Terms Used In Vermont Statutes > Title 1 > Chapter 3 - Construction of Statutes
Accumulated contributions: shall mean the sum of all the amounts deducted from the compensation of a member together with any amount transferred to the account of the member established pursuant to this system from the respective account of said member under one or both of the predecessor systems, with interest thereon, as provided in section 473 of this title. See
Actuarial equivalent: shall mean a benefit of equal value under the actuarial assumptions last adopted by the Retirement Board under subsection 472a(h) of this title. See
Adopting authority: means , for agencies that are attached to the Agencies of Administration, of Commerce and Community Development, of Natural Resources, of Human Services, and of Transportation, or any of their components, the secretaries of those agencies; for agencies attached to other departments or any of their components, the commissioners of those departments; and for other agencies, the chief officer of the agency. See
Advice and consent: Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate approves them by a two-thirds vote.
Affidavit: A written statement of facts confirmed by the oath of the party making it, before a notary or officer having authority to administer oaths.
agency: means any agency, board, department, commission, committee, branch, instrumentality, or authority of the State or any agency, board, committee, department, branch, instrumentality, commission, or authority of any political subdivision of the State. See
Agency: means a State board, commission, department, agency, or other entity or officer of State government, other than the Legislature, the courts, the Commander in Chief, and the Military Department, authorized by law to make rules or to determine contested cases. See
Agreement: means a written agreement resulting from collective bargaining negotiation and covers the terms, tenure, and conditions of employment. See
Allegation: something that someone says happened.
Amortization: Paying off a loan by regular installments.
Annuity: shall mean annual payments for life derived from the accumulated contributions of a member. See
Annuity: A periodic (usually annual) payment of a fixed sum of money for either the life of the recipient or for a fixed number of years. A series of payments under a contract from an insurance company, a trust company, or an individual. Annuity payments are made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year.
Answer: The formal written statement by a defendant responding to a civil complaint and setting forth the grounds for defense.
Appeal: A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the appellant.
Appellate: About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgement of another lower court or tribunal.
Appraisal: A determination of property value.
Appraisal: means the identification, classification, and analysis of all public records, regardless of physical form or characteristics, to determine their value and ultimate disposition, based upon their legal, administrative, or informational value. See
Appropriation: The provision of funds, through an annual appropriations act or a permanent law, for federal agencies to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. The formal federal spending process consists of two sequential steps: authorization
Arbitrary: when applied to an agency rule or action, means that one or more of the following apply:
archival records: means public records that have continuing legal, administrative, or informational value. See
Arrest: Taking physical custody of a person by lawful authority.
Assets: (1) The property comprising the estate of a deceased person, or (2) the property in a trust account.
Attachment: A procedure by which a person's property is seized to pay judgments levied by the court.
Average compensable hours: shall mean average annual compensable hours for a period of five full years immediately preceding the years used to determine average final compensation for any member who terminates his or her position after July 1, 2002. See
Average final compensation: shall mean :
Bankruptcy: Refers to statutes and judicial proceedings involving persons or businesses that cannot pay their debts and seek the assistance of the court in getting a fresh start. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings.
bargaining collectively: means the process of negotiating terms, tenure, or conditions of employment between the State of Vermont, the Vermont State Colleges, the University of Vermont, or the Department of State's Attorneys and Sheriffs and representatives of employees with the intent to arrive at an agreement that, when reached, shall be reduced to writing. See
Beneficiary: shall mean any person in receipt of a pension, an annuity, a retirement allowance, or other benefit as provided by this subchapter. See
Beneficiary: A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. Source: OCC
Benefit: means any abatement, loan, or grant awarded to the business as enumerated in subdivision (2) of this section. See
board: refers to the boards, commissions, and professions listed in section 122 of this subchapter and, in the case of disciplinary matters or denials of licensure, either an administrative law officer appointed under subsection 129(j) of this subchapter or the Director in advisor professions. See
Board: shall mean the board provided for in section 471 of this title to administer the Retirement System. See
Board: means the State Labor Relations Board established under section 921 of this title. See
Board: means the State Labor Relations Board established pursuant to section 921 of this title. See
Business: means any individual, partnership, corporation, or other entity that has been granted a tax abatement pursuant to the provisions of Title 24, or has been granted a loan or a grant by any board, commission, or program established under the provisions of Title 10 or 24, or under the provisions of this title. See
Business of the public body: means the public body's governmental functions, including any matter over which the public body has supervision, control, jurisdiction, or advisory power. See
Chambers: A judge's office.
Collective bargaining: means the process of negotiating terms, tenure, or conditions of employment between the Judiciary Department and representatives of the employees with the intent to arrive at a written agreement. See
Collective bargaining service fee: means a fee deducted by an employer from the salary or wages of an employee who is not a member of an employee organization, which is paid to the employee organization which is the exclusive bargaining agent for the bargaining unit of the employee. See
Collective bargaining service fee: means a fee deducted by an employer from the salary or wages of an employee who is not a member of an employee organization, and that fee is paid to the employee organization that is the exclusive bargaining agent for the bargaining unit of the employee. See
Collective bargaining unit: means the employees of an employer, being either all of the employees, the members of a department or agency, or such other unit or units as the Board may determine are most appropriate to best represent the interest of employees. See
Collective bargaining unit: means the employees of an employer and may be either all the employees or a unit or units determined by the Board to be appropriate to represent the interests of employees. See
Commission: shall mean the Vermont Pension Investment Commission. See
Commission: means the State Ethics Commission established under subchapter 3 of this chapter. See
Commissioner: means the Commissioner of Taxes. See
Common law: The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States. It is based on judicial decisions rather than legislative action.
Compensable hours: shall mean all hours worked during a fiscal year and shall include the following types of paid time: regular hours worked, overtime hours worked, and paid leave. See
Complaint: A written statement by the plaintiff stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant.
Complaint: means an employee's, or group of employees', informal expression to the immediate supervisor of dissatisfaction with aspects of employment or working conditions under a collective bargaining agreement. See
Complaint: means an informal expression made by the employees or a group of employees to the immediate supervisor about dissatisfaction with any aspect of employment or working conditions under a collective bargaining agreement. See
Confidential employee: means an employee finally determined by the Board as having responsibility or knowledge or access to information relating to collective bargaining, personnel administration, or budgetary matters that would make membership in or representation by an employee organization incompatible with the employee's official duties. See
Confidential employee: means an employee, as determined by the Board, who has responsibility, knowledge, or access to information relating to collective bargaining, personnel administration, or budgetary matters that is incompatible with that employee's membership in or representation by an employee organization. See
Contested case: means a proceeding, including but not restricted to rate-making and licensing, in which the legal rights, duties, or privileges of a party are required by law to be determined by an agency after an opportunity for hearing. See
Continuance: Putting off of a hearing ot trial until a later time.
Contract: A legal written agreement that becomes binding when signed.
Conviction: A judgement of guilt against a criminal defendant.
Creditable service: shall mean service for which credit is allowed under section 458 of this title, plus service transferred under section 495 of this title. See
Damages: Money paid by defendants to successful plaintiffs in civil cases to compensate the plaintiffs for their injuries.
Decedent: A deceased person.
Defendant: In a civil suit, the person complained against; in a criminal case, the person accused of the crime.
Deliberations: means weighing, examining, and discussing the reasons for and against an act or decision, but expressly excludes the taking of evidence and the arguments of parties. See
Department: shall mean any department, institution, or agency of this State government. See
Department head: means a secretary of an agency, commissioner of a department, director of an office, or any other appointing authority in charge of an agency of State government. See
Dependent: A person dependent for support upon another.
Devise: To gift property by will.
Director: means the Director of the Office of Professional Regulation. See
Discovery: Lawyers' examination, before trial, of facts and documents in possession of the opponents to help the lawyers prepare for trial.
Dismissal: The dropping of a case by the judge without further consideration or hearing. Source:
Docket: A log containing brief entries of court proceedings.
Donor: The person who makes a gift.
Earnable compensation: shall mean the full rate of compensation that would be payable to an employee if the employee worked the full normal working time for the employee's position. See
Employee: includes deputy State's Attorneys, victim advocates employed by a State's Attorney pursuant to 13 V. See
Employee: shall mean any regular officer or employee who is employed for not less than 40 calendar weeks in a year, other than a person engaged under retainer or special agreement. See
Employee: means a State employee as defined by subdivision (5) of this section except as the context requires otherwise. See
Employee: means any individual employed and compensated on a permanent or limited status basis by the Judiciary Department, including permanent part-time employees and any individual whose employment has ceased as a consequence of, or in connection with, any current labor dispute or because of an unfair labor practice. See
Employee organization: means an organization of any kind in which employees participate and that exists for the purpose of representing its members, if certified by the Board as an exclusive representative for the purposes of collective bargaining. See
Employee organization: means an organization of any kind in which employees participate and that exists for the purpose of representing its members, if certified by the Board as an exclusive representative for the purposes of collective bargaining. See
Employer: shall mean any political subdivision of the State of Vermont and the Vermont National Guard as to employees thereof hired under 32 U. See
Employer: means the State of Vermont, excluding the Legislative and Judiciary Departments, represented by the Governor or designee, the Office of the Defender General represented by the Defender General or designee, Vermont State Colleges represented by the Chancellor or designee, and the University of Vermont represented by the President or designee. See
Employer: means the Judiciary Department, represented by the Supreme Court or the Supreme Court's designee. See
Entitlement: A Federal program or provision of law that requires payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law. Entitlements constitute a binding obligation on the part of the Federal Government, and eligible recipients have legal recourse if the obligation is not fulfilled. Social Security and veterans' compensation and pensions are examples of entitlement programs.
Escrow: Money given to a third party to be held for payment until certain conditions are met.
Ex officio: Literally, by virtue of one's office.
Executive officer: means :
Executive session: A portion of the Senate's daily session in which it considers executive business.
Executor: A male person named in a will to carry out the decedent
Felony: A crime carrying a penalty of more than a year in prison.
Fiduciary: A trustee, executor, or administrator.
Fiscal year: The fiscal year is the accounting period for the government. For the federal government, this begins on October 1 and ends on September 30. The fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends; for example, fiscal year 2006 begins on October 1, 2005 and ends on September 30, 2006.
Fraud: Intentional deception resulting in injury to another.
Freedom of Information Act: A federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. Source: OCC
Garnishment: Generally, garnishment is a court proceeding in which a creditor asks a court to order a third party who owes money to the debtor or otherwise holds assets belonging to the debtor to turn over to the creditor any of the debtor
Germane: On the subject of the pending bill or other business; a strict standard of relevance.
Gift: A voluntary transfer or conveyance of property without consideration, or for less than full and adequate consideration based on fair market value.
Governing board: shall mean the governing body, by whatever name known, of such employer. See
Governmental conduct regulated by law: means conduct by an individual in regard to the operation of State government that is restricted or prohibited by law and includes:
Grand jury: agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage,
Grievance: means an employee's, group of employees', or the employee's collective bargaining representative's expressed dissatisfaction, presented in writing, with aspects of employment or working conditions under a collective bargaining agreement or the discriminatory application of a rule or regulation, that has not been resolved to a satisfactory result through informal discussion with immediate supervisors. See
Grievance: means a written notice from an employee or a group of employees covered by an agreement or the employee's representative about dissatisfaction with any aspect of employment or working conditions covered by a collective bargaining agreement or about the discriminatory application of a rule or regulation, and the dissatisfaction has not been satisfactorily resolved after informal discussion with immediate supervisors. See
Group A members: shall mean employees classified under subdivision (A) of subdivision (9) of this subsection. See
Group C members: shall mean employees classified under subdivision (B) of subdivision (9) of this subsection who become members as of the date of establishment, any person who is first included in the membership of the System on or after July 1, 1998, any person who was a Group B member on June 30, 1998, who was in service on that date, and any person who was a Group B member on June 30, 1998, who was absent from service on that date who returns to service on or after July 1, 1998. See
Group D members: shall mean Justices of the Supreme Court, Superior judges, district judges, environmental judges, and probate judges. See
Group F member: shall mean any person who is first included in the membership of the System on or after January 1, 1991, any person who was a Group E member on December 31, 1990, who was in service on that date, and any person who was a Group E member on December 31, 1990, who was absent from service on that date who returns to service on or after January 1, 1991. See
Guardian: A person legally empowered and charged with the duty of taking care of and managing the property of another person who because of age, intellect, or health, is incapable of managing his (her) own affairs.
Guidance document: means a written record that has not been adopted in accordance with sections 836-844 of this title and that is issued by an agency to assist the public by providing an agency's current approach to or interpretation of law or describing how and when an agency will exercise discretionary functions. See
Illegal order: means a directive to violate, or to assist in violating, a federal, State, or local law. See
Incorporation by reference: means the use of language in the text of a regulation that expressly refers to a document other than the regulation itself. See
Index: means a searchable list of entries that contains subjects and titles with page numbers, hyperlinks, or other connections that link each entry to the text or document to which it refers. See
Injunction: An order of the court prohibiting (or compelling) the performance of a specific act to prevent irreparable damage or injury.
Interest rate: The amount paid by a borrower to a lender in exchange for the use of the lender's money for a certain period of time. Interest is paid on loans or on debt instruments, such as notes or bonds, either at regular intervals or as part of a lump sum payment when the issue matures. Source: OCC
Jurisdiction: (1) The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case. Concurrent jurisdiction exists when two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case. (2) The geographic area over which the court has authority to decide cases.
Labor dispute: includes any controversy concerning terms, tenure, or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing, or seeking to arrange terms or conditions of employment, regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee. See
Labor dispute: means any controversy concerning terms, tenure, or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation of individuals in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing, or seeking to arrange terms or conditions of employment, regardless of whether the disputants are employer and employee. See
Law clerk: Assist judges with research and drafting of opinions.
Lawsuit: A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty, resulting in harm to the plaintiff.
Lease: A contract transferring the use of property or occupancy of land, space, structures, or equipment in consideration of a payment (e.g., rent). Source: OCC
Legacy: A gift of property made by will.
Legatee: A beneficiary of a decedent
Legislative session: That part of a chamber's daily session in which it considers legislative business (bills, resolutions, and actions related thereto).
Liabilities: The aggregate of all debts and other legal obligations of a particular person or legal entity.
License: includes any certification, registration, permit, commission, or other official authorization to undertake a regulated activity. See
License: includes the whole or part of any agency permit, certificate, approval, registration, charter, or similar form of permission required by law. See
Licensee: includes any person to whom a license has been issued by a board or the Director. See
Licensing: includes the agency process respecting the grant, denial, renewal, revocation, suspension, annulment, withdrawal, or amendment of a license. See
Lien: A claim against real or personal property in satisfaction of a debt.
life-cycle costs: shall mean the present value purchase price of an item, plus the replacement cost, plus or minus the salvage value, plus the present value of operation and maintenance costs, plus the energy and environmental externalities' costs or benefits. See
Litigation: A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants.
Local retirement fund: shall mean any retirement, pension, or benefit fund partially or wholly maintained at the expense of an employer. See
Managerial employee: is a n individual finally determined by the Board as being in an exempt or classified position that requires the individual to function as an agency, department, or institution head, a major program or division director, a major section chief, or director of a district operation. See
maximum allowance: shall mean the sum of the annuity and the pension. See
Medical Board: shall mean the board of physicians provided for in section 471 of this title. See
Meeting: means a gathering of a quorum of the members of a public body for the purpose of discussing the business of the public body or for the purpose of taking action. See
Member: shall mean any employee included in the membership of the Retirement System under section 457 of this title. See
Membership service: shall mean service rendered while a member of the Retirement System. See
Misdemeanor: Usually a petty offense, a less serious crime than a felony, punishable by less than a year of confinement.
Mistrial: An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again from the selection of the jury.
National Guard employees: shall mean employees of the Vermont National Guard hired under 32 U. See
Normal retirement date: shall mean :
Oath: shall include affirmation where by law an affirmation may be substituted. See
Oath: A promise to tell the truth.
Office: means the Office of Professional Regulation. See
Oral argument: An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
Oversight: Committee review of the activities of a Federal agency or program.
Party: means each person or agency named or admitted as a party, or properly seeking and entitled as of right to be admitted as a party. See
Pension: shall mean annual payments for life derived from contributions by the State. See
Person: means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, governmental subdivision, or public or private organization of any character other than an agency. See
Person: includes one or more individuals, the State of Vermont, Vermont State Colleges, University of Vermont, Department of State's Attorneys and Sheriffs, employee organizations, labor organizations, partnerships, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, or any other natural or legal entity whatsoever. See
Person: means an individual, the State of Vermont, an employee organization, partnership, corporation, a legal representative, trustee, or any other natural or legal entity whatsoever. See
Person who is deaf or hard of hearing: means any person who has such difficulty hearing, even with amplification, that he or she cannot rely on hearing for communication. See
Personal property: All property that is not real property.
Petit jury: A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Federal civil juries consist of six persons.
Plaintiff: The person who files the complaint in a civil lawsuit.
Practice: means a substantive or procedural requirement of an agency, affecting one or more persons who are not employees of the agency, that is used by the agency in the discharge of its powers and duties. See
Precedent: A court decision in an earlier case with facts and law similar to a dispute currently before a court. Precedent will ordinarily govern the decision of a later similar case, unless a party can show that it was wrongly decided or that it differed in some significant way.
Predecessor system: shall mean , where applicable, the Vermont Employees' Retirement System and the Vermont State Police and Motor Vehicle Inspectors' Retirement System, either one of them, or a combination thereof. See
Presiding officer: A majority-party Senator who presides over the Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing Members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices and precedents.
Prior service: shall mean service rendered prior to the date of membership in the Retirement System for which credit was given under the terms of one or both of the predecessor systems as set forth in section 458 of this title. See
Probation: A sentencing alternative to imprisonment in which the court releases convicted defendants under supervision as long as certain conditions are observed.
Procedure: means a practice that has been adopted in writing, either at the election of the agency or as the result of a request under subsection 831(b) of this title. See
Proceeding: means any judicial proceeding, contested case under 3 V. See
Program: means the Market Vermont Program created by this subchapter. See
Public body: means any board, council, or commission of the State or one or more of its political subdivisions, any board, council, or commission of any agency, authority, or instrumentality of the State or one or more of its political subdivisions, or any committee of any of the foregoing boards, councils, or commissions, except that "public body" does not include councils or similar groups established by the Governor for the sole purpose of advising the Governor with respect to policy. See
Public body: means :
public document: means any written or recorded information, regardless of physical form or characteristics, which is produced or acquired in the course of public agency business. See
Public law: A public bill or joint resolution that has passed both chambers and been enacted into law. Public laws have general applicability nationwide.
Publicly announced: means that notice is given to an editor, publisher, or news director of a newspaper or radio station serving the area of the State in which the public body has jurisdiction, and to any person who has requested under subdivision 312(c)(5) of this title to be notified of special meetings. See
Qualified interpreter: means an interpreter for a person who is deaf or hard of hearing who meets standards of competency established by the national or Vermont Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf as amended, by rule, by the Vermont Commission of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing. See
Qualified period: means a period of five years after the initial grant of a benefit or a time period set forth in any agreement executed by the State subsequent to the effective date of this subchapter. See
Quasi-judicial proceeding: means a proceeding which is:
Quorum: The number of legislators that must be present to do business.
Real property: Land, and all immovable fixtures erected on, growing on, or affixed to the land.
Records and information management: means the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use, and disposition of public records, including the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of, and information about, public agency business activities and transactions in the form of public records. See
Regular interest: shall mean interest at such rate or rates as may be set from time to time by the Retirement Board in accordance with subsection 472(b) of this title. See
Remainder: An interest in property that takes effect in the future at a specified time or after the occurrence of some event, such as the death of a life tenant.
Remand: When an appellate court sends a case back to a lower court for further proceedings.
Reporter: Makes a record of court proceedings and prepares a transcript, and also publishes the court's opinions or decisions (in the courts of appeals).
Representative: means an individual or employee organization certified by the Board to represent employees in collective bargaining or grievance proceedings. See
Representatives: includes any individual or individuals certified by the Board to represent employees or employee organizations in collective bargaining or grievance proceedings. See
Retaliatory action: includes any adverse performance or disciplinary action, including discharge, suspension, reprimand, demotion, denial of promotion, imposition of a performance warning period, or involuntary transfer or reassignment that is given in retaliation for the State employee's involvement in a protected activity, as set forth in section 973 of this title. See
Retirement Board: shall mean the Retirement Board of the State Retirement System. See
Retirement System: shall mean the Vermont State Retirement System as defined in section 456 of this title. See
Rule: means each agency statement of general applicability that implements, interprets, or prescribes law or policy and that has been adopted in the manner provided by sections 836-844 of this title. See
Service: shall mean service as an employee for which compensation is paid by the State. See
Service of process: The service of writs or summonses to the appropriate party.
Settlement: Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. Settlements often involve the payment of compensation by one party in satisfaction of the other party's claims.
sexual orientation: means female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality. See
Small business: means a business employing no more than 20 full-time employees. See
Social Security benefit: shall mean the amount of the member's primary insurance benefit or disability insurance benefit under Title II of the Social Security Act and such other benefit or benefits as may be payable on the member's account under said title, computed on the basis of such act as in effect at the time of retirement and limited to the portion of such benefit or benefits which is attributable to service for which the member receives credit under section 458 of this title, to which a member or other person on his or her account is or would upon proper application be entitled, irrespective of earnings the member or members may be receiving in excess of any limit on earnings for full entitlement to such benefit or benefits. See
State employee: means an individual employed on a permanent or limited status basis by the State of Vermont. See
State employee: means any individual employed on a permanent or limited status basis by the State of Vermont, the Vermont State Colleges, the University of Vermont, or the State's Attorneys' offices, including permanent part-time employees, and an individual whose work has ceased as a consequence of, or in connection with, any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice, but excluding an individual:
State facilities: when used in this chapter, shall mean all State-owned or leased buildings, structures, appurtenances, and grounds. See
State fleet: as used in this chapter , shall mean passenger vehicles and light duty trucks for use by State employees in the conduct of official duties, excluding law enforcement vehicles assigned to sworn law enforcement officers, and shall be procured by the Commissioner of Buildings and General Services. See
State officer: means the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Treasurer, Secretary of State, Auditor of Accounts, or Attorney General. See
Strike: means any concerted stoppage of work by employees, and any concerted slowdown, interference, or interruption of operations or services by employees. See
Strike: means any concerted work stoppage by employees, including concerted slowdowns, interference, or interruption of operations or services. See
Subpoena: A command to a witness to appear and give testimony.
Successor in interest: means the mental health hospital owned and operated by the State that provides acute inpatient care and replaces the Vermont State Hospital. See
system: shall include electrical, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, telecommunication, elevator, and security systems. See
Testify: Answer questions in court.
Testimony: Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.
Transcript: A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation, as in a transcript of a hearing or oral deposition.
Trial: A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty" and witnesses are required to come to court to give evidence.
Trustee: A person or institution holding and administering property in trust.
Uniform Commercial Code: A set of statutes enacted by the various states to provide consistency among the states' commercial laws. It includes negotiable instruments, sales, stock transfers, trust and warehouse receipts, and bills of lading. Source: OCC
Venue: The geographical location in which a case is tried.
Vermont State Retirement Fund: shall mean the fund created by section 473 of this title, which shall contain the assets of the Retirement System and from which shall be paid the benefits due to beneficiaries and the expenses of the Retirement System. See
Writ: A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act.