means the public body's governmental functions, including any matter over which the public body has supervision, control, jurisdiction, or advisory power. See
  • Chambers: A judge's office.
  • Collective bargaining: means the process of negotiating terms, tenure, or conditions of employment between the Judiciary Department and representatives of the employees with the intent to arrive at a written agreement. See
  • Collective bargaining service fee: means a fee deducted by an employer from the salary or wages of an employee who is not a member of an employee organization, which is paid to the employee organization which is the exclusive bargaining agent for the bargaining unit of the employee. See
  • Collective bargaining service fee: means a fee deducted by an employer from the salary or wages of an employee who is not a member of an employee organization, and that fee is paid to the employee organization that is the exclusive bargaining agent for the bargaining unit of the employee. See
  • Collective bargaining unit: means the employees of an employer, being either all of the employees, the members of a department or agency, or such other unit or units as the Board may determine are most appropriate to best represent the interest of employees. See
  • Collective bargaining unit: means the employees of an employer and may be either all the employees or a unit or units determined by the Board to be appropriate to represent the interests of employees. See
  • Commission: means the State Ethics Commission established under subchapter 3 of this chapter. See
  • Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Taxes. See
  • Committee: shall mean the Vermont Pension Investment Committee. See
  • Committee on committees: Committees formed in each party conference and responsible for nominating the party's Senators to committee membership and committee leadership positions. Nominations are subject to approval by the full party conference and to a formal vote of the Senate.
  • Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
  • Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
  • Complaint: means an employee's, or group of employees', informal expression to the immediate supervisor of dissatisfaction with aspects of employment or working conditions under a collective bargaining agreement. See
  • Complaint: means an informal expression made by the employees or a group of employees to the immediate supervisor about dissatisfaction with any aspect of employment or working conditions under a collective bargaining agreement. See
  • Contested case: means a proceeding, including but not restricted to rate-making and licensing, in which the legal rights, duties, or privileges of a party are required by law to be determined by an agency after an opportunity for hearing. See
  • Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
  • Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
  • Creditable service: shall mean service for which credit is allowed under section 458 of this title, plus service transferred under section 495 of this title. See
  • Cross examine: Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side.
  • Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
  • Decedent: A deceased person.
  • Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
  • Deliberations: means weighing, examining, and discussing the reasons for and against an act or decision, but expressly excludes the taking of evidence and the arguments of parties. See
  • Department: shall mean any department, institution, or agency of this State government. See
  • Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
  • Devise: To gift property by will.
  • Director: means the Director of the Office of Professional Regulation. See
  • Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
  • Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
  • Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
  • Domestic: when applied to a corporation, company, association, or copartnership shall mean organized under the laws of this State; "foreign" when so applied, shall mean organized under the laws of another state, government, or country. See
  • Donor: The person who makes a gift.
  • Earnable compensation: shall mean the full rate of compensation that would be payable to an employee if the employee worked the full normal working time for the employee's position. See
  • Employee: includes deputy State's Attorneys, victim advocates employed by a State's Attorney pursuant to 13 V. See
  • Employee: shall mean any regular officer or employee who is employed for not less than 40 calendar weeks in a year, other than a person engaged under retainer or special agreement. See
  • Employee: means a State employee as defined by subdivision (5) of this section except as the context requires otherwise. See
  • Employee: means any individual employed and compensated on a permanent or limited status basis by the Judiciary Department, including permanent part-time employees and any individual whose employment has ceased as a consequence of, or in connection with, any current labor dispute or because of an unfair labor practice. See
  • Employee organization: means an organization of any kind in which employees participate and that exists for the purpose of representing its members, if certified by the Board as an exclusive representative for the purposes of collective bargaining. See
  • Employee organization: means an organization of any kind in which employees participate and that exists for the purpose of representing its members, if certified by the Board as an exclusive representative for the purposes of collective bargaining. See
  • Employer: shall mean any political subdivision of the State of Vermont and the Vermont National Guard as to employees thereof hired under 32 U. See
  • Employer: means the State of Vermont, excluding the Legislative and Judiciary Departments, represented by the Governor or designee, the Office of the Defender General represented by the Defender General or designee, Vermont State Colleges represented by the Chancellor or designee, and the University of Vermont represented by the President or designee. See
  • Employer: means the Judiciary Department, represented by the Supreme Court or the Supreme Court's designee. See
  • Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
  • Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
  • Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
  • Executive officer: means :

  • Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
  • Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
  • Fees: shall mean earnings due for official services, aside from salaries or per diem compensation. See
  • Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
  • Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
  • Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
  • Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
  • Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
  • Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
  • gender identity: means an individual's actual or perceived gender identity, or gender-related characteristics intrinsically related to an individual's gender or gender-identity, regardless of the individual's assigned sex at birth. See
  • Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
  • Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
  • Gift: means anything of value, tangible or intangible, that is bestowed for less than adequate consideration. See
  • Governing board: shall mean the governing body, by whatever name known, of such employer. See
  • Governmental conduct regulated by law: means conduct by an individual in regard to the operation of State government that is restricted or prohibited by law and includes:

  • Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
  • Grievance: means an employee's, group of employees', or the employee's collective bargaining representative's expressed dissatisfaction, presented in writing, with aspects of employment or working conditions under a collective bargaining agreement or the discriminatory application of a rule or regulation, that has not been resolved to a satisfactory result through informal discussion with immediate supervisors. See
  • Grievance: means a written notice from an employee or a group of employees covered by an agreement or the employee's representative about dissatisfaction with any aspect of employment or working conditions covered by a collective bargaining agreement or about the discriminatory application of a rule or regulation, and the dissatisfaction has not been satisfactorily resolved after informal discussion with immediate supervisors. See
  • Group A members: shall mean employees classified under subdivision (A) of subdivision (9) of this subsection. See
  • Group C members: shall mean employees classified under subdivision (B) of subdivision (9) of this subsection who become members as of the date of establishment, any person who is first included in the membership of the System on or after July 1, 1998, any person who was a Group B member on June 30, 1998, who was in service on that date, and any person who was a Group B member on June 30, 1998, who was absent from service on that date who returns to service on or after July 1, 1998. See
  • Group D members: shall mean Justices of the Supreme Court, Superior judges, district judges, environmental judges, and probate judges. See
  • Group F member: shall mean any person who is first included in the membership of the System on or after January 1, 1991, any person who was a Group E member on December 31, 1990, who was in service on that date, and any person who was a Group E member on December 31, 1990, who was absent from service on that date who returns to service on or after January 1, 1991. See
  • Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
  • Guidance document: means a written record that has not been adopted in accordance with sections 836-844 of this title and that is issued by an agency to assist the public by providing an agency's current approach to or interpretation of law or describing how and when an agency will exercise discretionary functions. See
  • Illegal order: means a directive to violate, or to assist in violating, a federal, State, or local law. See
  • Incorporation by reference: means the use of language in the text of a regulation that expressly refers to a document other than the regulation itself. See
  • Index: means a searchable list of entries that contains subjects and titles with page numbers, hyperlinks, or other connections that link each entry to the text or document to which it refers. See
  • Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
  • Joint committee: Committees including membership from both houses of teh legislature. Joint committees are usually established with narrow jurisdictions and normally lack authority to report legislation.
  • Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
  • Law clerk: Assist judges with research and drafting of opinions.
  • Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
  • Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
  • Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
  • Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
  • Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
  • Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
  • License: includes certification or registration or a permit. See
  • License: includes the whole or part of any agency permit, certificate, approval, registration, charter, or similar form of permission required by law. See
  • Licensee: includes registrants and holders of certificates or permits issued by a board or the Director. See
  • Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
  • life-cycle costs: shall mean the present value purchase price of an item, plus the replacement cost, plus or minus the salvage value, plus the present value of operation and maintenance costs, plus the energy and environmental externalities' costs or benefits. See
  • Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
  • Local retirement fund: shall mean any retirement, pension, or benefit fund partially or wholly maintained at the expense of an employer. See
  • Magistrate: shall mean any Supreme Court Justice, Superior judge, District judge, or Probate judge. See
  • maximum allowance: shall mean the sum of the annuity and the pension. See
  • Medical Board: shall mean the board of physicians provided for in section 471 of this title. See
  • Meeting: means a gathering of a quorum of the members of a public body for the purpose of discussing the business of the public body or for the purpose of taking action. See
  • Member: shall mean any employee included in the membership of the Retirement System under section 457 of this title. See
  • Membership service: shall mean service rendered while a member of the Retirement System. See
  • Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
  • Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
  • Month: shall mean a calendar month and "year" shall mean a calendar year and be equivalent to the expression "year of our Lord. See
  • National Guard employees: shall mean employees of the Vermont National Guard hired under 32 U. See
  • Normal retirement date: shall mean :

  • Oath: shall include affirmation where by law an affirmation may be substituted. See
  • Office: means the Office of Professional Regulation. See
  • Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
  • Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
  • Party: means each person or agency named or admitted as a party, or properly seeking and entitled as of right to be admitted as a party. See
  • Pension: shall mean annual payments for life derived from contributions by the State. See
  • Person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, governmental subdivision, or public or private organization of any character other than an agency. See
  • Person: includes one or more individuals, the State of Vermont, Vermont State Colleges, University of Vermont, Department of State's Attorneys and Sheriffs, employee organizations, labor organizations, partnerships, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, or any other natural or legal entity whatsoever. See
  • Person: means an individual, the State of Vermont, an employee organization, partnership, corporation, a legal representative, trustee, or any other natural or legal entity whatsoever. See
  • Person who is deaf or hard of hearing: means any person who has such difficulty hearing, even with amplification, that he or she cannot rely on hearing for communication. See
  • Personal estate: shall include all property other than real estate. See
  • Personal property: All property that is not real property.
  • Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
  • Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
  • Practice: means a substantive or procedural requirement of an agency, affecting one or more persons who are not employees of the agency, that is used by the agency in the discharge of its powers and duties. See
  • Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
  • Predecessor system: shall mean , where applicable, the Vermont Employees' Retirement System and the Vermont State Police and Motor Vehicle Inspectors' Retirement System, either one of them, or a combination thereof. See
  • President pro tempore: A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service.
  • Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
  • Prior service: shall mean service rendered prior to the date of membership in the Retirement System for which credit was given under the terms of one or both of the predecessor systems as set forth in section 458 of this title. See
  • Procedure: means a practice that has been adopted in writing, either at the election of the agency or as the result of a request under subsection 831(b) of this title. See
  • Proceeding: means any judicial proceeding, contested case under 3 V. See
  • Program: means the Market Vermont Program created by this subchapter. See
  • Psychiatric disability: means an impairment of thought, mood, perception, orientation, or memory that limits one or more major life activities but does not include intellectual disability. See
  • Public body: means :

  • Public body: means any board, council, or commission of the State or one or more of its political subdivisions, any board, council, or commission of any agency, authority, or instrumentality of the State or one or more of its political subdivisions, or any committee of any of the foregoing boards, councils, or commissions, except that "public body" does not include councils or similar groups established by the Governor for the sole purpose of advising the Governor with respect to policy. See
  • public document: means any written or recorded information, regardless of physical form or characteristics, which is produced or acquired in the course of public agency business. See
  • Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
  • Publicly announced: means that notice is given to an editor, publisher, or news director of a newspaper or radio station serving the area of the State in which the public body has jurisdiction, and to any person who has requested under subdivision 312(c)(5) of this title to be notified of special meetings. See
  • Qualified interpreter: means an interpreter for a person who is deaf or hard of hearing who meets standards of competency established by the national or Vermont Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf as amended, by rule, by the Vermont Commission of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. See
  • Qualified period: means a period of five years after the initial grant of a benefit or a time period set forth in any agreement executed by the State subsequent to the effective date of this subchapter. See
  • Quasi-judicial proceeding: means a proceeding which is:

  • Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
  • Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
  • Regular interest: shall mean interest at such rate or rates as may be set from time to time by the Retirement Board in accordance with subsection 472(b) of this title. See
  • Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
  • Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
  • Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
  • Representative: means an individual or employee organization certified by the Board to represent employees in collective bargaining or grievance proceedings. See
  • Representatives: includes any individual or individuals certified by the Board to represent employees or employee organizations in collective bargaining or grievance proceedings. See
  • Retaliatory action: includes any adverse performance or disciplinary action, including discharge, suspension, reprimand, demotion, denial of promotion, imposition of a performance warning period, or involuntary transfer or reassignment that is given in retaliation for the State employee's involvement in a protected activity, as set forth in section 973 of this title. See
  • Retirement Board: shall mean the Retirement Board of the State Retirement System. See
  • Retirement System: shall mean the Vermont State Retirement System as defined in section 456 of this title. See
  • road: shall include bridges thereon and their approaches. See
  • Rule: means each agency statement of general applicability that implements, interprets, or prescribes law or policy and that has been adopted in the manner provided by sections 836-844 of this title. See
  • said: when used by way of reference to a person or thing shall apply to the same person or thing last mentioned. See
  • Service: shall mean service as an employee for which compensation is paid by the State. See
  • Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
  • Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
  • sexual orientation: means female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality. See
  • Small business: means a business employing no more than 20 full-time employees. See
  • Social Security benefit: shall mean the amount of the member's primary insurance benefit or disability insurance benefit under Title II of the Social Security Act and such other benefit or benefits as may be payable on the member's account under said title, computed on the basis of such act as in effect at the time of retirement and limited to the portion of such benefit or benefits which is attributable to service for which the member receives credit under section 458 of this title, to which a member or other person on his or her account is or would upon proper application be entitled, irrespective of earnings the member or members may be receiving in excess of any limit on earnings for full entitlement to such benefit or benefits. See
  • State employee: means an individual employed on a permanent or limited status basis by the State of Vermont. See
  • State employee: means any individual employed on a permanent or limited status basis by the State of Vermont, the Vermont State Colleges, the University of Vermont, or the State's Attorneys' offices, including permanent part-time employees, and an individual whose work has ceased as a consequence of, or in connection with, any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice, but excluding an individual:

  • State facilities: when used in this chapter, shall mean all State-owned or leased buildings, structures, appurtenances, and grounds. See
  • Strike: means any concerted stoppage of work by employees, and any concerted slowdown, interference, or interruption of operations or services by employees. See
  • Strike: means any concerted work stoppage by employees, including concerted slowdowns, interference, or interruption of operations or services. See
  • Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
  • Successor in interest: means the mental health hospital owned and operated by the State that provides acute inpatient care and replaces the Vermont State Hospital. See
  • system: shall include electrical, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, telecommunication, elevator, and security systems. See
  • Testify: Answer questions in court.
  • Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
  • Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
  • Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
  • Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
  • Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
  • Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
  • Vermont State Retirement Fund: shall mean the fund created by section 473 of this title, which shall contain the assets of the Retirement System and from which shall be paid the benefits due to beneficiaries and the expenses of the Retirement System. See
  • Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.